Complex dynamics is the study of dynamical systems of functions over complex numbers.

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Demonstrating that the Mandelbrot Set is connected

I know that demonstrating the Mandelbrot Set is connected requires a non-trivial proof, and that Mandelbrot himself was fooled at first. But can it be demonstrated visually that the set is connected? ...
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Showing iterates of a complex function on the upper half plane converges uniformly on compact sets

The following is an irksome problem that my complex analysis class is having trouble solving: Let $*$ be an operator that takes a function $F:\mathcal{H}\to\mathcal{H}$ to a function ...
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radius of convergence of half iterate of sinh(z)?

The half iterate of sinh(z) has a formal power series, centered around z=0. Does the formal power series for the half iterate converge at the origin? This is equivalent to asking if the half iterate ...
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Are mini-Mandelbrots known to be found in any fractals other than the Mandelbrot set itself?

This is a generalization of the question Are there mini-mandelbrots inside the julia set? @Hagen raises an issue I was afraid of, which is that even the mini-Mandelbrots in the Mandelbrot set are not ...
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Dynamics of the repetitions of $f(z) = z^{2} +\frac{1}{4}$

This is probably a classic and maybe easy question, but I was not able to find an answer. If $$g(z) = z + a z^{2},$$ with $a\ne 0$, then using a linear change of coordinates it can be brought to the ...
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Why computing Fatou coordinate is so hard?

I'm trying to make images of Fatou coordinate for some polynomial maps. If I'm not wrong there is no explicit general formula/method for computing Fatou coordinate near parabolic fixed point. Is ...
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342 views

Quadratic Julia sets and periodic cycles

Consider the function $f_c(z) = z^2 + c$. Applying this function repeatedly, we get the familiar quadratic Julia sets that fractal enthusiasts burn compute cycles plotting. Infinity is always one ...
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What is the shape of parabolic critical orbit?

The parabolic critical orbits of discrete dynamical system form n-th arm stars : which shapes are conjugated with "regular" n-th arm stars Here are 2 images of parabolic critical orbits for 2 ...
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Complex polynomials: preimage of a large enough disc contains the disc compactly?

I'm studying a proof (by Hubbard) of an elementary result in complex dynamics: if a complex polynomial $p$ of degree at least 2 has all of its critical points in its filled Julia set $K_p$, then $K_p$ ...
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294 views

Every basin of attraction contains a critical point?

Years and years ago, back when I first became interested in fractals [but didn't know much about anything], I vaguely remember coming across an interesting theorem. The gist of it was that "every ...
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Zoom out fractals? (A question about selfsimilarity)

It is well known that if we zoom in on the Mandelbrot set we get selfsimilarity. So I wonder if $g$ is a fractal (in the complex plane) generated by a nonperiodic nonpolynomial entire function $f$ ...
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two fixed points, same fractional iteration

Suppose a function f(z) has two fixed points, one repelling, and the other attracting. Call the repelling fixed point f(-1)=-1, and the attracting fixed point f(+1)=+1. I'm interested in functions ...
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Divisibility of an expression involving the Möbius function

Let $d$ and $n$ be integers, with $n\geq 2$, and define $$R(n,d) := \sum_{k\mid n} \mu( n/k)d^k,$$ where $\mu$ is the Möbius function. It can be shown (see below for an arithmetic proof) that $n\mid ...
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359 views

Classification of points in the Mandelbrot set

I am trying to understand the classification of points in the Mandelbrot set. There are an infinite number of baby Mandelbrots, each associated with a defined set of landing rays. There are the pre ...
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187 views

Fixed Point of a complex dynamical spiral system

Last semester I finished my first class on complex variables and of course we had to show that $i^i$ was real. That got me wondering about quantities like $i^{i^i}$ and similar power towers. For my ...
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Simplest way to determine if a number is a member of the Mandelbrot set?

I'm writing JavaScript code to plot the Mandelbrot set on an HTML5 Canvas element. (That's probably not relevant to the answer to this question). A core part of the problem is to write a simple ...
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Given $f(z)=z^2+c$. Prove that $|z|>|c|+1$ implies $|f(z)|>|z|$

Consider the quadratic function $f(z)=z^2+c$. If $|z|>|c|+1$, show that $|f(z)|>|z|$. Edit: This is not a homework problem. I found this in my textbook.
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Computing a Julia set

In Ermentrout's book he computes the Julia set for $z \mapsto z^2 + c$ by starting with a point inside the unit circle and then randomly choosing iterates $z\mapsto \pm\sqrt{z-c}$. Since the Julia set ...
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Show basin of attraction has only one connected component

L.S., This is a homework question I find hard to answer, any help/hints would be greatly appreciated! I have to prove that every complex polynomial of degree 2 with an attracting fixed point has a ...
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1answer
154 views

What is the shape of external rays landing on fixed points in case of quadratic discrete dynamical system?

In case of parabolic discrete dynamical system based on the complex quadratic polynomial fc(z) = z^2 + c some external rays land on alfa fixed point. Hera are 34 external rays landing on fixed ...
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86 views

Stability of the optimal control steady state

I am struggling with a pretty much complicated optimal control problem, which I solve in Mathematica. The optimal controls are second order delayed, which makes it unclear to me how to analyse the ...
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M-set interior point probability on the real axis

For the real axis, the Mandelbrot set consists of points from $[-2,0.25]$. Some of these points are in the interior of the m-set, and some are on the boundary. Those points in the interior are ...
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Are there an infinite number of minibrots on the real line?

This is at 25 zooms using Fractal Extreme. The red circle indicates that there are more minibrots inbetween the small one and the large one. The pattern of super big (bottom right), medium-sized ...
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How to figure out the starting point for this Mandelbrot?

My answer for another math stackexchange question, asked by Gottfried, involved observing Mandelbrot bifurcation for the iterated function in question, $f(z)\mapsto z-\log_b(z)$. In particular, for ...
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Concrete example of an entire function wanted

Let $X$ be the space of entire functions on $\mathbb{C}$ endowed with the topology of uniform convergence on compact sets. Let $a$ be a nonzero complex number. Let $T: X\to X$ be defined by ...
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Are there mini-mandelbrots inside the julia set?

I've seen a julia set zoom but it is not nearly as interesting as a mandelbrot zoom. I also have not seen corresponding julia sets for zooms in the mandelbrot deeper than the original image. I'm ...
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Help locating mini mandelbrots

I would like to be able to list the coordinates of all the first level minibrots. Here is a picture of the mandelbrot set generated by fraqtive: zooming in to the circled area we see a slightly ...
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Linear complex functions

$L_{\alpha}(z) = \alpha z$ where $z$ is a complex number and $\alpha$ is a constant and is also complex. How do I prove for $|\alpha|<1$ all orbits tend to a unique limit and how do I find this ...
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What is the functional inverse (with respect to $h$ (!)) of $f^{\circ h}(x)={F(h) +x F(h-1) \over F(1+h) +x F(h) }$?

I've considered the fractional iteration of $f(x) = {1 \over 1+x} $ for which the general expression depending on the iteration-height parameter $h$ might be assumed by the formula $$ f^{\circ h}(x) ...
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71 views

Simplify the nonlinear system of dynamic equations

I am working with a set of nonlinear dynamic equations that Mathematica has problems with solving. It is of the form $$ f_1(x_{t+1},y_{t+1},x_{t},y_t) = g_1(x_{t+1},y_{t+1},x_{t},y_t),\\ ...
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Heighway dragon and twindragon relation

The Heighway dragon F is defined as the limit set for the iterated function system $\begin{cases}f_1(z)=\frac{1+i}2 z\\f_2(z)=1-\frac{1-i}2z\end{cases}\quad$ starting from the two points 0 and 1. The ...
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Is $g(z)=\frac{1}{z}+\frac{1}{z^2+1}+\frac{1}{(z^2+1)^2 +1}+…$ analytic for $|z|>2$?

Let $z$ be a complex number. Let |.| denote be the absolute value. Let $n$ be a positive integer. Let $f_1(z)=z^2+1$. Let $f_n(z)=f_1(f_{n-1}(z)).$ Is ...
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154 views

The density — or otherwise — of $\{\{2^N\,\alpha\}:N\in\mathbb{N}\}$ for ALL irrational $\alpha$.

Problem Is there an irrational $\alpha\in\mathbb{R}\backslash\mathbb{Q}$ such that the set $S= \{\,\{2^N\alpha\} :N\,\in\mathbb{N}\}$ is not dense in $[0,1]$. Here $\{x\}=x-\lfloor x\rfloor$ is the ...
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About growth rate of the iterated exponential on the complex plane.

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Let $f(n,x) = exp(f(n-1,x))$ and $f(0,x)=x$. Let $Q(f(n,x)) =1$ if $Re(f(n,x))<2$. Let $S(n,x) = \Sigma_{1}^{n} Q(f(n,x))$. How to estimate $S(n,2+i)$ efficiently ? ...
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Is the half iterate of $2\sinh(x)$ - expanded from fixed point $0$ - analytic near the real line $\mathbb{R}$?

Is the half iterate of $2\sinh(x)$ - expanded from fixed point $0$ - analytic near the real line $\mathbb{R}$? I know this function has 2 other fixed points apart from $0$, so I'm not sure. Also ...
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Question about iterations : $g(c,z) = a$ always has a solution where $z$ is strictly real?

Let $c$ be any positive real number. Let $z$ be a complex number. Let $g(c,z)$ be some locally analytic function that is the $c$ th iteration of the entire function $f(z)$ with $g(0,z)=f(z)$. Let ...
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Is the alternating sum of exp(-exp(n z)) analytic?

Define $f(z) = \frac{1}{\exp(\exp(z))} - \frac{1}{\exp(\exp(2z))} + \frac{1}{\exp(\exp(3z))} - \frac{1}{\exp(\exp(4z))} + ...$ $f(z) = \sum_{n = 1}^{\infty} (-1)^{n-1} \exp(-\exp(n z))$. Is $f(z)$ ...
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Do there exist periodic fractals $A_f$ of this type?

Let $z$ be a complex number. Meromorphic here means meromorphic on all of the complex plane $C$. Lets define a fractal $A_f$ on the complex plane as the result of iterating a meromorphic function ...
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Is $\frac{1}{\exp(z)} - \frac{1}{\exp(\exp(z))} + \frac{1}{\exp(\exp(\exp(z)))} -\ldots$ entire?

Let $z$ be a complex number. Is the alternating infinite series $ f(z) = \frac{1}{\exp(z)} - \frac{1}{\exp(\exp(z))} + \frac{1}{\exp(\exp(\exp(z)))} -\ldots$ an entire function ? Does it even converge ...
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Properties of the Mandelbrot set

Are there any properties of the Mandelbrot set that can be analysed without a knowledge of complicated topology? Considering the fact that the set is based on a quadratic function, are there any ...
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Mandelbrot bulb's countable?

Are the Mandelbrot set's bulb's countably infinite? My daughter asked me this question, after I pointed out that some Julia sets are a Cantor dust. For a point not in the Mandelbrot set, the ...
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half iterate of $x^2+c$

I'm looking for literature on fractional iterates of $x^2+c$, where c>0. For c=0, generating the half iterate is trivial. $$h(h(x))=x^2$$ $$h(x)=x^{\sqrt{2}}$$ The question is, for $c>0,$ and ...
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114 views

Boundary of $x^2+x$ Julia set

How do you calculate an infinite fixed point for $f=x^2+x$, so that $f^{o n}(x)$ never repeats, and doesn't go to infinity and doesn't go to zero? Can such a sequence of points densely cover the ...