Questions involving complex numbers, that is numbers of the form $a+bi$ where $i^2=-1$ and $a,b\in\mathbb{R}$.

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22
votes
8answers
836 views

Is $e^{i\pi}+1=0$ all it's cracked up to be?

While it is beautiful and elegant and all that, isn't it true that Euler's identity is really just an artifact of how we define the radian? I'm speaking of those who say that it's great because it ...
22
votes
7answers
2k views

How to prove that a complex number is not a root of unity?

$\frac35+i\frac45$ is not a root of unity though its absolute value is $1$. Suppose I don't have a calculator to calculate out its argument then how do I prove it? Is there any approach from ...
22
votes
3answers
2k views

Can I compare real and complex numbers?

I'm calculating the eigenvalues of the matrix $\begin{pmatrix} 2 &0 &0& 1\\ 0 &1& 0& 1\\ 0 &0& 3& 1\\ -1 &0 &0 &1\end{pmatrix}$, which ...
22
votes
7answers
3k views

How can one intuitively think about quaternions?

Quaternions came up while I was interning not too long ago and it seemed like no one really know how they worked. While eventually certain people were tracked down and were able to help with the issue,...
21
votes
9answers
3k views

Why is $i^3$ (the complex number “$i$”) equal to $-i$ instead of $i$? [duplicate]

$$i^3=iii=\sqrt{-1}\sqrt{-1}\sqrt{-1}=\sqrt{(-1)(-1)(-1)}=\sqrt{-1}=i $$ Please take a look at the equation above. What am I doing wrong to understand $i^3 = i$, not $-i$?
21
votes
6answers
2k views

Prove $|e^{i\theta} -1| \leq |\theta|$

Could you help me to prove $$ |e^{i\theta} -1| \leq |\theta| $$ I am studying the proof of differentiability of Fourier Series, and my book used this lemma. How does it work?
21
votes
8answers
2k views

Refining my knowledge of the imaginary number

So I am about halfway through complex analysis (using Churchill amd Brown's book) right now. I began thinking some more about the nature and behavior of $i$ and ran into some confusion. I have seen ...
21
votes
4answers
1k views

Mandelbrot fractal: How is it possible?

I'm a programmer and have recently played around a bit with rendering Mandelbrot fractals / zooming into them. What I can't grasp: How can such infinite, complex shapes come out of somewhat 10 lines ...
21
votes
2answers
2k views

Wild automorphisms of the complex numbers

I read about so called "wild" automorphisms of the field of complex numbers (i.e. not the identity nor the complex conjugation). I suppose they must be rather weird and I wonder whether someone could ...
21
votes
4answers
423 views

How many $\mathbb R$s must a Mathematician walk down?

A mathematician is lost on the complex plane. He knows neither his position nor the direction he is facing. He wants to return to the main road, a strip of width $1$ around the real axis (that is, ...
20
votes
16answers
2k views

An example for a calculation where imaginary numbers are used but don't occur in the question or the solution.

In a presentation I will have to give an account of Hilbert's concept of real and ideal mathematics. Hilbert wrote in his treatise "Über das Unendliche" (page 14, second paragraph. Here is an English ...
20
votes
9answers
5k views

Why did Euler use e to represent complex numbers?

From Euler we've learned that $z=re^{i\theta}$. And it's easy to see that $|z|^2=r^2$, since $re^{i\theta}\times re^{-i\theta}=r^2$. Why must we use e to represent these numbers correctly? It seems ...
20
votes
3answers
14k views

Is the square root of a negative number defined?

I have been in a debate over 9gag with this new comic: "The Origins" And I thought, "haha, that's funny, because I know $i = \sqrt{-1}$". And then, this comment cast a doubt: There is no such ...
20
votes
3answers
347 views

Does my definition of double complex noncommutative numbers make any sense?

I wanted to factorize $a^2+b^2+c^2$ into two factors in a similar way to $$a^2+b^2 = (a+ib)(a-ib)$$ This doesn't seem to be possible using real or complex numbers. However I came up with the following ...
20
votes
4answers
844 views

How would you explain why $e^{i\pi}+1=0$ to a middle school student?

Hi I was asked by a friends child who is in middle school why $e^{i\pi}+1=0$. Now I couldn't think of a way to explain it so he would understand. Albert Einstein once said “If you can't explain it ...
20
votes
3answers
2k views

Sine of a Complex Number

While I know that $\sin(x)=2$ has no real solution, I tried seeing if it has a complex solution. That equality is equal to $$e^{2ix}-4ie^{ix}-1=0$$ Taking a quadratic in $e^{ix}$ I got $$x=-i\log(i)-...
20
votes
2answers
954 views

Complex solutions for Fermat-Catalan conjecture

The Fermat-Catalan conjecture is that $a^m + b^n = c^k$ has only a finite number of solutions when $a, b, c$ are positive coprime integers, and $m,n,k$ are positive integers satisfying $\frac{1}{m} + \...
19
votes
8answers
8k views

Why is the complex number $z=a+bi$ equivalent to the matrix form $\left(\begin{smallmatrix}a &-b\\b&a\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Relation of this antisymmetric matrix $r = \left(\begin{smallmatrix}0 &1\\-1 & 0\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ to $i$ On Wikipedia, it says that: Matrix ...
19
votes
5answers
3k views

How fundamental is the fundamental theorem of algebra?

Despite its name, its often claimed that the fundamental theorem of algebra (which shows that the Complex numbers are algebraically closed - this is not to be confused with the claim that a polynomial ...
19
votes
5answers
1k views

Prove that $\sum\limits_{k=0}^{n-1}\dfrac{1}{\cos^2\frac{\pi k}{n}}=n^2$ for odd $n$

In old popular science magazine for school students I've seen problem Prove that $\quad $ $\dfrac{1}{\cos^2 20^\circ} + \dfrac{1}{\cos^2 40^\circ} + \dfrac{1}{\cos^2 60^\circ} + \dfrac{1}{\...
19
votes
5answers
5k views

Understanding imaginary exponents

Greetings! I am trying to understand what it means to have an imaginary number in an exponent. What does $x^{i}$ where $x$ is real mean? I've read a few pages on this issue, and they all seem to ...
19
votes
3answers
448 views

Mysterious identity

Playing around with Maple I found this identity $$\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\frac{2k+1}{1-z^{2k+1}}=n\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\frac{1}{1+z^{k}}$$ where $n$ is a positive integer, $z=\exp(\pi i/n)$. I was able to verify ...
19
votes
2answers
555 views

What is the precise definition of $i$?

This may seem like an extraordinarily trivial question and yet it has completely confounded me. The technical definition of $i$ is $$i^2=-1$$ But there are two numbers which fulfill this ...
18
votes
5answers
6k views

Do “imaginary” and “complex” angles exist?

During some experimentation with sines and cosines, its inverses, and complex numbers, I came across these results that I found quite interesting: $ \sin ^ {-1} ( 2 ) \approx 1.57 - 1.32 i $ $ \sin (...
18
votes
11answers
561 views

Why represent a complex number $a+ib$ as $[\begin{smallmatrix}a & -b\\ b & \hphantom{-}a\end{smallmatrix}]$? [duplicate]

I am reading through John Stillwell's Naive Lie Algebra and it is claimed that all complex numbers can be represented by a $2\times 2$ matrix $\begin{bmatrix}a & -b\\ b & \hphantom{-}a\end{...
18
votes
7answers
2k views

Find all five solutions of the equation $z^5+z^4+z^3+z^2+z+1 = 0$

$z^5+z^4+z^3+z^2+z+1 = 0$ I can't figure this out can someone offer any suggestions? Factoring it into $(z+1)(z^4+z^2+1)$ didn't do anything but show -1 is one solution. I solved for all roots of $...
18
votes
4answers
846 views

Find all roots of $\,(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)^2(x + 4)(x + 5) = 360$

The question is to find all complex roots of $$(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)^2(x + 4)(x + 5) = 360$$ and it is meant to be solved by hand. Is there any quick way to solve this using some trick that I'm not ...
18
votes
5answers
1k views

Proving the following number is real

Let $z_i$ be complex numbers such that $|z_i| = 1$ . Prove that : $$ z\, :=\, \frac{z_1+z_2+z_3 +z_1z_2+z_2z_3+z_1z_3}{1+z_1z_2z_3} \in \mathbb{R} $$ This problem was featured on my son's final ...
18
votes
4answers
893 views

Inequality with Complex Numbers

Consider the following problem: Prove that for every set of complex numbers $\{z_i\}$, with $i$ ranging from one to $n$, there is a subset $J$ such that $$\left|\sum_{j\in J} z_j\right|\ge \frac{1}{...
18
votes
1answer
276 views

What is the number of polynomial factors of $a^n-b^n$?

This is a number theoretical problem that I discovered myself. Let $f(n)$ be the number of factors of $a^n-b^n$ with integer coefficients when its completely factored. For example: $f(1)=1$, because ...
17
votes
9answers
2k views

Is there an interval notation for complex numbers?

Just as $$\{x \in \mathbb{R}: a \leq x \leq b\}$$ can be written in the more-compact form $[a,b],$ is there an analogous notation for $$\{z \in \mathbb{C}:z=x+yi, x \in[a,b], y \in[c,d]\} \quad ?$$ ...
17
votes
8answers
563 views

Explain why $e^{i\pi} = -1$ to an $8^{th}$ grader?

I am an $8^{th}$ grader that is taking Algebra I. But nearly everyday I try to learn things outside of what I am learning in class. Quite a while ago I discovered that $e^{i\pi} = -1$. This ...
17
votes
4answers
11k views

Can a real symmetric matrix have complex eigenvectors?

A Hermitian matrix always has real eigenvalues and real or complex orthogonal eigenvectors. A real symmetric matrix is a special case of Hermitian matrices, so it too has orthogonal eigenvectors and ...
17
votes
1answer
8k views

What's more common? Re / Im or Fraktur-R / Fraktur-I for real / imaginary part?

Title says it all. What's more common? Is there one to prefere (maybe due to some norm)? This: $\operatorname{\mathfrak{R}} z, \operatorname{\mathfrak{I}} z$ or that: $\operatorname{Re}z, \...
16
votes
4answers
996 views

Relation of this antisymmetric matrix $r = \left(\begin{smallmatrix}0 &1\\-1&0\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ to $i$

I was reviewing some matrices and found this interesting if $r = \begin{pmatrix} 0&1\\ -1&0 \end{pmatrix}$ then $rr=-I$, also $$\exp{(\theta r)} = \cos\theta I + \sin\theta r$$ No wonder, the ...
16
votes
1answer
293 views

Proving that $e^\pi=e^{-\pi}$

I've been stuck with this for a while now. I have this chain of reasoning that would imply $e^{-\pi}=e^\pi$, obviously false, since $e^\pi$ and $e^{-\pi}$ are two real distinct numbers and so I must ...
16
votes
3answers
692 views

Projection of tetrahedron to complex plane

It is widely known that: distinct points $a,b,c$ in the complex plane form equilateral triangle iff $ (a+b+c)^{2}=3(a^{2}+b^{2}+c^{2}). $ New to me is this fact: let $a,b,c,d$ be the images of ...
16
votes
2answers
580 views

What is $i$ exponentiated to itself $i$ times?

I was just wondering about this. I searched about it on the net and found that it is called tetration and after this comes pentation and then hexation and so on so forth. I don't really understand ...
15
votes
7answers
893 views

How to calculate $z^4 + \frac1{z^4}$ if $z^2 + z + 1 = 0$?

Given that $z^2 + z + 1 = 0$ where $z$ is a complex number, how do I proceed in calculating $z^4 + \dfrac1{z^4}$? Calculating the complex roots and then the result could be an answer I suppose, but ...
15
votes
6answers
1k views

inequality involving complex exponential

Is it true that $$|e^{ix}-e^{iy}|\leq |x-y|$$ for $x,y\in\mathbb{R}$? I can't figure it out. I tried looking at the series for exponential but it did not help. Could someone offer a hint?
15
votes
5answers
5k views

How to compute $\sqrt{i + 1}$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How do I get the square root of a complex number? I'm currently playing with complex numbers and I realized that I don't understand how to compute $\sqrt{i + 1}$. My math ...
15
votes
2answers
832 views

What's the name for the property of a function $f$ that means $f(f(x))=x$?

I can think of several examples of functions such that twice application of the function is equivalent to no application of it. Additive inverse Multiplicative inverse Fourier transform Complex ...
15
votes
6answers
832 views

Help me prove $\sqrt{1+i\sqrt 3}+\sqrt{1-i\sqrt 3}=\sqrt 6$

Please help me prove this Leibniz equation: $\sqrt{1+i\sqrt 3}+\sqrt{1-i\sqrt 3}=\sqrt 6$. Thanks!
15
votes
4answers
513 views

Euler's identity: why is the $e$ in $e^{ix}$? What if it were some other constant like $2^{ix}$?

$e^{ix}$ describes a unit circle in polar coordinates on the complex plane, where x is the angle (in radians) counterclockwise of the positive real axis. My intuition behind this is that $\frac{d}{dx}...
14
votes
2answers
1k views

Prove that a polynomial has at least one nonreal complex root

Prove that the polynomial below has at least one nonreal complex root $$x^5+\frac{x^4}2+ \frac{x^3}3+\frac{x^2}4+\frac x{24}+\frac 1{120}$$ I have tried to prove that there exist $k\in \Bbb R$, such ...
14
votes
8answers
416 views

The proofs of the fundamental Theorem of Algebra [closed]

There are many proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebra. Which are the most beautiful proofs?
14
votes
2answers
1k views

Why does the boundary of the Mandelbrot set contain a cardioid?

In a comment to a previous answer it has been mentioned that the boundary of the Mandelbrot set contains the cardioid $$ c = e^{it} \, \frac{2 - e^{it}}{4} $$ but how can we prove this?
14
votes
5answers
2k views

Can I keep adding more dimensions to complex numbers?

I know about the concept of the complex plane, but is it possible to move to the third dimension? What about arbitrary many dimensions? Edit: could you please give me some examples of 3D numbers?
14
votes
4answers
6k views

Do the real numbers and the complex numbers have the same cardinality?

So it's easy to show that the rationals and the integers have the same size, using everyone's favorite spiral-around-the-grid. Can the approach be extended to say that the set of complex numbers has ...
14
votes
1answer
114 views

Simplification of a trilogarithm of a complex argument

Is it possible to simplify the following expression? $$\large\Im\,\operatorname{Li}_3\left(-e^{\xi\,\left(\sqrt3-\sqrt{-1}\right)-\frac{\pi^2}{12\,\xi}\left(\sqrt3+\sqrt{-1}\right)}\right)$$ where $$\...