Use this tag if your question is about a well-known conjecture or a conjecture of your own.

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128
votes
1answer
7k views

A variation of Fermat's little theorem

Fermat's little theorem states that for $n$ prime, $$ a^n \equiv a \pmod{n}. $$ The values of $n$ for which this holds are the primes and the Carmichael numbers. If we modify the congruence ...
77
votes
23answers
2k views

Open mathematical questions for which we really, really have no idea what the answer is

There is no shortage of open problems in mathematics. While a formal proof for any of them remains elusive, with the "yes/no" questions among them mathematicians are typically not working in both ...
69
votes
12answers
8k views

Conjectures that have been disproved with extremely large counterexamples?

I just came back from my Number Theory course, and during the lecture there was mention of the Collatz Conjecture. I'm sure that everyone here is familiar with it; it describes an operation on a ...
57
votes
2answers
2k views

Integral $\int_1^\infty\frac{\operatorname{arccot}\left(1+\frac{2\pi}{\operatorname{arcoth}x-\operatorname{arccsc}x}\right)}{\sqrt{x^2-1}}\mathrm dx$

Consider the following integral: $$\mathcal{I}=\int_1^\infty\frac{\operatorname{arccot}\left(1+\frac{2\,\pi}{\operatorname{arcoth}x\,-\,\operatorname{arccsc}x}\right)}{\sqrt{x^2-1}}\mathrm dx,$$ where ...
53
votes
2answers
2k views

Conjecture $\int_0^1\frac{dx}{\sqrt[3]x\,\sqrt[6]{1-x}\,\sqrt{1-x\left(\sqrt{6}\sqrt{12+7\sqrt3}-3\sqrt3-6\right)^2}}=\frac\pi9(3+\sqrt2\sqrt[4]{27})$

Let $$\alpha=\sqrt{6}\ \sqrt{12+7\,\sqrt3}-3\,\sqrt3-6.\tag1$$ Note that $\alpha$ is the unique positive root of the polynomial equation $$\alpha^4+24\,\alpha^3+18\,\alpha^2-27=0.\tag2$$ Now consider ...
50
votes
2answers
573 views

Conjecture $_2F_1\left(\frac14,\frac34;\,\frac23;\,\frac13\right)=\frac1{\sqrt{\sqrt{\frac4{\sqrt{2-\sqrt[3]4}}+\sqrt[3]{4}+4}-\sqrt{2-\sqrt[3]4}-2}}$

Using a numerical search on my computer I discovered the following inequality: $$\left|\,{_2F_1}\left(\frac14,\frac34;\,\frac23;\,\frac13\right)-\rho\,\right|<10^{-20000},\tag1$$ where $\rho$ is ...
49
votes
1answer
2k views

Conjecture $\int_0^1\frac{\mathrm dx}{\sqrt{1-x}\ \sqrt[4]x\ \sqrt[4]{2-x\,\sqrt3}}\stackrel?=\frac{2\,\sqrt2}{3\,\sqrt[8]3}\pi$

$$\int_0^1\frac{\mathrm dx}{\sqrt{1-x}\ \sqrt[4]x\ \sqrt[4]{2-x\,\sqrt3}}\stackrel?=\frac{2\,\sqrt2}{3\,\sqrt[8]3}\pi\tag1$$ The equality numerically holds up to at least $10^4$ decimal digits. ...
47
votes
1answer
2k views

Does $|n^2 \cos n|$ diverge to $+\infty$?

I was recently exposed to the problem of deciding whether $$ \lim_{n \to +\infty} |n \cos n| = +\infty$$ where the limit is taken over the integers. As $|\cos n|$ oscillates throughout the interval ...
38
votes
3answers
668 views

Prove that there exist infinitely many integers $(n^{2015}+1)\mid n!$

I conjecture that there exist infinitely many integers $n$ such that $$(n^{2015}+1)\mid n!.$$ I have seen a simpler problem that there exist infinitely many integers $n$ such that $(n^2+1)\mid ...
33
votes
2answers
1k views

A conjectural closed form for $\sum\limits_{n=0}^\infty\frac{n!\,(2n)!}{(3n+2)!}$

Let $$S=\sum\limits_{n=0}^\infty\frac{n!\,(2n)!}{(3n+2)!},\tag1$$ its numeric value is approximately $S \approx 0.517977853388534047...$${}^{[more\ digits]}$ $S$ can be represented in terms of the ...
33
votes
2answers
4k views

Symmetry of bicycle-lock numbers

Suppose you have a combination bicycle lock of this sort: with $n$ dials and $k$ numbers on each dial. Let $m(n,k)$ denote the minimum number of turns that always suffice to open the lock from any ...
25
votes
1answer
348 views

Conjectured closed form for $\int_0^1x^{2\,q-1}\,K(x)^2dx$ where $K(x)$ is the complete elliptic integral of the 1ˢᵗ kind

I am interested in a general closed-form formula for integrals of the following form: $$\mathcal{J}_q=\int_0^1x^{2\,q-1}\,K(x)^2dx,\tag0$$ where $K(x)$ is the complete elliptic integral of the 1ˢᵗ ...
24
votes
4answers
2k views

Proving a known zero of the Riemann Zeta has real part exactly 1/2

Much effort has been expended on a famous unsolved problem about the Riemann Zeta function $\zeta(s)$. Not surprisingly, it's called the Riemann hypothesis, which asserts: $$ \zeta(s) = 0 ...
23
votes
1answer
455 views

Simplify $\frac{_3F_2\left(\frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{4},\frac{5}{4};1,\frac{3}{2};\frac{3}{4}\right)}{\Pi\left(\frac{1}{4}\big|\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}\right)}$

Is it possible to simplify the ratio $$\mathcal{E}=\frac{_3F_2\left(\frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{4},\frac{5}{4};\ 1,\frac{3}{2};\ \frac{3}{4}\right)}{\Pi\left(\frac{1}{4}\Big|\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}\right)},$$ ...
21
votes
3answers
456 views

An integral $\int_0^\infty P_s(x-1)\,e^{-x}\,dx$ involving Legendre functions

Let $P_s(x)$ denote the Legendre functions of the $1^{st}$ kind, i.e. the Legendre polynomial generalized to an arbitrary (not necessarily integer) order $s$. It can be expressed using the ...
21
votes
2answers
521 views

Conjecture: $\int_0^1\frac{3x^3-2x}{(1+x)\sqrt{1-x}}K\big(\!\frac{2x}{1+x}\!\big)\,dx\stackrel ?=\frac\pi{5\sqrt2}$

$$\int_0^1\frac{3x^3-2x}{(1+x)\sqrt{1-x}}K\left(\frac{2x}{1+x}\right)\,dx\stackrel ?=\frac\pi{5\sqrt2}$$ The integral above comes from the evaluation of the integral ...
20
votes
2answers
538 views

How to prove $\int_0^\infty J_\nu(x)^3dx\stackrel?=\frac{\Gamma(1/6)\ \Gamma(1/6+\nu/2)}{2^{5/3}\ 3^{1/2}\ \pi^{3/2}\ \Gamma(5/6+\nu/2)}$?

I am interested in finding a general formula for the following integral: $$\int_0^\infty J_\nu(x)^3dx,\tag1$$ where $J_\nu(x)$ is the Bessel function of the first kind: $$J_\nu(x)=\sum ...
20
votes
0answers
606 views

On the problem of polynomial bijection from $\mathbb Q\times\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$

The question titled "Polynomial bijection from $\mathbb Q\times\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$" which was posed on MathOverflow attracted quite a lot of attention (and may be the question with most wrong ...
19
votes
4answers
670 views

Closed form for $\int_{-1}^1\frac{\ln\left(2+x\,\sqrt3\right)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}\,\left(2+x\,\sqrt3\right)^n}dx$

I'm trying to find a closed form for the following integral: $$\mathcal{J}(n)=\int_{-1}^1\frac{\ln\left(2+x\,\sqrt3\right)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}\,\left(2+x\,\sqrt3\right)^n}dx\tag1$$ I have conjectured values ...
18
votes
2answers
331 views

How to prove $4\times{_2F_1}(-1/4,3/4;7/4;(2-\sqrt3)/4)-{_2F_1}(3/4,3/4;7/4;(2-\sqrt3)/4)\stackrel?=\frac{3\sqrt[4]{2+\sqrt3}}{\sqrt2}$

I have the following conjecture, which is supported by numerical calculations up to at least $10^5$ decimal digits: ...
18
votes
1answer
876 views

List of generally believed conjectures which cannot all be true

There are some conjectures which most leading experts believe in albeit no one can prove it yet. For example: $\mathcal{P} \neq \mathcal{NP}$, the Riemann hypothesis or the Collatz conjecture. My ...
18
votes
1answer
295 views

Is $K\left(\frac{\sqrt{2-\sqrt3}}2\right)\stackrel?=\frac{\Gamma\left(\frac16\right)\Gamma\left(\frac13\right)}{4\ \sqrt[4]3\ \sqrt\pi}$

Working on this conjecture, I found its corollary, which is also supported by numeric caclulations up to at least $10^5$ decimal digits: ...
18
votes
1answer
762 views

Examples of falsified (or currently open) longstanding conjectures leading to large bodies of incorrect results.

In general, the way that modern mathematical research is conducted isn't the way that many would assume is the ideal method of research. That is, mathematics is not the linear progression of ...
16
votes
4answers
3k views

How to propose a conjecture

What are the basic things (about when and how) to be kept in mind while proposing a conjecture in Mathematics. Should it accompany solid efforts at proof. When should any one think of proposing a ...
16
votes
3answers
601 views

Interesting Property of Numbers in English

I was playing with the letters in numbers written in English and I found something quite funny. I found that if you count the number of letters in the number and write this as a number and then count ...
16
votes
1answer
550 views

Status of a conjecture about powers of 2

I recently saw a conjecture on a blog ( http://blog.tanyakhovanova.com/?p=311 ) which the author refers to as the 86 conjecture. The conjecture claims that all powers of 2 greater than $2^{86}$ have a ...
15
votes
3answers
1k views

The $5n+1$ Problem

The Collatz Conjecture is a famous conjecture in mathematics that has lasted for over 70 years. It goes as follows: Define $f(n)$ to be as a function on the natural numbers by: $f(n) = n/2$ if $n$ ...
15
votes
2answers
583 views

open conjectures in real analysis targeting real valued functions of a single real variable

I am hoping that this question (if in acceptable form) be community wiki. Are there any open conjectures in real analysis primarily targeting real valued functions of a single real variable ? (it may ...
15
votes
2answers
424 views

Euler's Totient function $\forall n\ge3$, if $(\frac{\varphi(n)}{2}+1)\ \mid\ n\ $ then $\frac{\varphi(n)}{2}+1$ is prime

While I was studying Euler's Totient function, $\varphi(n)$, I stumbled upon the marvelous book "Index to Mathematical Problems, 1980-1984" By Stanley Rabinowitz. In this page of the book (link to ...
14
votes
2answers
362 views

A conjecture concerning primes and algebra

A monoid morphism $\psi:\mathbb Z_+\!\!\rightarrow\mathbb Z_+$ is defined by an arbitrary function $f:\mathbb Z_+\!\!\rightarrow\mathbb Z_+$ and defines a group homomorphism $\varphi:\mathbb ...
14
votes
1answer
401 views

Density of odd numbers in a sequence relating base 2 and base 3 expansion

Define the function $$f(4n)=6n+1\\ f(4n+1)=6n+2\\ f(4n+2)=6n+3\\ f(4n+3)=6n+5$$ and the sequence $u_0=2$, $u_{k+1}=f(u_k)$. Let $d_1\le d_2$ be the lower and upper asymptotic density of odd numbers ...
13
votes
2answers
173 views

Prove that $\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty} \frac{\log_{10}\lfloor\text{Denominator of } H_{10^n}\rfloor+1 }{10^n}=\log_{10} e$

In short, my question is asking to prove that the $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{\text{number of digits in the denominator of} \sum_{k=1}^{10^n} \frac 1k}{10^n}=\log_{10} e$$ I know that the number of ...
13
votes
1answer
594 views

Big-Daddy-Conjectures and Hierarchy of Mathematical Conjectures

I am interested in the Hierarchy and Connections between various different open problems in Mathematics, and the most general conjectures in various fields of Mathematics. Examples of Hierachy ...
12
votes
2answers
344 views

Conjecture $\int_0^1\frac{\ln\left(\ln^2x+\arccos^2x\right)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}dx\stackrel?=\pi\,\ln\ln2$

$$\int_0^1\frac{\ln\left(\ln^2x+\arccos^2x\right)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}dx\stackrel?=\pi\,\ln\ln2$$ Is it possible to prove this?
12
votes
5answers
2k views

What does proving the Collatz Conjecture entail?

From the get go: i'm not trying to prove the Collatz Conjecture where hundreds of smarter people have failed. I'm just curious. I'm wondering where one would have to start in proving the Collatz ...
12
votes
1answer
530 views

The Goldbach Conjecture and Hardy-Littlewood Asymptotic

A source I am reading refers to the Goldbach conjecture (that every even number is the sum of two primes), and then immediately follows with the "Hardy-Littlewood conjecture" that $\sum ...
11
votes
2answers
160 views

Trigamma identity $4\,\psi_1\!\left(\frac15\right)+\psi_1\!\left(\frac25\right)-\psi_1\!\left(\frac1{10}\right)=\frac{4\pi^2}{\phi\,\sqrt5}.$

I heuristically discovered the following identity for the trigamma function, that I could not find in any tables or papers or infer from existing formulae (e.g. [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]): ...
11
votes
1answer
446 views

Continuous Collatz Conjecture

Has anyone studied the real function $$ f(x) = \frac{ 2 + 7x - ( 2 + 5x )\cos{\pi x}}{4}$$ (and $f(f(x))$ and $f(f(f(x)))$ and so on) with respect to the Collatz conjecture? It does what Collatz ...
11
votes
1answer
308 views

Is there any theoretical indication that this conjecture of Catalan could be true?

Belgian mathematician Catalan in $1876$ made next conjecture: If we consider the following sequence of Mersenne prime numbers: $2^2-1=3 , 2^3-1=7 , 2^7-1=127 , 2^{127}-1$ then $$2^{2^{127}-1}-1$$ is ...
9
votes
2answers
238 views

Yet another conjecture about primes

Let $\mathcal{N}(n)$ be the next prime greater than $n$. Conjecture: $\mathcal{N}(n!)-n!\:$ is either $1$ or a prime. It holds for n=1 to 99 and the expression is 1 for 3,11,27,37,41,73,77 and ...
9
votes
0answers
92 views

A conjectured identity for tetralogarithms $\operatorname{Li}_4$

I experimentally discovered (using PSLQ) the following conjectured tetralogarithm identity: $$\begin{align}&\phantom{+\;}19\!\;\pi^4-570\ln^42-90\ln^43\\ ...
8
votes
3answers
678 views

Branches of mathematics not having a general method to solve

I studied applied math, so each course (except abstract algebra) was dedicated to solution of a similar problems. After those courses it seems that every branch of mathematics has a developed theory ...
8
votes
3answers
491 views

Isoperimetric inequality, isodiametric inequality, hyperplane conjecture… what are the inequalities of this kind known or conjectured?

Question: Which inequalities similar to the famous isoperimetric inequality is known? conjectured? I recently learned about some inequalities which are all similar to the famous isoperimetric ...
8
votes
1answer
239 views

Integral $\int_0^\infty\frac{dx}{\frac{x^4-1}{x\cos(\pi\ln x)+1}+2x^2+2}$

I need your help with this integral: $$\int_0^\infty\frac{dx}{\frac{x^4-1}{x\cos(\pi\ln x)+1}+2\,x^2+2}.$$ I wasn't able to evaluate it in a closed form, although an approximate numerical evaluation ...
8
votes
5answers
187 views

The maximal size of between $\varphi(n)$ divided by $\lambda(n)$.

I want to find $$f(n) = \max\left\{\frac{\varphi(k)}{\lambda(k)} : 1 \leq k \leq n\right\}$$ In other words, I want to find the maximal value of $\frac{\varphi(k)}{\lambda(k)}$ when $k$ is ...
8
votes
1answer
208 views

Proving infinitude of primes in a certain form.

Here I have the following conjecture -Let $$S_1(n)= \frac{(n-1)! +1}{n}$$ then there exist infinite prime numbers $p$ for which $S_1(p)$ is prime. And I don't know how to prove it. EDIT Let ...
8
votes
1answer
162 views
8
votes
2answers
402 views

Why Goldbach's conjecture is difficult to prove?

Why Goldbach's conjecture is still non-solved and is difficult to prove? What makes the mathematicians fail when trying to prove it?
8
votes
1answer
109 views

Question regarding the status of Erdős' conjectures

Has Erdős' conjecture on arithmetic progressions or his conjecture on Sylvester's sequence been proven?