# Tagged Questions

This tag concerns computational problems central to mathematical and scientific computating. The scope includes algorithms, numerical analysis, optimization, and linear algebra, computational topology, computational geometry, symbolic methods, and inverse problems.

18k views

### What algorithm is used by computers to calculate logarithms?

I would like to know how are logarithms calculated by computers. The GNU C library, for example, uses a call to the fyl2x() assembler instruction, which means that ...
480 views

### How could I improve this approximation?

In a computer application, I need to solve trillions of times an equation which can be reduced to $$f(x)=\sin(x)-a x=0$$ Newton methods (quadratic and higher orders) are used for the solution. ...
277 views

### Fast way to get a position of combination (without repetitions)

This question has an inverse: (Fast way to) Get a combination given its position in (reverse-)lexicographic order What would be the most efficient way to ...
562 views

### Proving $\pi^3 \gt 31$

$$\large \pi^3 \gt 31$$ Using a calculator, $\pi^3/31 \approx 1.0002$, so I thought this may be challenging to do by hand. It is extremely easy with the use of any calculator, so I was wondering now:...
226 views

### (Fast way to) Get a combination given its position in (reverse-)lexicographic order

This question is the inverse of the Fast way to get a position of combination (without repetitions). Given all $\left(\!\!\binom{n}{k}\!\!\right)$ combinations without repetitions (in either ...
561 views

### A valid floor function trick?

Given $x\in\mathbb R_+$ and $m,n\in\mathbb Z_+$, is it true that $$\bigg\lfloor\frac{\lfloor \frac{x}{m}\rfloor}{n}\bigg\rfloor=\bigg\lfloor \frac{x}{mn}\bigg\rfloor?$$ Thanks for at least three ...
114 views

### How can I solve this problem without having to do it by hand?

I'm dealing with the following problem in computational programming. I'm trying to find a way to build an algorithm that can quickly resolve the following problem statement without forcing me to do it ...
6k views

### Rapid approximation of $\tanh(x)$

This is kind of a signal processing/programming/mathematics crossover question. At the moment it seems more math-related to me, but if the moderators feel it belongs elsewhere please feel free to ...
3k views

I am stuck with the sieving stage of Quadratic Sieve algorithm. I've read lots of papers to this point but I can't find any guidlines how to choose sieving interval or how sieving is actually done ...
107 views

### Given two algebraic conjugates $\alpha,\beta$ and their minimal polynomial, find a polynomial that vanishes at $\alpha\beta$ in a efficient way

Inspired by this question, I was wondering about the following problem. $\alpha,\beta,\gamma,\ldots$ are the roots of an irreducible polynomial over $\mathbb{Q}$. How to compute the coefficients ...
562 views

### Accelerating Convergence of a Sequence

Suppose I had a monotonically increasing sequence $\{d_{n}\}$ which is also bounded above. The $d_{n}$'s satisfy a given recurrence, however computationally they tend very slowly to the limit. What ...
982 views

### What interesting open mathematical problems could be solved if we could perform a “supertask” and what couldn't?

If we had a computer that could perform a countably infinite number of steps of a Turing machine, what currently open problems could we solve? I guess a lot of number theory problems could be solved ...
15k views

### Fastest Square Root Algorithm

What is the fastest algorithm for finding the square root of a number? I created one that can find the square root of "987654321" to 16 decimal places in just 20 iterations (I'm not ready to release ...
208 views

1k views

### Minimum number of iterations in Newton's method to find a square root

I am writing an algorithm that evaluates the square root of a positive real number $y$. To do this I am using the Newton-Raphton method to approximate the roots to $f(x)=x^2-y$. The $n^{th}$ iteration ...
77 views

### What are the next few “tetranacci-like” pseudoprimes?

Starting with $n=0$: $k=2$ Given the roots $x_i$ of $x^2-x-1=0$. Then, we have the Lucas numbers, $$A_n = x_1^n+x_2^n = 2, 1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18,\dots$$ The $n$ that divides $A_n-1$ are all the ...
2k views

### Modular exponentiation?

I came upon an interesting way to relatively quickly compute modular exponentiation with large numbers. However, I do not fully understand it and was hoping for a better explanation. The method ...
4k views

### Is “A New Kind of Science” a new kind of science?

A couple of years ago I was reading "New Kind of Science" (NKS) by S. Wolfram, and it presented lot of interesting ideas for a young Physics undergraduate. Now that I am studying Mathematics however, ...
136 views

### Are the unit partial quotients of $\pi, \log(2), \zeta(3)$ and other constants $all$ governed by $H=0.415\dots$?

Khinchin showed that given the simple continued fraction of a real number, $$r = a_0+\cfrac{1}{a_1+\cfrac{1}{a_2+\cfrac{1} {\ddots}}}$$ then it is almost always true that the partial quotients $a_i$ ...
582 views

### Calculating logs and fractional exponents by hand

In view of what we can compute by hand, on a piece of paper, without having to use a computer or a calculator, how far can we go with the evaluation of $\log$-functions and fractional powers? More ...
304 views

177 views

### Given 3 random points, what is the probability of these two situations involving a perpendicular bisector and distances?

Suppose we're given 3 random points $p_0=(x_0,y_0),p_1=(x_1,y_1),p_2=(x_2,y_2)$ from a two-dimensional continuous uniform distribution $\{U(a,b)\}^2$, for some $(a\in\mathbb{R})\lt (b\in\mathbb{R})$, ...
637 views

### Galois group command for Magma online calculator?

I need to test if a family of 7th deg and 13 deg equations are solvable. I'm new to Magma, so my apologies, but what would I type in, http://magma.maths.usyd.edu.au/calc/ to determine the Galois ...
2k views

1k views

### Fast methods to check linearity of differentials? Generalizing linearity?

The L1 Mat-1.1010 -course here has taught me the linearity conditions $f(a x)=a f(x)$ and $f(a+b)=f(a)+f(b)$. I want to generalize it, some quite irrelevant slow investigation here. It requires time ...
95 views

### Is there any good strategy for computing null space of a matrix with entries $\cos x$ and $\sin x$?

For example, say $A= \left ( \begin{matrix} \cos x & -\sin x & 0 \\ \cos y \sin x & \cos x \cos y & -\sin y \\ \sin x \sin y & \sin y \cos x & \cos y \end{matrix} \right)$. ...
905 views

### FFT with powers of 3

Classic Fast Fourier Transfrom (FFT) works fine, when $n$ is power of 2. How to generalize FFT procedure when $n$ is power of 3? Is it possible to easily modify the algorithm and preserve its ...
2k views

### How does Knuth's algorithm for calculating logarithm work?

I had a look at Knuth's The Art of Computer Programming, book 1. In chapter 1, section 1.2.2, exercise 25, he presents the following algorithm for calculating logarithm: given $x\in[1,2)$, do the ...
324 views

217 views

### Conjecture about Rabin-Miller pseudo prime test

I tested the Rabin-Miller pseudo prime algorithm using a single test value and found that the number of false calls depends on the size of the number to test, reducing to a (conjectured) negligible ...