The theory of functions of one complex variable with an emphasis on the theory of complex analytic (or holomorphic) functions of one complex variable. Typical topics include: Cauchy's integral formula, singularities, poles, meromorphic functions, Laurent and Taylor series, maximum modulus principle, ...

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68
votes
8answers
12k views

Why does $1+2+3+\dots = {-1\over 12}$?

$$\lim_{N\to\infty} \sum_{i=1}^N \, i = +\infty$$ $\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^\infty n^{-s}$ only converges to $\zeta(s)$ if $\text{Re}(s) > 1$. Why should analytically continuing to $\zeta(-1)$ ...
190
votes
21answers
16k views

Different methods to compute $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^2}$

As I have heard people did not trust Euler when he first discovered the formula $$\zeta(2)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^2}=\frac{\pi^2}{6}.$$ However, Euler was Euler and he gave other proofs. I ...
57
votes
18answers
11k views

Solving the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin{x}}{x} \ dx = \frac{\pi}{2}$?

A famous exercise which one encounters while doing Complex Analysis (Residue theory) is to prove that the given integral: $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin x}{x} \ dx = \frac{\pi}{2}$$ Well, can anyone ...
31
votes
10answers
11k views

How to prove Euler's formula: $e^{it}=\cos t +i\sin t$?

Could you provide a proof of Euler's formula: $e^{it}=\cos t +i\sin t$ ? thanks.
0
votes
2answers
1k views

Determine and classify all singular points

Determine and find residues for all singular points $z\in \mathbb{C}$ for (i) $\frac{1}{z\sin(2z)}$ (ii) $\frac{1}{1-e^{-z}}$ Note: I have worked out (i), but (ii) seems still not easy.
52
votes
3answers
5k views

$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} e^{-x^2} dx$ with complex analysis

Inspired by this recently closed question, I'm curious whether there's a way to do the Gaussian integral using techniques in complex analysis such as contour integrals. I am aware of the calculation ...
4
votes
3answers
528 views

definite integral calculation with 0 pole and

$$\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin(2\pi x)}{x(x^{2}+3)}$$ I look at $\frac{e^{2\pi i z}}{z^{3}+3z}$ , also calculate the residues, but they don't get me the right answer. ( I use that for this case, it holds ...
22
votes
1answer
586 views

Which sets are removable for holomorphic functions?

[Note: I received a version of this question via email and decided to answer it on MSE, where it might be useful to others.] Let $\Omega$ be a domain in $\mathbb C$, and let $\mathscr X$ be some ...
40
votes
23answers
12k views

What is a good complex analysis textbook?

I'm out of college, and trying to learn complex analysis on my own. I took out Ahlfors' text from the library, but I'm finding it difficult. Any textbook recommendations? I'm probably at an ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

Proving $\sum\limits_{k=0}^{n}\cos(kx)=\frac{1}{2}+\frac{\sin(\frac{2n+1}{2}x)}{2\sin(x/2)}$

I am being asked to prove that $$\sum\limits_{k=0}^{n}\cos(kx)=\frac{1}{2}+\frac{\sin(\frac{2n+1}{2}x)}{2\sin(x/2)}$$ I have some progress made, but I am stuck and could use some help. What I did: ...
7
votes
4answers
820 views

Evaluating $\int_0^{\infty}\frac{\ln(x^2+1)}{x^2+1}dx$

How would I go about evaluating this integral? $$\int_0^{\infty}\frac{\ln(x^2+1)}{x^2+1}dx.$$ What I've tried so far: I tried a semicircular integral in the positive imaginary part of the complex ...
17
votes
5answers
1k views

Evaluate: $\int_0^{\pi} \ln \left( \sin \theta \right) d\theta$

Evaluate: $ \displaystyle \int_0^{\pi} \ln \left( \sin \theta \right) d\theta$ using Gauss Mean Value theorem. Given hint: consider $f(z) = \ln ( 1 +z)$. EDIT:: I know how to evaluate it, but I am ...
17
votes
5answers
3k views

entire 1-1 function

Can we prove that given an entire function $f$ that is also one to one then $f$ must be linear? Thanks for any help.
2
votes
5answers
449 views

Does $i^i$ and $i^{1\over e}$ have more than one root in $[0, 2 \pi]$

How to find all roots if power contains imaginary or irrational power of complex number? How do I find all roots of the following complex numbers? $$(1 + i)^i, (1 + i)^e, (1 + i)^{ i\over e}$$ EDIT:: ...
10
votes
3answers
641 views

A sine integral $\int_0^{\infty} \left(\frac{\sin x }{x }\right)^n\,\mathrm{d}x$

The following question comes from Some integral with sine post $$\int_0^{\infty} \left(\frac{\sin x }{x }\right)^n\,\mathrm{d}x$$ but now I'd be curious to know how to deal with it by methods of ...
8
votes
6answers
9k views

“Where” exactly are complex numbers used “in the real world”?

I've always enjoyed solving problems in the complex world during my undergrad. However, I've always wondered where are they used and for what? In my domain (computer science) I've rarely seen it be ...
11
votes
2answers
675 views

Infinite products - reference needed!

I am looking for a small treatment of basic theorems about infinite products ; surprisingly enough they are nowhere to be found after googling a little. The reason for this is that I am beginning to ...
12
votes
2answers
991 views

if $f$ is entire and $|f(z)| \leq 1+|z|^{1/2}$, why must $f$ be constant?

How can we prove that if $f:\mathbb{C}\rightarrow\mathbb{C}$ is holomorphic (analytic) and $|f(z)| \leq 1+|z|^{1/2} \forall z$, then $f$ is constant? Liouville's theorem springs to mind, but I can't ...
1
vote
3answers
205 views

How do I compute $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-\frac{x^2}{2t}} e^{-ikx} \, \mathrm dx$ for $t \in \mathbb{R}_{>0}$ and $k \in \mathbb{R}$?

Let $t \in \mathbb{R}_{>0}$ and $k \in \mathbb{R}$. I want to find $$\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-\frac{x^2}{2t}} e^{-ikx} \, \mathrm dx.$$ A hint told me to first determine $\int_{-\infty}^\infty ...
15
votes
2answers
744 views

If $f,g$ are both analytic and $f(z) = g(z)$ for uncountably many $z$, is it true that $f = g$?

If two analytical functions of $\mathbb{C}$ f and g are equal on an infinite number of input values, than they are equal. I can't seem to find a counterexample, but I haven't seen this anywhere ...
3
votes
2answers
279 views

Principal value of the singular integral $\int_0^\pi \frac{\cos nt}{\cos t - \cos A} dt$

For a constant $0<A<\pi$, and natural $n$ I want to find the principal value of the integral: $$\int_0^\pi \frac{\cos nt}{\cos t - \cos A} dt$$ First of all, I'm not certain what function in ...
0
votes
1answer
170 views

For what values $\alpha$ for complex z $\ln(z^{\alpha}) = \alpha \ln(z)$?

For example, when $\alpha = 2$, $\ln(z^{2}) \neq 2\ln(z)$, because argument z is determined up to constant $2 \pi k$. So $$ \ln(z^{2}) = \ln(z) + \ln(z) = \ln(z_{k_{1}}) + \ln(z_{k_{2}}) \neq ...
2
votes
3answers
530 views

Difficulties performing Laurent Series expansions to determine Residues

The following problems are from Brown and Churchill's Complex Variables, 8ed. From §71 concerning Residues and Poles, problem #1d: Determine the residue at $z = 0$ of the function ...
34
votes
19answers
3k views

Interesting results easily achieved using complex numbers

I was just looking at a calculus textbook preparing my class for next week on complex numbers. I found it interesting to see as an exercise a way to calculate the usual freshman calculus integrals ...
7
votes
1answer
520 views

Zeta function zeros and analytic continuation

I'm learning about the zeta function and already discovered the intuitive proof of the Euler product and the Basel problem proof. I want to learn how to calculate the first zero of the Riemman Zeta ...
3
votes
1answer
195 views

Using calculus of residues to evaluate a trig integral

This is my partial attempt at the solution. I am unsure how to proceed further.
2
votes
1answer
496 views

Prove analyticity by Morera's theorem

Let $f$ be continuous on the complex plane and analytic on the complement of the coordinate axes. Show that $f$ is analytic everywhere. Hint: Morera's theorem. I think that I need to show that the ...
6
votes
2answers
843 views

Find laurent expansion of $\frac{z-1}{(z-2)(z-3)}$ in annulus {$z:2<|z|<3$}.

Find the Laurent expansion of $\frac{z-1}{(z-2)(z-3)}$ in annulus {$z:2<|z|<3$}. So far I have the following, i'm not 100% sure if it is right. $\frac{z-1}{(z-2)(z-3)}$ = ...
17
votes
5answers
1k views

Evaluating $\int\limits_0^\infty \! \frac{x^{1/n}}{1+x^2} \ \mathrm{d}x$

I've been trying to evaluate the following integral from the 2011 Harvard PhD Qualifying Exam. For all $n\in\mathbb{N}^+$ in general: $$\int\limits_0^\infty \! \frac{x^{1/n}}{1+x^2} \ \mathrm{d}x$$ ...
15
votes
1answer
741 views

Showing that the roots of a polynomial with descending positive coefficients lie in the unit disc.

Let $P(z)=a_nz^n+\cdots+a_0$ be a polynomial whose coefficients satisfy $$0<a_0<a_1<\cdots<a_n.$$ I want to show that the roots of $P$ live in unit disc. The obvious idea is to use ...
12
votes
2answers
829 views

Evaluating $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{n}{e^{2 \pi n}-1}$ using the inverse Mellin transform

Inspired by this post, I'm trying to evaluate $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{n}{e^{2 \pi n}-1} = \frac{1}{24} - \frac{1}{8 \pi}$ using the inverse Mellin transform. But my answer is twice ...
4
votes
3answers
355 views

showing a function defined from an integral is entire

Let $f$ be a continuous complex-valued function on the unit interval. For any complex number $z$, define $F(z)=\int _0 ^1 f(t) e^{zt} dt$. How do I show that $F$ is entire?
4
votes
5answers
736 views

How to combine complex powers?

Regarding this thread, it is not possible to combine complex powers in the usual way: $$ (x^y)^z = x^{yz} $$ There was mention of multi-valued functions, is there some theory that makes this all ...
1
vote
2answers
264 views

analytic functions defined on $A\cup D$

Let $f$, $g$ be analytic function defined on $A\cup D$ where $A = \{z \in \mathbb{C}: \frac{1}{2}<|z|<1\}$ and $D = \{z \in \mathbb{C}: |z-2|<1\}$ Which of the following statements are true? ...
5
votes
2answers
384 views

Maximum of sum of finite modulus of analytic function.

Let $f_1,f_2,\ldots,f_n $ be analytic complex functions in domain $D$. and $f = \sum_{k=1}^n|f_k|$ is not constant. Can I show the maximum of $f$ only appears on boundary of $D\,$?
2
votes
2answers
278 views

Recursion relation for Euler numbers

I am trying to solve the following: The Euler numbers $E_n$ are defined by the power series expansion $$\frac{1}{\cos z}=\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{E_n}{n!}z^n\text{ for }|z|<\pi/2$$ (a) ...
3
votes
2answers
337 views

$|e^a-e^b| \leq |a-b|$

Came across this problem on an old qualifying exam: Let $a$ and $b$ be complex numbers whose real parts are negative or 0. Prove the inequality $|e^a-e^b| \leq |a-b|$. If $f(z)=e^z$ and $z=x+iy$, ...
15
votes
1answer
372 views

“Orientation” of $\zeta$ zeroes on the critical line.

I am pretty ignorant about complex analysis so please forgive my lack of terminology. I saw a pretty picture (posted below) of the behavior of the Riemann zeta function along the critical line. What ...
9
votes
2answers
620 views

Let $f(z)$ be entire function. Show that if $f(z)$ is real when $|z| = 1$, then $f(z)$ must be a constant function using Maximum Modulus theorem

Let $f(z)$ be entire function. Consider the functions $e^{if(z)}$ and $e^{−if(z)}$ and applying the Maximum Modulus Theorem, show that if $f(z)$ is real when $|z| = 1$, then $f(z)$ must be a constant ...
9
votes
2answers
602 views

can $ \int_0^{\pi/2} \ln ( \sin(x)) \; dx$ be evaluated with complex integral

Can the following integral be evaluated using complex method by substituting $\sin(x) = {e^{ix}-e^{-ix} \over 2i}$? $$ I=\int_0^{\pi/2} \ln ( \sin(x)) \; dx = - {\pi \ln(2) \over 2}$$
11
votes
3answers
2k views

How to prove Lagrange trigonometric identity [duplicate]

I would to prove that $$1+\cos \theta+\cos 2\theta+\ldots+\cos n\theta =\displaystyle\frac{1}{2}+ \frac{\sin\left[(2n+1)\frac{\theta}{2}\right]}{2\sin\left(\frac{\theta}{2}\right)}$$ given that ...
6
votes
1answer
268 views

Proof that a certain entire function is a polynomial

Let $n\in\mathbf{N}$ be fixed, and $f$ entire and $|f^{-1}(\left\lbrace w\right\rbrace)|\leq n$ for every $w\in\mathbf{C}$. Then $f$ is a polynomial of degree at most $n$. I try to prove this ...
4
votes
2answers
244 views

Prove if $|z| < 1$ and $ |w| < 1$, then $|1-zw^*| \neq 0$ and $| {{z-w} \over {1-zw^*}}| < 1$

Prove if $|z| < 1$ and $ |w| < 1$, then $|1-zw^*| \neq 0$ and $| {{z-w} \over {1-zw^*}}| < 1$Given that $|1-zw^*|^2 - |z-w|^2 = (1-|z|^2)(1-|w|^2)$I think the first part can be proven by ...
4
votes
1answer
570 views

Locally bounded Family

I'm studying for an exam an I came across a problem that I am having difficultly solving. Let $\mathcal{F}$ is a family of analytic functions on the closed unit disc, $D$. Suppose $\int_{D} |f|^{2} ...
3
votes
2answers
334 views

Non-existence of a bijective analytic function between annulus and punctured disk

Suppose $A=\{z\in \mathbb{C}: 0<|z|<1\}$ and $B=\{z\in \mathbb{C}: 2<|z|<3\}$. Show that there is no one -to-one analytic function from A to B. Any hints? Thanks!
2
votes
1answer
592 views

The family of analytic functions with positive real part is normal

I'm having difficulty with the following exercise in Ahlfors' text, on page 227. Prove that in any region $\Omega$ the family of analytic functions with positive real part is normal. Under what ...
2
votes
3answers
171 views

Entire function dominated by another entire function is a constant multiple

These two questions I didn't even find the way to solve So please if you can help Suppose $f (z)$ is entire with $|f(z)| \le |\exp(z)|$ for every $z$ I want to prove that $f(z) = k\exp(z)$ for some ...
1
vote
1answer
385 views

Find all Laurent series of the form…

Find all Laurent series of the form $\sum_{-\infty} ^{\infty} a_n $ for the function $f(z)= \frac{z^2}{(1-z)^2(1+z)}$ There are a lot of problems similar to this. What are all the forms? I need to ...
134
votes
4answers
8k views

The Integral that Stumped Feynman?

In "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!," Nobel-prize winning Physicist Richard Feynman said that he challenged his colleagues to give him an integral that they could evaluate with only complex methods ...
48
votes
12answers
4k views

Intuitive explanation of Cauchy's Integral Formula in Complex Analysis

There is a theorem that states that if $f$ is analytic in a domain $D$, and the closed disc {$ z:|z-\alpha|\leq r$} contained in $D$, and $C$ denotes the disc's boundary followed in the positive ...