All mathematical questions about computer science, including theoretical computer science, formal methods, verification, and artificial intelligence. For questions about Turing computability, please use the (computability) tag instead. For numerical analysis, use the (numerical-methods) tag. For ...

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Are sets and symbols the building blocks of mathematics?

A formal language is defined as a set of strings of symbols. I want to know that if "symbol" is a primitive notion in mathematics i.e we don't define what a symbol is. If it is the case that in ...
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1answer
15 views

Determine whether a language belong to R,RE\R,coRE\R or other

For the following language, determine to which class it belongs $$L_3=\left\{\langle M\rangle\Big\vert|\langle M\rangle|\le 2016\text{ and M is a TM that accepts }\varepsilon \right\}$$ I've ...
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1answer
420 views

checking boolean logical equivalence

Given two boolean formula (aka. logic circuit), I want to check if they are logically equivalent, namely that they compute the same truth table. Is this an NP-complete problem? What is the proof?
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25 views

What are the Applications of Calculus in Engineering Sciences? [on hold]

can some body help me to evaluate the question what it actually pointing to ? Thanks in advance ! :)
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56 views

Having rand2() function build rand5()

I was asked this question long time ago. Having a function $rand2()$ (in any computer language, "rand" means random) which returns $0$ or $1$ (two values only) with a uniform distribution, i.e. ...
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1answer
27 views

Algorithm to find password from hash value

I'm currently trying to solve this exercise (sorry for link to image, but there's a bit text): http://i.imgur.com/ETaCK0H.png But there's a few things in the exercise I don't understand. For ...
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0answers
25 views

What is computational complexity of a coding technique

In my previous Question Help in understanding a coding technique based on inverse mapping of a dynamical system I learnt how to apply chaotic map in coding theory in communications. Steps: (1) The ...
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0answers
18 views

Time complexity analysis of partitioning method

http://www.stat.cmu.edu/~cshalizi/462/lectures/05/05.pdf tutorial explains about how a generating partition can produce 0/1 symbols from a dynamical system. The technique is called Symbolic Dynamics. ...
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0answers
20 views

Are these functions computable - Understanding computable functions

There is a theorem in computability theory which states: B.Cooper: If $A\subseteq N$ is computable, then $A$ is also computably enumerable. In the proof of this theorem -which is an ...
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19 views

Modal extensions (operators) for monoidal (categorical) logics

There is nice generalization of first order logic to monoidal (categorical) logics http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783642128202 which has recently been applied extensively as replacement for deontic ...
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18 views

How do I calculate such possible number of total and serial schedule?

Consider the following two transactions $T_1$ and $T_2:$ How many non serial schedules are possible, if we execute both transactions concurrently? $3000$ $3001$ $3002$ $3003$ My try: ...
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1answer
23 views

Deterministic Turing Machines

Let's say that M is a deterministic Turing Machine, can I say that for a certain input I will have the same output? How can I demonstarte this?
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42 views

Construction of Permutation Group (bounded order) from a Set of Permutation

Given a set of permutation $S$. It has $|S|$ (The cardinality of $S$) elements. Consider a subset $A\subset S$. We can construct a group using $A$. One possible algorithm could be- We start ...
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3answers
2k views

An algorithm to convert float number to binary representation

I want to know the algorithm of converting a given float (e.g, 3.14) to binary in the memory. I read this wikipedia page, but it only mentions about the conversion the other way. Let me quickly give ...
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1answer
47 views

Prove that if $xy=yz$ then $ \exists u,v \in A^*$ and $\exists p \in\mathbb N$ such that $x=uv$, $z=vu$ and $y=(uv)^pu$

Prove that if $xy=yz$ then $ \exists u,v \in A^*$ and $\exists p \in \mathbb{N} $ such that $x=uv$, $z=vu$ and $y=(uv)^pu$. $A^*$ is the set of all words that can be formed over the alphabet $A$. By ...
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1answer
16 views

Grammar generator for the Knight (Chess)

I'm trying to build a regular grammar to generate the valid movements for the knight. I'm using (U)p, (D)own, (L)eft, (R)ight to represent each of the components of the movement. I already have a NFA ...
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0answers
28 views
0
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1answer
60 views

What does $\forall X: A^X \subseteq B^X$ mean?

In Greg Kuperberg's complexity zoology inclusion diagram, there is a color coding based on whether or not $$ \forall X : A^X \subseteq B^X $$ is proven, disproven, or unknown. What does this ...
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1answer
1k views

How to reverse this bitwise AND-XOR encoding algorithm?

I have been given an "encoding" algorithm that does bitwise XOR and bitwise AND. Originally it's a C code that operates on integers with bit-shifts, but I have translated it into a simpler pseudocode ...
2
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1answer
90 views

Simplifying Circuits

I have a question regarding simplifying a circuit of a function below that has 5 logic gates in original. $f = (A + B) \cdot (C + D) + (A + B) \cdot (C + D)' + C$ $= (A + B) \cdot ((C + D) + (C + ...
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2answers
28 views

equivalent regular expr

Given a regular expression $r_1$, is $(r_1^*)^* = (r_1^*)$. I know that this is true but I do not know how to prove it. Would it be adequate to set $r_1$ to a regular expression such as $(a+b)$ for ...
2
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3answers
55 views

Finding a ratio from a set of discrete values

For $x = p/q$, where $x$ is a known value between $0.000$ and $1.000$ rounded to the thousandths place, $p$ is an integer value between $0$ and $127$, and $q$ is an integer value between $0$ and ...
2
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1answer
83 views

Is [a, a[ empty?

Is the segment $[a, a[$ equivalent to the point $\{a\}$ or the empty set $\varnothing$? Can one or other be formally proved? I was wondering because in computer science it is the empty set, as the ...
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1answer
46 views

b tree least upper bound

Hi I have an university assignment question that I can't fully understand. My tutor doesn't understand some of the terminology and my lecturer in the subject is not particularly forthcoming. The ...
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1answer
14 views

Is there a Relationship Between Multi-Valued Logic and n-Satisfiability?

Is binary (Boolean) logic related at all to the two-satisfiability problem? And is ternary logic related in some way to the three-satisfiability problem? Would it follow then that if one were to ...
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0answers
153 views

How to attack universal hash function based on finite-field arithmetic?

As per the Recursive n-gram hashing is pairwise independent, at best paper, I want to use the algorithm described in chapter 6 and 7 (page 7 - 10). The hash works as follows: Define a random ...
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3answers
260 views

Isomorphism of Non-Symmetric Matrices

$A, B$ are non-symmetric matrices of dimension $m \times n$ where $m=n$ or $m \neq n$. Example: An example of $6 \times 3$ non-symmetric matrix is $$ \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & ...
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0answers
42 views

In a directed graph with $n \geq 2$ nodes, if two different nodes reaches $n$ nodes, then this graph has a directed cycle.

I think this statement is true because if first node can reaches every other node (including second node) and second node can reaches every other nodes (including first node), then first node and ...
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0answers
20 views

Rightmost derivation word aaaccb

I have got these context free grammar: $S \implies aSA | a \\A \implies Ab|c$ The goal is find rightmost derivation of word $aaaccb$ a draw derivate tree, which corresponding with this derivation. ...
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1answer
627 views

Calculating normals for a polygon mesh (3D computer graphics)

I want to write a program to generate arches, a common architectural form, and export them to a wavefront object format for sharing with various three dimensional graphics editors. To do this, I need ...
0
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1answer
20 views

Context-free grammar and regular expression

I have got these Context-free grammar/regular expression: (1) $abba^{*}$ (2) $abb(a+b)^{*}$ (3) $a^{*}ba^{*}ba^{*}$ (4) $S \implies abA \\ A \implies Aa|b$ (5) $S \implies aS|bA \\ A \implies ...
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3answers
37 views

Naming binary strings

Given a string of 1's and 0's, containing the same number of 1's as 0's, is there a way to uniquely "name" each string with a number such that it is computationally easy to go between this "name" and ...
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1answer
22 views

Is every decidable language accepted by a turing machine? [closed]

I am taking a cs class and the lecture slides are not very complete on this topic. can somebody clarify? thank you
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1answer
696 views

Y-Axis units on FFT graph

A 50Hz sinusoid wave with a voltage range of +/-20V is sampled at 512Hz for 1 second. No bias or phase shift are present. The signal is run through an FFT. The result is one spike at 50Hz on the ...
2
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1answer
50 views

Longest Common Prefix among $n$ strings with length $k$

Suppose I have a set of alphabet $\Sigma = \{ A,B,\ldots,Z \}$ with $|\Sigma|=26$. I am generating a set of $n$ random strings $S$, with each string of length $k$ from the alphabet (for the random ...
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50 views

How Do You Write Mathematical Proofs | Linear Algebra (I have no idea what I am doing…) [closed]

I am a Computer Science student, and right now I am taking a 15 week Summer class on Linear Algebra. This course will cover proof writing (basic) and I have never written a proof like these in my ...
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0answers
22 views

Discrete Mathematics: Prove Expression Is Even

I'm brushing up for my Discrete Math final exam, and would like to know if the following proof is valid... Prove by direct proof that $a^2-5a+8$ is even for any integer $a$. Proof: By ...
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1answer
31 views

Turing Machine Diagram, one Solved Problem ?!

The following Diagram Gets binary number $x$ and produce $x+1$. complete it: the book solution is says first line is the answer. any hint or idea for completing this TM?
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1answer
19 views

Number system question

Is it true that if we are given a number system with base 3, mantissa 2, $-1 \le p \le 1$, determined by $$\pm 0.d_1 d_2 \times 3^p$$ where each number is normalized, unless it is zero, then the ...
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1answer
899 views

How to construct a context free grammar that generate following language. $\{a^nb^nc^k \in \{a,b,c\}^* | n,k >= 0\} $

$$\{a^nb^nc^k \in \{a,b,c\}^* | n,k >= 0\} $$ $E \to aEbS $ $S \to c$ I do not know where to go next, or even if this is right at all?
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26 views

Discretizations of Differential, Geometric and Topological Notions

I have noticed a recurring theme in Graph Theory / Theoretical Computer Science (abbreviated GT and TCS throughout this post) in that notions typically belonging to differential calculus / geometry / ...
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0answers
61 views

What is the relationship between Realizability and the Curry-Howard isomorphism?

I have recently been studying the Curry-Howard isomorphism/correspondence. My sources have primarly been Sørensen [1] and Girard [2]. Realizability is introduced here in the form of Kleene's ...
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1answer
24 views

Showing equivalence of 2 Big O notations

I have the task to show that the following two big O definitions are equivalent. My first thought was that it has to be equivalent because the set of natural numbers excludes all broken rational ...
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1answer
15 views

Demonstrate that a language is semi-decidable

I need some help to demonstrate that this set below is decidable, semi-decidable, or undecidable. Here's the set: H = {p| |Images(fp)| >= 10} explanation: an ...
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2answers
4k views

How to show that $ALL_{DFA}$ is in P

How can I show that $ALL_{DFA}$ is in P ? $ALL_{DFA} = \{ \langle A \rangle \mid A \text{ is a DFA and } L(A) = \Sigma^* \}$
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14 views

Show how to construct new AKE protocol

I'd appreciate if someone could help me with this exercise (image is for text and notation): http://i.imgur.com/S6xmkEX.png Could someone give me a hint, what am I supposed to do to show it?
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32 views

Find $A^n$ for n=0,1, and 3: Languages and Finite State Machines

The question is: Let $A$={11,00}. Find $A^n$ for n=0,1, and 3. Would i be right in thinking that $A^0$ = {λ} $A^1$ = {11,00} $A^3$ = {111111,111100,110011,110000,000011,000000,001100,001111}. if ...
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3answers
34 views

What does the algorithm s = s + k * k do?

I just finished an exam in my math class and I did well except for one question that I just can't get out of my head, it seems simple but I just can't figure it out: PROBLEM: ...
2
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0answers
19 views

levenshtein distance: iterative vs single calculation

I had a list of 1100 words and sought to cluster them based on a levenshtein distance of 2. This reduced the list to 900 words. Running the calculation again reduced the number to roughly 800, and ...