Questions involving complex numbers: numbers of the form $a+bi$ where $i^2=-1$.

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8answers
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For complex $z$, $|z| = 1 \implies \text{Re}\left(\frac{1-z}{1+z}\right) = 0$

If $|z|=1$, show that: $$\mathrm{Re}\left(\frac{1 - z}{1 + z}\right) = 0$$ I reasoned that for $z = x + iy$, $\sqrt{x^2 + y^2} = 1\implies x^2 + y ^2 = 1$ and figured the real part would be: ...
10
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4answers
585 views

Which step in this process allows me to erroneously conclude that $i = 1$

I was playing around with imaginary numbers and exponents and came up with this: $$ i = \sqrt{-1} $$ $$ \sqrt{-1} = (-1)^{1/2} $$ $$ (-1)^{1/2} = (-1)^{2/4} $$ $$ (-1)^{2/4} = ((-1)^{2})^{1/4} ...
10
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4answers
886 views

Confused about complex numbers

I am confused about something: \begin{eqnarray} (e^{2 i \pi})^{0.5} = (e^{2 i \pi \cdot 0.5})= e^{i \pi}=-1 \end{eqnarray} but \begin{eqnarray} e^{2 i \pi}=1~ and~ 1^{0.5}=1 \end{eqnarray} ...
10
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4answers
5k views

How do you integrate imaginary numbers?

How would you find, for instance, $\int_{0}^{4} i\> x dx$? Can you just treat $i$ as a constant, or do you have to do something more sophisticated? Thanks!
10
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5answers
610 views

imaginary numbers - how can I understand them - especially as they occur in 'roots' of polynomials?

In another question here, about roots of equations being imaginary, the accepted answer said something interesting about "imaginary" (as a technical word in math) not meaning "not real". I ...
10
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3answers
582 views

Prove that the complex expression is real

Let $|z_1|=\dots=|z_n|=1$ on the complex plane. Prove that: $$ \left(1+\frac{z_2}{z_1}\right) \left(1+\frac{z_3}{z_2}\right) \dots \left(1+\frac{z_n}{z_{n-1}}\right) \left(1+\frac{z_1}{z_n}\right) ...
10
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2answers
486 views

Suppose $a \in \mathbb{R}$, and $\exists n \in \mathbb{N}$, that $a^n \in \mathbb{Q}$, and $(a + 1)^n \in \mathbb{Q}$

1) Suppose $a \in \mathbb{R}$, and $\exists n \in \mathbb{N}$, that $a^n \in \mathbb{Q}$, and $(a + 1)^n \in \mathbb{Q}$. Prove: Is it true that $a \in \mathbb{Q}$? 2) Suppose $a \in \mathbb{C}$, ...
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4answers
1k views

How to show that $A^3+B^3+C^3 - 3ABC = (A+B+C)(A+B\omega+C\omega^2)(A+B\omega^2+C\omega)$ indirectly?

I found this amazingly beautiful identity here. How to prove that $A^3+B^3+C^3 - 3ABC = (A+B+C)(A+B\omega+C\omega^2)(A+B\omega^2+C\omega)$ without directly multiplying the factors? (I've already ...
10
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3answers
300 views

square root of $1/2 + \sqrt3/2?$

Playing with Maple, I noticed that it gives the square root of $c = 1+\frac{\sqrt3}{2}$ as equal to $a = \frac{1}{2}+\frac{\sqrt3}{2}$. Indeed it checks out. But I got curious: how can I find that ...
10
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3answers
619 views

Why this proof $0=1$ is wrong?(breakfast joke)

We have $$e^{2\pi i n}=1$$ So we have $$e^{2\pi in+1}=e$$ which implies $$(e^{2\pi in+1})^{2\pi in+1}=e^{2\pi in+1}=e$$ Thus we have $$e^{-4\pi^{2}n^{2}+4\pi in+1}=e$$ This implies ...
10
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4answers
3k views

Do the real numbers and the complex numbers have the same cardinality?

So it's easy to show that the rationals and the integers have the same size, using everyone's favorite spiral-around-the-grid. Can the approach be extended to say that the set of complex numbers has ...
10
votes
1answer
453 views

Is $\mathbb{C}^*$ modulo the roots of unity isomorphic to $\mathbb{R}^+$?

A student came to me showing a question from his exam in basic group theory, in which they are asked to prove that $\mathbb{C}^*$ modulo the subgroup of roots of unity is isomorphic to $\mathbb{R}^+$ ...
10
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6answers
609 views

If $A,B,C,D$ are complex numbers on the unit circle with $A+B+C+D=0$, then they form a rectangle

Let $A, B, C, D$ be points on a unit circle. Prove that if $A+B+C+D=0$, then $A,B,C,D$ make a rectangle. (Use complex numbers.) How do I prove this? I tried to use the dot product of 2 adjacent ...
10
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1answer
228 views

Interpret to a complex plane!

$\newcommand{\Re}{\operatorname{Re}}\newcommand{\Im}{\operatorname{Im}}$The question is: Interpret $$ \Re z + \Im z = 1 $$ geometrically in the complex plane. Writing $z = x + yi$, the condition ...
10
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2answers
283 views

History of the matrix representation of complex numbers

It is well-known to many that $\mathbb{C}$ can be represented by matrices of the form $\left[ \begin{array}{cc} a & b \\ -b & a \end{array} \right]$. For example, see this question or this ...
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1answer
2k views

Intuition for complex eigenvalues

The eigenvalues of a rotation matrix are complex numbers. I understand that they cannot be real numbers because when you rotate something no direction stays the same. My question What is the ...
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3answers
586 views

Help me prove $\sqrt{1+i\sqrt 3}+\sqrt{1-i\sqrt 3}=\sqrt 6$

Please help me prove this Leibniz equation: $\sqrt{1+i\sqrt 3}+\sqrt{1-i\sqrt 3}=\sqrt 6$. Thanks!
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4answers
306 views

Does $\sin(x+iy) = x+iy$ have infinitely many solutions?

How to prove that $\sin(x+iy) = x+iy$ has infinitely many solutions? I know how to prove that $\sin(x) = x$ has only one solution, but I do not know how to extend this to complex analysis.
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2answers
2k views

Determinant of an $n\times n$ complex matrix as an $2n\times 2n$ real determinant

If $A$ is an $n\times n$ complex matrix. Is it possible to write $\vert \det A\vert^2$ as a $2n\times 2n$ matrix with blocks containing the real and imaginary parts of $A$? I remember seeing such a ...
9
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1answer
398 views

i^i^i^i^… Is there a pattern? [duplicate]

I was messing around with $i$ and I (haha) noticed that certain progressions arise when I keep on raising $i$ to $i$ to $i$ and so forth. Though, I am not really quite sure what is going on (and I ...
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2answers
164 views

Maximum of $\frac{\sin z}{z}$ in the closed unit disc.

I have some trouble with the following question: Let $$f(z)=\frac{\sin z}{z},\quad\text{for }z\in\mathbb{C}.$$ What is the maximum of $f$ in the closed unit disc ...
9
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2answers
417 views

If the sequence $(a_n b_n)$ converges and $a_n \to 0$, when does $(b_n)$ converge too?

Given that the sequence $(a_n b_n)$ converges and $a_n \to 0$, are there conditions which can be placed on $(b_n)$ and/or $(a_n b_n)$ so that $(b_n)$ converges as well?
9
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2answers
84 views

When does $(e^a)^b = e^{ab}$ hold?

For a complex number $A$ and a real number $B$, when does the well-known formula $(e^A)^B = e^{AB}$ fail? Or does it hold at all for complex A? Since $e^{2\pi i} = 1$, if this formula holds for ...
9
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1answer
172 views

Complex Exponential False “Proof” That All Integers Are $0$

The following false "proof" is attributed to Thomas Clausen in 1827, and was stated on page 79 of Nahin's An Imaginary Tale. $e^{i2\pi n}=1$ for all integers $n$. So \begin{align*} ee^{i2\pi ...
8
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6answers
753 views

Show that if $r$ is an nth root of $1$ and $r\ne1$, then $1 + r + r^2 + … + r^{n-1} = 0$.

Show that if $r$ is an nth root of $1$ and $r\ne1$, then $1 + r + r^2 + ... + r^{n-1} = 0$. I think I can represent all the roots of 1 as follows: $r = 1^{\frac{1}{n}} ( \frac{\cos{2\pi k}}{n} + ...
8
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4answers
423 views

Is it correct to say that $\mathbb{R}$ has fewer elements than $\mathbb{C}$ if both are infinite?

My math teacher said that. I disagreed, but he said that I was wrong. But I'm not convinced - is it really right? Please notice that I'm not talking about $\mathbb{R}$ $⊂$ $\mathbb{C}$, but ...
8
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6answers
5k views

How can you find the cubed roots of $i$?

I am trying to figure out what the three possibilities of $z$ are such that $$ z^3=i $$ but I am stuck on how to proceed. I tried algebraically but ran into rather tedious polynomials. Could you ...
8
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3answers
437 views

Is there a problem in defining a complex number by $ z = x+iy$?

The field $\mathbb{C} $ of complex numbers is well-defined by the Hamilton axioms of addition and product between complex numbers, i.e., a complex number $z$ is a ordered pair of real numbers $(x,y)$, ...
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3answers
465 views

How to prove $|z_1-z_2| \geq |z_1|-|z_2|$ in other way than this?

How to prove $|z_1-z_2| \geq |z_1|-|z_2|$ in other way than this? I mean I tried to find on the internet but could not find. I ask for more straighforward way than the proof that is presented for item ...
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3answers
432 views

Proof for law of complex exponents using only differential equation

I just read that an elegant proof exists that the law of exponents also holds for complex numbers ($a,b,z$ all complex): $$e^{a+b}=e^ae^b,$$ which only uses the definition that $$y=e^{zt}$$ is a ...
8
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3answers
726 views

How to raise a complex number to the power of another complex number?

How do I calculate the outcome of taking one complex number to the power of another, ie $\displaystyle {(a + bi)}^{(c + di)}$?
8
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4answers
411 views

Why does the imaginary number $i$ satisfy $i\times 0=0$?

Why does the imaginary number $i$ satisfy $i\times 0=0$? I mean, we don't really know what $i$ is. How could we be sure about that? I think there's a reason behind why mathematicians decided that.
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5answers
1k views

Alternative to imaginary numbers?

In this video, starting at 3:45 the professor says There are some superb papers written that discount the idea that we should ever use j (imaginary unit) on the grounds that it conceals some ...
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5answers
555 views

Is there any way to represent an imaginary number?

Is there any way to represent an imaginary number? Like the square root of -1? Is there any possible way to do this? Sorry if you think this is a dumb question. I am a 7th grade student in ...
8
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5answers
282 views

Does there exist a field $K$ such that $\mathbb R \subsetneq K \subsetneq \mathbb C$?

I'm thinking of unions of $\mathbb R$ with some subset of $\mathbb C$ but am not sure how to approach this without ending up with all of $\mathbb C$. Doe anyone have any suggestions?
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6answers
464 views

Has anyone talked themselves into understanding Euler's identity a bit?

What does the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter have to do with the base of the natural logarithm and $\sqrt{-1}$?
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7answers
253 views

Is $\mathbb{C}$ equal to $\mathbb{R}^2$?

Complex numbers are usually formally defined as pairs of real numbers. Although there are operations on $\mathbb{C}$, such as complex multiplication, which are not found in operations usually applied ...
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5answers
520 views

What's the importance of a formula for the real and imaginary parts of a complex number?

I've learned that $$\bbox[8px,border:1px solid black]{\operatorname{Re}(z)= \frac{z+\overline{z}}{2} \qquad \qquad \operatorname{Im}(z)=\frac{z-\overline{z}}{2i}} $$ And that in the number $z=a+bi$, ...
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4answers
270 views

When are we (not) allowed to replace $x$ by $ix$?

It seems to be quite a common manipulation to replace $x$ by $ix$. Every time I see it's being done in a textbook, I blindly trust the author without really understanding when are we allowed to do so ...
8
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3answers
232 views

Putting ${n \choose 0} + {n \choose 5} + {n \choose 10} + \cdots + {n \choose 5k} + \cdots$ in a closed form

As the title says, I'm trying to transform $\displaystyle{n \choose 0} + {n \choose 5} + {n \choose 10} + \cdots + {n \choose 5k} + \cdots$ into a closed form. My work: $\displaystyle\left(1 + ...
8
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2answers
691 views

Summation of complex numbers

This is a series problem where the terms are complex numbers. I am looking for a better approach to solving this problem. If $\displaystyle z = \frac{1+i}{\sqrt2}$, Evaluate $1 + z + z^2 + ... + ...
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2answers
374 views

Are there any elegant methods to classify of the Gaussian primes?

Out of curiosity, are there any relatively quick classifications of all the Gaussian primes, the primes in $\mathbb{Z}[i]$? I found a classification here, but the process comes off as rather tedious. ...
8
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4answers
83 views

$z^n=(z+1)^n=1$, show that $n$ is divisible by $6$.

we are given $z^n=(z+1)^n=1$, $z$ complex number. we want to prove that $n$ is divisible by $6$. I showed that $|z|=|z+1|=1$. Hence $z$ is on the intersection of two unit circles, one centered at ...
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3answers
22k views

How to get principal argument of complex number from complex plane?

I am just starting to learn calculus and the concepts of radians. Something that is confusing me is how my textbook is getting the principal argument ($\arg z$) from the complex plane. i.e. for the ...
8
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2answers
277 views

The roots of the derivative $P'(z)$ of the polynomial $P(z)\in\mathbb C[x]$ lie in the convex hull of the set of roots of $P(z)$.

Assume $S=\{z_1,z_2,...,z_k\}, z_i\in \mathbb C$$, C(S)$ and define $$C(S):=\{z=a_1z_1+a_2z_2+...+a_kz_k | a_i\ge0 ,a_1+a_2+...+a_k=1\}$$ where $$A:=\{z\in \mathbb C:f(z)=0 ...
8
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3answers
148 views

What is the right treatment for $0^i$?

I need to calculate a limit of a complex expression (had it in a physics research) that contains a term $(r-b)^p$ for $r\rightarrow b+$ where $r,b$ are reals, and $p$ is complex, let's suppose for ...
8
votes
1answer
635 views

How to choose a proper contour for a contour integral?

When analyzing real integrals with contour integrals, how does one choose a proper contour integral? Many cases can be solved by integrating around the top half of a circle with radius of infinity ...
8
votes
2answers
179 views

Expressing a complex function in terms of z

Use the Cauchy-Riemann equations to determine all differentiable functions that satisfy $Re(f(z))=xy$ I think I know how to do this problem. If we let $z=x+iy$, then $f(z)=u(x,y)+iv(x,y)$. We ...
8
votes
2answers
123 views

In a complex vector space, $\langle Tx,x \rangle=0 \implies T = 0$

Suppose $T$ is a linear operator on a complex inner product space. Is it a theorem that if $\langle Tx,x\rangle=0$ for all $x$ in the space then $T=0$. The theorem fails in the real case, as seen for ...
8
votes
2answers
341 views

If $0$, $z_1$, $z_2$ and $z_3$ are concyclic, then $\frac{1}{z_1}$,$\frac{1}{z_2}$,$\frac{1}{z_3}$ are collinear

If the complex numbers $0$, $z_1$, $z_2$ and $z_3$ are concyclic, prove that $\frac{1}{z_1}$,$\frac{1}{z_2}$,$\frac{1}{z_3}$ are collinear. I really can't seem to get anywhere on this problem, ...