Problems from or inspired by mathematics competitions. Questions regarding mathematics competitions.

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4
votes
2answers
54 views

Find the 1005th digit after the decimal point expansion of the square root of N.

Let $N$ be the positive integer with $2008$ decimal digits, all of them $1$. That is, $N=1111...1111$, with $2008$ occurrences of the digit $1$. Find the $1005th$ digit after the decimal point ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

lifting the exponent lemma for $p=2$.

I am trying to understand the proof of theorem 3 (in p.4) of http://www.artofproblemsolving.com/Resources/Papers/LTE.pdf However, I dont understand the last sentence "This means the power of $2$ in ...
1
vote
3answers
78 views

Finding the sum of $3+4\cdot 3+4^2\cdot 3+\dots +4^{\log n-1} \cdot 3$

I see this: $$A=3+4\cdot 3+4^2\cdot 3+\dots +4^{\log n-1} \cdot 3=3\cdot ([4^{\log n}-1]/3)=n^2-1$$ The base of logarithm is $2$, and $n$ is $2,4,8,\dots$ Anyone could describe me how this sum was ...
1
vote
0answers
96 views

Prove or disprove that there exists a unique positive integer sequence $\{a_{n}\}$ satisfying a condition

Question: Prove or disprove: there exists a unique positive integer sequence $\{a_{n}\}$ satisfying the following condition: $\forall m\in N^{+}$, there exists a unique integer sequence ...
4
votes
3answers
63 views

how find $\sum_{k \in A} \frac{1}{k-1} $ for $ A = \{ m^n| \text{ } m, n \in Z \text { and } m, n \ge 2 \} $

If $ A = \{ m^n| \text{ } m, n \in Z \text { and } m, n \ge 2 \} $, then how find $\sum_{k \in A} \frac{1}{k-1} $?
4
votes
2answers
55 views

Find the smallest constant K satisfying the inequality

Find the smallest constant $K$satisfying the inequality $$x^{1\over 3}+y^{1\over 3} \le K(x+y)^{1\over 3}$$ The official proof makes the substitution $a=x^{1\over 3}$ and $b=y^{1\over 3}$, which does ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

How to show that $\frac {q + \frac {1}{2}}{p - \frac {1}{2}} > \sum_{i = p}^q\frac {1}{i}$ if $q\ge p > 0?$

How to show that : $$\frac{2q+1}{2p-1}>\sum_{i=p}^q\frac{1}{i}$$ if $q\ge p>0$
7
votes
1answer
76 views

Math competitions for hobbyists?

Are there any math competitions for hobbyist / amateur mathematicians? Something like the Putnam or the International Mathematical Olympiad, but open to regular people who are not full-time students?
-1
votes
1answer
254 views

Modulo of a large sequence of $1$s

Given two numbers $N$ and $M$, we need to find the remainder when $111 \cdots1$ ($N$ times) is divided by $M$. Here $N$ can go up to $10^{16}$ and $M$ up to $10^9$. How to solve this problem? ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

How prove that $q \geq b+d$ for $ad-bc = 1$ and $\frac{a}{b} > \frac{p}{q} > \frac{c}{d}$?

Let $a,b,c,d,p$, and $q$ be natural numbers such that $ad-bc = 1$ and $\frac{a}{b} > \frac{p}{q} > \frac{c}{d}$. How prove that $q \geq b+d$?
5
votes
1answer
50 views

How prove that $ x+y+z>4$ for $ a+b+c=4$ and $ ax+by+cz=xyz$?

Given positive reals $ a,b,c,x,y,z$ such that $ a+b+c=4$ and $ ax+by+cz=xyz$. How prove that $ x+y+z>4$?
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Speed dating/networking challenge

I am trying to organise an event with 54 participants. I want them to participate in 9 different activities at stations around a hall. Obviously this will require 9 sessions to allow the participants ...
3
votes
2answers
59 views

Prove that $\frac{a^3}{x} + \frac{b^3}{y} + \frac{c^3}{z} \ge \frac{(a+b+c)^3}{3(x+y+z)}$ a,b,c,x,y,z are positive real numbers.

I stumbled upon it on some olympiad papers. Tried to AM>GM but didn't get any idea to move forward.
1
vote
0answers
75 views

For which real numbers $c$ is there a straight line that intersects the curve $y = x^4 + 9x^3 + c x^2 + 9x + 4$ in four distinct points?

For which real numbers $c$ is there a straight line that intersects the curve $y = x^4 + 9x^3 + c x^2 + 9x + 4$ in four distinct points? I don't quite the understand the solution which is in ...
4
votes
3answers
102 views

$ 1987 \mid \left( n^n + (n+1)^n \right) $

Problem from the 1987 Leningrad Math Olympiad: Is there a positive integer $n$ such that $ n^n + \left( n + 1 \right)^n $ is divisible by $ 1987 $? The provided solution: The answer is ...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

Elementary algebra problem

Consider the following problem (drawn from Stanford Math Competition 2014): "Find the minimum value of $\frac{1}{x-y}+\frac{1}{y-z}+ \frac{1}{x-z}$ for for reals $x > y > z$ given $(x − y)(y − ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

combinatorics board with digits neat problem

this is a problem I wanted to share with you that I just saw today. There is a board square board (think of chess) with $10$ columns and $n$ rows. Each square contains a digit (an integer between $0$ ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

If $AB+BA=0$ and $B=AX+XB$, then $B$ is nilpotent.

Suppose $A,B,X \in M_n(\mathbb{R})$ and that $AB+BA=0$ and $B=AX+XA$. Prove that $B$ is a nilpotent matrix.
2
votes
1answer
81 views

Chessboard problem in IMO2014

This is the second problem on the IMO2014 problem list: Let n $\ge 2$ be an integer. Consider an $n \times n$ chessboard consisting of $n^2$ unit squares. A configuration of $n$ rooks on this ...
0
votes
2answers
22 views

Suppose T(k) denotes the smallest number of steps needed to move from k to 100.Find y & z such that T(9)= 1+ min (T(y),T(z)).

Suppose you want to move from 0 to 100 on the number line. In each step, you either move right by a unit distance or you take a shortcut. A shortcut is simply a pre-specified pair of integers i,j ...
4
votes
1answer
60 views

Initial value for a sequence to become periodic.

The following is from the previous Proofathon contest: Let $a_{n}$ be the sequence defined by the recursion $ \sqrt{a_{n+1}}= (2(\sqrt[2014]{a_n})-1)^{2014}. $ Find all the values of $a_1$ ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

maximum number of independent bishops on a nxn chessboard

So I came across this problem where we have to find the maximum number of independent bishops on a nxn chessboard such that no two bishops attack each other . So after drawing the cases for $3$x$3$ , ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

How to write Putnam Examination proofs?

I am studying for the Putnam exam and I have learned that the graders are quite strict and will cut off points for a variety of reasons. I want to know exactly how to write a Putnam proof. How ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

Solve in $\mathbb{R}$: $(x^2-3x-2)^2-3(x^2-3x-2)-2-x=0$

Solve in $\mathbb{R}$: $(x^2-3x-2)^2-3(x^2-3x-2)-2-x=0$ I'm supposed to solve this equation. It's from a math contest so solving it by hand would be preferable (no quartic formulas). I thought ...
-6
votes
0answers
107 views

Solve fibonacci equation

Given two numbers M and N we need to solve : ( ∑ ( 6 * x * y * z * Fibo[x] * Fibo[y] * Fibo[z] ) ) % M , where x + y + z = N. Here x, y, z ≥ 0 and are integers. ...
-1
votes
0answers
50 views

Counting distinct nonempty sequences

Given N and an array of length N i need to count nonempty sequence (p[1], p[1]+1), (p[2], p[2]+1), ..., (p[s], p[s]+1), where p[k]+1 ≤ p[k+1] for k = 1, 2, ..., s − 1. Here p[i] is the point number i ...
-1
votes
0answers
98 views

Minimum penalty calculation

Their are N tables in a restaurant.Now customer visit the restaurant and they will be provided seats. Each customer has following properties : The customer don't leave the table unless they are ...
2
votes
2answers
37 views

An arctan problem including a diophantine equation

This is a follow-up question to An equation of the form A + B + C = ABC . I totally messed up with making the equation from the question specification . Actually the question was $$ ...
5
votes
1answer
34 views

On a strange pigeonhole principle problem

Given distinct integers $a_1, a_2, \cdots, a_{63}$. Prove that there exists $a_i, a_j, a_m, a_n$ such that $(a_i - a_j)(a_m - a_n)$ is divisible by $1984$. I have no idea of how to create the ...
0
votes
1answer
266 views

Select elements from N sets

N sets are given which can have any number of elements from 1-100 each.Now we need to count arrangements in which we select 1 element from each set under the condition that we can not choose same ...
0
votes
1answer
84 views

An equation of the form A + B + C = ABC

So I was on a SPOJ spree until I came across this question . The question says $$\tan(\frac{1}{A}) = \tan(\frac{1}{B}) + \tan(\frac{1}{C})$$ where we have to find the $\min(B+C)$ for a fix $A$ where ...
4
votes
3answers
409 views

Math Olympiads: Hard work or talent? [closed]

I have a question regarding Math Olympiads. I always asked myself if Math Olympiads need natural intelligence or rigorous hard work (or both) in order to reach levels such as the IMO. I always hear ...
0
votes
1answer
86 views

The number of functions $f: {\cal P}_n \to \{1, 2, \dots, m\}$ such that $f(A \cap B) = \min\{f(A), f(B)\}$ (Putnam 1993)

Let ${\cal P}_n$ be the set of subsets of $\{1, 2, \dots, n\}$. Let $c(n, m)$ be the number of functions $f: {\cal P}_n \to \{1, 2, \dots, m\}$ such that $f(A \cap B) = \min\{f(A), f(B)\}$. Prove that ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Arithmetic Mean and Geometric Mean Question, Guidance Needed

I am super new to olympiad-style math which focuses on a lot of inequalities, and tough problems which highschool students do not go over. I'm in 9th grade, and am trying to get into all of this stuff ...
0
votes
0answers
52 views

On a differential equation problem of international mathematical competition for university students

I am trying to solve problem 2 of this competition: http://www.imc-math.org.uk/imc2009/imc2009-day2-solutions.pdf I have other thought but i couldn't fill in the detail. Consider the initial value ...
1
vote
4answers
77 views

Solve the following equation: $\frac{1}{x^2}+\frac{1}{(4-\sqrt{3}x)^2}=1$

Solve the following equation: $$\frac{1}{x^2}+\frac{1}{(4-\sqrt{3}x)^2}=1$$ I know it's from a Math Olympiad but I don't know which and I couldn't find it on the internet. Expanding everything ...
3
votes
2answers
206 views

Ratio of angles in a right triangle

P.S: I only want a hint,not the whole solution. BdMO 2009 Problem 5 Secondary In triangle ABC, $\angle A = 90$. M is the midpoint of BC. Choose D on AC such that AD = AM. The circumcircles ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Solving a system of equation and finding the largest possible value of one of the variables

This problem comes from question 5 in the PUMAC Algebra A competition (link here): Suppose $w, x, y, z$ satisfy $$w+x+y+z=25$$ $$wx+wy+wz+xy+xz+yz=2y+2x+193$$ The largest possible value of $w$ can ...
1
vote
1answer
95 views

If one plays $132$ games in $77$ days, there is a span of consecutive days with exactly $21$ games

This is a high school contest question. Simple answers are required A chess player has $77$ days to prepare for a tournament. During this time he wants to have a match everyday and to have $132$ ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

Last 7 digits of 7th powers

Alice and Bob play the following game. They alternately select distinct nonzero digits from $1$ to $9$, until they have chosen seven such digits. Consider the resulting seven-digit number by joining ...
7
votes
1answer
100 views

Mediteranean Mathematics Olympiad 2014 number theory problem.

I paraphrase it slightly to make it shorter. Prove for every integer $S\geq100$ there exists a positive integer $P$ such that there are at least two different solutions in positive integers(up to ...
0
votes
2answers
44 views

Roots Of Monic Cubic

I'm currently preparing for the USA Mathematical Talent Search competition. I've been brushing up my proof-writing skills for several weeks now, but one area that I have not been formally taught about ...
3
votes
3answers
173 views

An equilateral triangle formed using points of tangency

P.S:I am looking for a hint and not the whole solution. BdMO 2012 nationals secondary: The vertices of a right triangle $ABC$ inscribed in a circle divide the circumference into three arcs. The ...
-2
votes
3answers
160 views

Equation $a^{n}+b^{n}=2008$ has no integers solutions. [closed]

Prove that the equation $a^{n}+b^{n}=2008$ has no solutions for $a,b,n\in\mathbb{Z}, n\geq2.$
1
vote
0answers
94 views

Olympiad number theory question

Let $p,q$ and $r$ be prime numbers. It is given that $p$ divides $qr − 1$, $q$ divides $rp − 1$, and $r$ divides $pq − 1$. Determine all possible values of $pqr$. I think I'm missing something in ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Q: Understanding Answer of 2012 AMC 8 - #18

The problem is: "What is the smallest positive integer that is neither prime nor square and that has no prime factor less than 50?". The solution for this problem goes like this: "Since the integer ...
3
votes
0answers
55 views

A Cauchy-Schwartz type inequality

Given positive integers $k<n$ and positive real numbers $x_1$, $x_2, \dots, x_n$. Denote $$ A={x_1\over x_2+x_3+\dots+x_{k+1}}+{x_2\over x_3+x_4+\dots+x_{k+2}}+\ldots+{x_n\over x_1+x_2+\dots+x_k}$$ ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Recurrence relation and combinatorics

I am reading p.4 of the article http://mercercountymathcircle.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/recurrence_relations.pdf which consider the following problem: Find the units digit of ...
0
votes
3answers
51 views

How can I define a “formula” for general term of a sequence with some given values?

I have a doubt: If I have $\alpha, \beta, \gamma, \delta$ natural numbers, how can I write a formula to generate infinite sequences, such that $f(1)=\alpha, f(2)=\beta, f(3)=\gamma, f(4)=\delta$? I ...
2
votes
3answers
101 views

Trouble with inequalities

I'm a 9th grade student, going into 10th grade. Math has always been a subject I enjoyed and excelled in. I'm writing a schoolboard-wide math contest next year in mid-February I believe. To prepare ...