# Tagged Questions

Questions involving complex numbers, that is numbers of the form $a+bi$ where $i^2=-1$ and $a,b\in\mathbb{R}$.

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### Geometric interpretation of the determinant of a complex matrix

A complex $n$-dimensional vector space $V$ can be thought of as a real $2n$-dimensional vector space equipped with a map $J:V \to V$ with $J^2 = -I$. Complex-linear maps are then linear maps $V \to V$ ...
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### Can fundamental theorem of algebra for real polynomials be proven without using complex numbers?

For polynomials with real coefficients, I am trying to prove the following version of fundamental theorem of algebra, which avoids using complex numbers in the proof. Existence of complex roots will ...
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### Minimising a sum of roots of unity

Let $n$ be an integer, $n\ge2$. Let $m$ be a positive integer, $m\le n$, having no common factor with $n$. How can we select $m$ distinct complex $n$th roots of unity in such a way as to minimise ...
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### Cauchy representation and branch point order

This question is about the nature of branch points which arise in certain Cauchy-integral representations of functions of a single complex argument, $z$. The main application is for dispersion ...
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### Finite Messy Trigonometric Sum

Show the following result:$$\sum_{m=1}^{99}{\frac{\sin{\left(\frac{17 m \pi}{100}\right)} \sin{\left(\frac{39 m \pi}{100}\right)}}{1+\cos{\left( \frac{m\pi}{100} \right) }}}=1037$$ The source of this ...
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### Double contour integral in terms of real integrals

Let $\gamma$ be a curve in $\mathbb{C}$, and let $\gamma_0$ be a circle in an open connected set $A \subset \mathbb{C}$ around $z_0 \in A$. Suppose the interior of $\gamma_0$ lies in $A$. Let $z$ be ...
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### Trigonometric Expression for $1 + \cos \alpha + \cos 2\alpha + \cdots + \cos n \alpha$ using complex numbers

This question is not a duplicate because I am asked here to use the fact that $1 + \cos \alpha + \cos 2 \alpha + \cdots + \cos n \alpha = Re (1 + z + z^{2} + \cdots + z^{n})$, where the question this ...
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### Matrix representation of $\mathbb{C}$ as $^*$Algebra.

We know that there are many matrix representations of the field $\mathbb{C}$. For $2 \times 2$ real entries matrices, e.g., all the subrings of $M(2,\mathbb{R})$ generated by $I$ and a matrix $J$ such ...
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### The image in $\mathbb{C}$ of $\mathbb{R}^2$ under a map of counterpropagating plane waves is…?

Define $$f_n(\mathbf{r})=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{k=1}^n\exp\left(2\pi i\binom{\cos\left(2\pi k/n\right)}{\sin\left(2\pi k/n\right)}\cdot\mathbf{r} \right)$$ as the sum of $n$ counterpropagating plane waves. ...
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### Cosine Inequality

Show that given three angles $A,B,C\ge0$ with $A+B+C=2\pi$ and any positive numbers $a,b,c$ we have $$bc\cos A + ca \cos B + ab \cos C \ge -\frac {a^2+b^2+c^2}{2}$$ This problem was given in the ...
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### get magnitude of addition of complex numbers in trigonometric form

My problem is that I have multiple complex number in trigonometric form and I want to add those and get the magnitude of the result. I am aware that the normal route would be to calculate the ...
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### The nth roots of $z_n=p_n\cdot(i)^{p_n}$, where $i=\sqrt{-1}$ and $p_n$ is the nth prime number

I want refresh some basics too in Complex Analysis. Let $p_n$ the sequence of prime numbers $2, 3, 5, 7\ldots$, thus $p_n$ is the general term of this sequence, and $i=\sqrt{-1}$ is the complex ...
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### Fundamental theorem of algebra in different functional form

Consider the polynomial function: $f(x)=c_0+c_1x+c_2 x^2+\cdots+c_{n-1}x^{n-1}+x^n$, with $x$ and $c_0,c_1,c_2,\ldots,c_{n-1}$ are complex numbers. $|f(x)|$ is continuous and there exists closed and ...
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### Approximating $(1+\frac{1}{z})^z$ where $|z|$ is large

I know that $$\lim_{x\rightarrow \infty}\left(1+\frac{1}{x}\right)^x=e$$ Is there an equivalent in complex analysis for $$\lim_{|z|\rightarrow \infty}\left(1+\frac{1}{z}\right)^z=?$$
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### Function of complex conjugate equal complex conjugate of function?

Very simply, for what type of functions $f: \mathbb{C} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ is the following true? $f(\bar{z})=\overline{f(z)}$ Does Schwarz reflection principle imply this is true for all ...
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### complex numbers from real closed fields

I am very interested in first order axiomatizations of the complex numbers, but I have never actually seen one laid out. Algebraically closed fields of characteristic zero are a start, but they don't ...
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