1
vote
1answer
35 views

Are all polynomial-bounded functions computable? [on hold]

Let $f = O(g)$, where $g$ is a polynomial. Then is $f$ computable? Let $K(s)$ be Kolmogorov complexity of a string $s$. It's an incomputable function. No. Let $f(x) : \Bbb{Q} \to \Bbb{R}, \ f(x) = ...
1
vote
4answers
52 views

Examples of partial functions in which the domain is not known?

I was reading this, it mentions about a kind of function in which the exact domain is not known. The only example given is this one - and I'm not really sure I understood it. I got curious about it: ...
0
votes
3answers
58 views

the difference between regex operations (math) and regex (unix/linux)

what is the difference between regular expression operations (union, concatenation, kleene star) and regular expression (implemented in UNIX and can be used together with the grep command)? Are there ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

If the union of two languages is NP-complete, is one of them NP-complete?

Question 1) If $A\cup B$ is NP-complete, and $A$ is NP, and $B$ is P, then is $A$ NP-complete? I don't think so but I am unsure. When I try to reduce $A\cup B$ to $A$, I fail because strings in $B$ ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Showing a Problem Is Undecidable

How can I show that T is undecidable using only this information? $$T = \{\langle M, w, r\rangle \mid M \text{ accepts } w^r \text{ when it accepts } w.\}$$ So, what it's saying is that the machine ...
-1
votes
1answer
44 views

Reduction from HALT on any string to HALT on empty string

The title says it all (if I have phrased it properly). How can we show that HALT on any string is undecidable using a decider for HALT on empty string? I think this is written: $$ HALT \leq ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Polytime implementation of Discrete Log using primitive recursive functions

The primitive recursive functions are defined by Godel as: $z() = 0$ $s(x) = x+1$ $\pi_i(x_1, \dots, x_k) = x_i$ Plus closure under Composition: $h(x_1, \dots, x_m) = f(g_1(x_1, \dots, x_m), ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Show that the Turing machine will solve the self-halting problem

Suppose we have Turing machine $M^*$ that: i. halts printing 1 if $M_n$ halts on input 1 ii. halts printing 0 if $M_n$ doesn't halt on input 1 Show that you cannot construct $M^*$. ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

The “computability” of fundamental physical constants

I would like to ask if any of the fundamental physical quantities like the speed of light or plancks constant (all measured according to a common standard of of units) can be classified as computable ...
2
votes
1answer
137 views

Subsets of all Diophantine's sets

Function $\mathbb{N}^k \to \mathbb{N}^m$ is computable $\Leftrightarrow$ graph of function is Diophantine. Consider some subset $S$ of computable functions (for example some Grzegorczyk's class or ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

classifying problems with reducibility

How can we use a reduction to prove non membership of a class. Can we say if A is reducible to B they are in same class or if we can't reduce A to B. B is not same class as A. Regards,
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Mapping reduction to show NeverHalt is undecidable

I need help with showing that $NeverHalt_{TM} = \{\langle M\rangle|M\text{ is a TM which runs forever on every input $w$}\}$ is undecidable by giving an explicit mapping reduction. To show that a ...
1
vote
0answers
54 views

Showing particular language is NP-complete

How is FLO NP-complete? Let G be a social network where vertices correspond to people and edges are relationships between people (undirected). Some pairs of people (who are friends) get married. We ...
1
vote
2answers
93 views

Books about Turing machines and undecidability

I need help with finding literature about Turing machine and undecidability. First book I was suggested is Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation by Hopcroft, Motwani and Ullman. ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

If P = NP, then 3-SAT can be solved in P

Prove that if $P = NP$, then there is an algorithm that can find a boolean assignment for a 3-SAT problem in P time if it exists. $P = NP$ only says that we can decide whether a 3-SAT problem is ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Prove a language is NP-Complete

$A$ is NP-complete. $B$ is P. $A \cap B = \emptyset $ $A \cup B \neq \sum^{*}$ Prove that $A \cup B $ is NP-complete. How can I prove this ? I think if anything can be P-reducible to A then it ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Ackermann function and primitive recursiveness

If we define $b_n(m) := a(n,m)$ for all $n$ and $m \in \mathbb{N}$. For which $n$ is the function $b_n$ primitive recursive and for which $n$ it is not a primitive recursive function? Can anyone ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Decidable language closed under complement

Why are decidable languages closed under complement? So if L is decidable why is the complement of L also decidable.
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Generating a context free grammar

How do I generate a context free grammar for a language $$\left\{a^ib^jc^k:i=j\text{ or }j=k,\text{ and }i,j,k\ge 0\right\}\;?$$ Thanks.
3
votes
2answers
107 views

context free grammar problem

$L$ is the context free grammar over $\{a, b\}$ $S \rightarrow aSb \; | \;bR \; |\;Ra$ $R \rightarrow bR \;|\;aR\;|\;\epsilon$ Briefly describe this CFG with English sentences and prove your ...
0
votes
1answer
156 views

Simultaneous recursion

I have no idea how to even start proving the following theorem: If $f_0, f_1: \mathbb{N}^r \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ and $g_0, g_1: \mathbb{N}^{r+3} \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ are primitive recursive, ...
0
votes
2answers
46 views

context free grammar design

Design a context free grammar and PDA for the following language. $$\Sigma = \{0,1\},\qquad L = \left\{uv \mid u \in \sum^{*} \;v\in \sum^{*}1\sum^{*} \text{ with }|u| \geq |v| \right\}$$ I'm not ...
0
votes
1answer
112 views

Arithmetic Hierarchy problems

Is $\Sigma^{0}_n$ closed under intersection? I think yes m I correct? Let $L_1$ be an $\Sigma^{0}_1$ complete language, and $L_2$ be a $\Pi^{0}_1$ complete language, such that $\emptyset \neq L= ...
2
votes
1answer
43 views

A diophantine program for a basic For Loop

By Matiyasevich, every computable function has a diophantine representation. I am wondering if there is a general way to represent a simple iterative for loop. Specifically: Let $f(x)$ be any ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Can this simple functional language be simplified further without losing any computational power?

Here is a definition of a very simplistic programming language (it is not Turing complete). Input to a function is any natural number. The following functions are primitive to the language: ...
-4
votes
1answer
182 views

How does 3-sat work in laymen's terms?

I know only basic math like so: (+,-,x,\,). And I studied a little bit of programming up to the point of knowing a little bit about Boolean values.I desperately want to understand the 3-sat question ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

A diophantine definition of the Kleene star

Let $f(x \, | \, y_1, \dots, y_n)$ be a Diophantine polynomial that generates the Diophantine set $F$. By Matiyasevich, the set $F^*$ (Kleene star of $F$) is also Diophantine. My question: how can ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Regular Functional Algorithms

A language is regular if it is accepted by a read-only Turing machine. I am curious about applying this model to functional problems rather than decision problems. Definition: A functional read-only ...
2
votes
1answer
81 views

What does noncomputable really mean?

I believe I understand the definition of a noncomputable problem from an introductory computer science class, but I don't understand what it really means. One of my hypothesis was that a ...
3
votes
2answers
121 views

How do we know that every halting Turing Machine can be expressed as a recursive function?

I've hear many times that a major result in Recursion Theory is the equivalence of Turing and Godel's models: the functions implementable on a Turing machine are precisely the functions that can be ...
9
votes
0answers
148 views

Reference on standard types

This question is about what I presume is a basic construction in type theory. The finite types are defined as follows: 0 is a finite type; if $\sigma, \tau$ are finite types, then so is ...
24
votes
4answers
686 views

Why do we believe the Church-Turing Thesis?

The Church-Turing Thesis, which says that the Turing Machine model is at least as powerful as any computer that can be built in practice, seems to be pretty unquestioningly accepted in my exposure to ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

Books on computational complexity

Can anyone recommend a good book on the subjects of computability and computational complexity? What are the de facto standard texts (say, for graduate students) in this area? I've heard a thing or ...
5
votes
3answers
215 views

What is the relationship between “recursive” or “recursively enumerable” sets and the concept of recursion?

I understand that "recursive" sets are those that can be completely decided by an algorithm, while "recursively enumerable" sets can be listed by an algorithm (but not necessarily decided). I am ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Is this language decidable?

Is this language decidable? $$\{x\mid \text{$x$ is the code of a Turing machine that always halts on $y$ in less than $y^3$ steps}\}$$ I think it is, because it halts in a finite number of ...
1
vote
2answers
71 views

decidability of $\{x|W_x \text{is different from K in only finitely many elements}\}$

Is the following language decidable? Please explain your argument as I want to learn how such problems must be solved to do the rest on my own. $$\{x \mid W_x \text{ is different from K in only ...
2
votes
2answers
134 views

Is the difference of two recursively enumerable sets, reducible to $K$?

Is the difference of two recursively enumerable sets, reducible to $K$? $W_x/W_y=\{z|z \in W_x \& z \notin W_y\}$ $K=\{x|\Phi_x(x) \downarrow\}$ $W_x= \text{dom}(\Phi_x)$
1
vote
2answers
179 views

Decidability and undecidability of a set or language

I want to find out whether the following sets are decidable or not. Generally speaking, what exactly should be done about it? Doing some research, I think a language or set is decidable if a Turing ...
1
vote
1answer
87 views

Rice’s theorem and recursion theorem

Prove Rice’s theorem using recursion theorem. I need some hints as to what must be done about it. Please use Davis' book notation: Computability, Complexity, and Languages, Second Edition: ...
1
vote
2answers
114 views

non-recursive function

Give a direct proof that the set $\{x|\Phi_x(1) \downarrow\}$ (which is a set of program numbers that halt on input $1$) is not recursive. I've got an idea that indirect proof must work. Assuming ...
1
vote
1answer
169 views

Second incompleteness and Model theorey

If we let $T$ be a consistent theory in the language of arithmetic $\mathcal{L}_A$ theory extending Peano Arithmetic — with specified numbering of formulas $\left[\cdot\right]$ and suppose that ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

Explain why if the language A is recursive, then A is reducible to 0*1*

I'm in a theory of computation class and there is a problem that I think I am way overthinking. Can anyone point me in the right direction with the following: Give a short justification of the fact ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Difference between language is decidable and function calculable by turing machine

I'm trying to understand the difference between saying a language is decidable and a function is calculable by a turing machine. I must have understood something wrong, because for me it doesn't make ...
1
vote
1answer
139 views

Ackermann function in terms of higher order recursion

Wikipedia provides a higher-order definition of Ackermann function. First it gives the normal recursive definition \begin{equation*} A(m,n)=\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} n+1 & \text{if $m=0$} \\ ...
0
votes
1answer
93 views

Space : Kolmogorov complexity :: time and space : ___?

It's well-known that the Kolmogorov complexity is uncomputable, essentially because of the halting problem: you can list all programs of length less than one known to generate a given string, but you ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Proving uncomputability — Rice's theorem

I am trying to prove the uncomputability of the following function: Let $\varphi$ be a Gödel-numbering of the computable functions. Consider the following function: \begin{align*} f(x) = \left\{ ...
3
votes
2answers
208 views

Primitive recursive select from parameters

I'm looking forward function, that works like that $\mathbb{N}^{n+1} \rightarrow \mathbb N$: $f(y, x_1, x_2, \dots ,x_n)=x_y$ We use projection $\Pi^n_k$, but I need something with "dynamic" size ...
0
votes
2answers
94 views

Is the halting of a program that checks for duplicates in an infinite multiset decidable?

A program $P(\Sigma)$ takes input $\Sigma$, which is an nonempty multiset. Let $\Phi$ be an empty multiset. Take any element $\sigma$ from $\Sigma$. If $\sigma \in \Phi$, return true. Otherwise, ...
-1
votes
1answer
148 views

How to show if a function is partial recursive?

I have seen and understood the most definitions but i just could not understand how to show if a function is mu-partial recursive or not. I used search engines, but all I find are just more lectures ...
1
vote
1answer
124 views

The set of Turing machines that recognize $\{00, 01\}$ is undecidable

$L =\big\{\langle T\rangle \mid T\text{ is a Turing machine that recognizes }\{00, 01\}\big\}$. Prove $L$ is undecidable. I am really having difficulties even understanding the reduction to use ...