A "closed form expression" is any representation of a mathematical expression in terms of "known" functions, "known" usually being replaced with "elementary".

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3
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2answers
109 views

Closed-Form Modular Arithmetic

Is there a way to define modulo division (or functions of modular arithmetic in general) as superposition of (elementary?) functions? For example, the multiplication is first introduced as summation,...
6
votes
0answers
101 views

Integral ${\large\int}_0^{\pi/2}\frac{x\,\log\tan x}{\sin x}\,dx$

Could you please help me to find closed form expressions for the following definite integrals: $$I_1=\int_0^{\pi/2}\frac{x\,\log\tan x}{\sin x}\,dx\approx0.3606065973884796896...$$ $$I_2=\int_0^{\pi/3}...
2
votes
3answers
88 views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{\ln(1-x)}{x}\text{Li}_3\left({x} \right)\,dx$

Is there a closed form for this integral? $\displaystyle \int_0^1\frac{\ln(1-x)}{x}\text{Li}_3\left({x} \right)\,dx\\$ All I have been able to find, so far, is a numeric approximation of $-1.13348$
0
votes
2answers
125 views

Prove that there is no closed form of the inverse of the expression $y = x\cot \frac{\pi }{x}$

Prove that there is no closed form of the inverse of the expression $y = x\cot \frac{\pi }{x}$ where $x \geq 3$. I am currently completely lost.
2
votes
1answer
105 views

Converting from Closed Form

Let $A(n) = \lfloor n/2+\log_2(n)-\log_2(2) \rfloor$. Is there an easy way to convert this closed form into a recursive form? If so, what is the general method, and how might it be applied here. If ...
33
votes
1answer
674 views

Closed form for $\left(1+\left(\frac{1}{2}+\left(\frac{1}{3}+\left(\frac{1}{4}+\cdots\right)^2\right)^2\right)^2\right)^2$?

Nested squares seem to be more promising than nested radicals, since they give rational approximations and in principle can be expanded into a series. These two expressions converge numerically: $$\...
3
votes
2answers
321 views

Finding the general formula of a sequence: $3,8,23,68,203,608,\cdots$

I have the following sequence : $$3,8,23,68,203,608,\cdots$$ I have found that definition by recurrence of this is $$a(n)=3a(n-1)-1$$ where $a_0=3$ as the first term. I want to find the explicit ...
2
votes
0answers
28 views

Maxima of $f(x)/e^x$ where $f(x)$ is an approximation of $e^x$ using Stirling's

Let $$f(x)=1+\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{x^n}{\sqrt{2\pi n}(n/e)^n}\tag1$$ and let $$g(x)=\frac{f(x)}{e^x}\tag2$$ If we plot $g(x)$ we get a graph that looks like this: Clearly there is a maximum at ...
3
votes
2answers
88 views

A convergent series: $\sum_{n=0}^\infty 3^{n-1}\sin^3\left(\frac{\pi}{3^{n+1}}\right)$

I would like to find the value of: $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty 3^{n-1}\sin^3\left(\frac{\pi}{3^{n+1}}\right)$$ I could only see that the ratio of two consecutive terms is $\dfrac{1}{27\cos(2\theta)}$.
4
votes
0answers
94 views

$\displaystyle\int_1^2\sqrt\frac{x^6+4x^4-2x^3+1}{x^4}\ \mathrm dx$ [on hold]

Find the value of: $\displaystyle\int_1^2\sqrt\frac{x^6+4x^4-2x^3+1}{x^4}\ \mathrm dx$ I do not really know where to start, so please forigve me for not showing my attempt. Wolfram alpha gives $2....
4
votes
5answers
129 views

Evaluate $\int_{\frac{-\pi}4}^{\frac{\pi}4}\ln(\sin x+\cos x)\mathrm{d}x$

$$\int_{\frac{-\pi}4}^{\frac{\pi}4} \ln(\sin x+\cos x)\mathrm{d}x $$ I just can't think of any technique to solve this question. Can anyone help me with at least how to begin?
4
votes
3answers
135 views

Closed form for $\prod_{l=1}^\infty \cos\dfrac{x}{3^l}$

Is there any closed form for the infinite product $\prod_{l=1}^\infty \cos\dfrac{x}{3^l}$? I think it is convergent for any $x\in\mathbb{R}$. I think there might be one because there is a closed form ...
4
votes
3answers
698 views

No closed form for the partial sum of ${n\choose k}$ for $k \le K$?

In Concrete Mathematics, the authors state that there is no closed form for $$\sum_{k\le K}{n\choose k}.$$ This is stated shortly after the statement of (5.17) in section 5.1 (2nd edition of the book)....
7
votes
5answers
190 views

Evaluation of $\sum^{\infty}_{n=0}\frac{1}{16^n}\binom{2n}{n}.$

Prove that $\displaystyle \int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\sin^{2n}xdx = \frac{\pi}{2}\frac{1}{4^{n}}\binom{2n}{n}$ and also find value of $\displaystyle \sum^{\infty}_{n=0}\frac{1}{16^n}\binom{2n}{n}.$ $\...
7
votes
2answers
92 views

Showing that $\prod_{n=1}^{\infty}\left(1+\frac{1}{F_{2^n+1}L_{2^n+1}}\right)=\frac{3}{\phi^2}$

Infinite product $F_{n}:=[1,1,2,3,5,8,\cdots]$ and $L_{n}:=[1,3,4,7,\cdots]$ for $n=1,2,3,\cdots$ respectively. $\frac{1+\sqrt5}{2}=\phi$ Show that, $$\prod_{n=1}^{\infty}\left(1+\frac{1}{F_{...
6
votes
3answers
136 views

Proving $\sum\limits_{k=0}^n \sum\limits_{j=0}^{n-k} \frac{(k-1)^2}{k!} \frac{(-1)^j}{j!} =1$ without character theory

Let $n \geq 2$ be an integer. I would like to prove the following identity in an easy way: $$\sum\limits_{k=0}^n \left( \frac{(k-1)^2}{k!} \sum\limits_{j=0}^{n-k} \frac{(-1)^j}{j!} \right)=1$$ You ...
14
votes
3answers
568 views

How to integrate $\int_{0}^{\infty }{\frac{\sin x}{\cosh x+\cos x}\cdot \frac{{{x}^{n}}}{n!}\ \text{d}x} $?

I have done one with $\displaystyle\int_0^{\infty}\frac{x-\sin x}{x^3}\ \text{d}x$, but I have no ideas with these: $$\begin{align*} I&=\int_{0}^{\infty }{\frac{\sin x}{\cosh x+\cos x}\cdot \frac{{...
3
votes
2answers
153 views

Seeking closed form for infinite sum $\sum \limits_{ n=1 }^{ \infty }{ \frac { { \left(n! \right) }^{ 2 } }{ { n }^{ 3 }(2n)! } }$

$\displaystyle \sum _{ n=1 }^{ \infty }{ \frac { { \left(n! \right) }^{ 2 } }{ { n }^{ 3 }(2n)! } }$ is approximately $.5229461921333351$ but I've been assured that there is a closed form for this ...
5
votes
1answer
187 views

Is there any closed form for $\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1}{k^k}$?

Is there any closed form for the summation: $$\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1}{k^k} = ? $$ or at least a tight lower bound?
1
vote
2answers
102 views

Closed form for $\int_0^1 d u \, \frac{1}{u + \lambda} \ln \left(\frac{1 + u}{1 - u} \right)$

The parameter $\lambda$ is complex and it's not on the real axis. There are some similar cases: Help me evaluate $\int_0^1 \frac{\log(x+1)}{1+x^2} dx$ Evaluate $\int_0^1 \frac{\ln(1+bx)}{1+x} dx $ ...
4
votes
2answers
156 views

Evaluating the integral $\int \frac{x^2+x}{(e^x+x+1)^2}dx$

Evaluate $$\int \frac{x^2+x}{(e^x+x+1)^2}dx$$ I tried converting in the form of Quotient rule(seeing the square in the denominator), neither am I able to make the denominators' derivative in the ...
1
vote
3answers
69 views

Average value of $f(x)=\int_x^1 \cos(t^2) dt$ on the interval $[0,1]$.

Find the average value of the function $$f(x)=\int_x^1 \cos(t^2) dt $$ on the interval $[0,1]$.
0
votes
3answers
42 views

Does this sequence have a closed form representation?

We know that $$ \sum_{s=0}^\infty \frac{\lambda^{s}}{s!} = e^\lambda$$ Relatedly, $$ \sum_{s=1}^\infty \frac{\lambda^{s}}{s!}s = \lambda \sum_{s=1}^\infty \frac{\lambda^{s-1}}{(s-1)!}$$ For which ...
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

Sum Multi-Indexed Geometric Serie [closed]

I am wondering whether it is possible to simplify the multi-indexed sum $$S(n) = \sum \limits_{k_{1}+2k_{2}+3k_{3}+...=n} T^{k_{1}}T^{k_{2}}T^{k_{3}}T^{k_{...}}.$$ Any suggestions will be appreciated....
2
votes
2answers
80 views

Calculate two sums: $\sum_{i=1}^{99}\frac{1}{\sqrt{i+1}+\sqrt{i}}$, $\sum_{i=1}^{9999}\frac{1}{(\sqrt{i}+\sqrt{i+1}) (\sqrt[4]{i}+\sqrt[4]{i+1})}$.

Calculate $$\sum_{i=1}^{99}\frac{1}{\sqrt{i+1}+\sqrt{i}}$$ I've figured out that the answer is 9 -there is a pattern that I've figured out. I've created a code and solved it... but how could I do it ...
7
votes
1answer
237 views

Closed form of a log-trig integral

Does there exists a closed form of$$ \displaystyle \int _{ 0 }^{ \pi /2 }{ x\sqrt { \tan { x } } \log { (\cos { x } ) }\ dx }$$ If exists can someone find a way to tackle this integral and provide a ...
6
votes
0answers
187 views

Juantheron-like integral

While seeing this post, the following integral is just struck me \begin{equation} \int_0^\infty \frac{dx}{(1+x^2)(1+\tan x)}\tag1 \end{equation} I have tried like what user @OlivierOloa did in ...
3
votes
2answers
185 views

Evaluate $\sqrt{1+2\sqrt{1+3\sqrt{1+4\sqrt{1+5\sqrt{1+…}}}}}$ [duplicate]

$\sqrt{1+2\sqrt{1+3\sqrt{1+4\sqrt{1+5\sqrt{1+...}}}}}$ My Attempt: I tried to use the regular way. $A=\sqrt{1+2\sqrt{1+3\sqrt{1+4\sqrt{1+5\sqrt{1+...}}}}}$ $A^2=1+2\sqrt{1+3\sqrt{1+4\sqrt{1+5\sqrt{...
11
votes
1answer
178 views

Closed form of infinite product $\prod\limits_{k=0}^\infty 2 \left(1-\frac{x^{1/2^{k+1}}}{1+x^{1/2^{k}}} \right)$

I encountered this infinite product while solving another problem: $$P(x)=\prod_{k=0}^\infty 2 \left(1-\frac{x^{1/2^{k+1}}}{1+x^{1/2^{k}}} \right)$$ $$P(x)=P \left( \frac{1}{x} \right)$$ I strongly ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

Does this probability statement have a closed form? (Extreme value distribution)

Problem Statement: Does this probability statement have a closed form solution? $\mathbb{P}\left(\min\left\{ w,p\right\} >c\right)=\mathbb{P}\left(\min\left\{ \left(\frac{a+\epsilon_{1}-\...
5
votes
0answers
108 views

Polynomials with degree $5$ solvable in elementary functions?

Quadratic, cubic and quartic polynomials are solvable in radicals, so there is no question here. What about the polynomials of degree $5$ (quintic)? Do we know all such polynomials (classes of ...
21
votes
2answers
529 views

Does $\int_{-1}^1\frac{\arctan x}{\text{arctanh}\,x}\,\mathrm{d}x$ have a closed form?

$$\newcommand{\arctanh}{~\mathrm{arctanh}~}\newcommand{\sech}{~\mathrm{sech}~}$$ $$I=\int_{-1}^1\frac{\arctan x}{\arctanh x}\,\mathrm{d}x$$ Mathematica gives an approximate result of $I=1....
1
vote
1answer
103 views

Evaluate $\int_0^\infty x^{\lambda-1} \exp\left(-ax-b\sqrt x-\frac{c}{\sqrt x} - \frac{d}{x}\right) \: dx$

Is there a closed form for the integral $$\int_0^\infty x^{\lambda-1} \exp\left(-ax-b\sqrt x-\frac{c}{\sqrt x} - \frac{d}{x}\right) \: dx?$$ where $\lambda>0$, $a>0$, $d>0$ and where $b$, $...
5
votes
1answer
127 views

Can we consider a hypergeometric function as a closed-form?

Let's say a calculus problem like an integral or a series has a solution that inevitably involving a hypergeometric function. It turns out that hypergeometric function cannot be expressed in term of ...
5
votes
1answer
100 views

Closed form of a “harmonic” alternating dilogarithm sum

Does the following sum $$ S = \sum_{n\geq 2}(-1)^n \mathrm{Li}_2(2/n) = 1.14434\ 42096\ 91982\ 23727\ 39852\ 45805\ldots $$ have a closed form in terms of known constants? Neither the inverse ...
0
votes
1answer
114 views

Friend claims $\int_0^\infty\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{x^n}{2^{(n+1)^sx^{n+1}}+1}dx=\zeta(s+1)$?

My friend is making another claim on another integral! Can anybody verify it? Or his is mocking on me? Valid for all $s\ge1$ $$\int_0^\infty\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{x^n}{2^{(n+1)^sx^{n+1}}+1}dx=\...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

Compute the partial sums in a closed-form of $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{e^{-nx}}{e^{nx}-1}$, with $x>0$ or a related series

One can do the change of variable $x=nv$ in the integral formula (3) here page 2 to get after summation $$\zeta(s)^2-\zeta(s)-\frac{1}{s-1}\zeta(s)=\frac{1}{\Gamma(s)}\int_0^\infty\sum_{n=1}^\infty \...
3
votes
0answers
61 views

Integration of Laguerre polynomial $\int_{0}^{x}u^{p-1}(1-u)^{q-1}e^{-\theta u}L_n^{(m)}(\theta u)\mathrm du$

It's been several days that I'm confronted to this integral, without much success in its resolution. To give you more details, in my case: $n$ is an integer $>1$ $m=n-2$ $p,q \in \{n-1, n\}$ $x ...
3
votes
1answer
159 views

Contour integral for finding $\displaystyle\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\ln x}{(x+a)^2+b^2}dx$

I can't prove the following result: $\displaystyle\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\ln x}{(x+a)^2+b^2}dx=\frac{\ln \sqrt{a^2+b^2}}{b}\arctan\frac{b}{a}$ for all $a,b \in \mathbb{R}.$ Well, I consider $\...
16
votes
2answers
386 views

Conjectured closed form for $\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty\frac{1}{\cosh\pi n+\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}}$

I was trying to find closed form generalizations of the following well known hyperbolic secant sum $$ \sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty\frac{1}{\cosh\pi n}=\frac{\left\{\Gamma\left(\frac{1}{4}\right)\right\}^2}{...
17
votes
3answers
280 views

Integral $\int_{-\infty}^\infty\frac{\Gamma(x)\,\sin(\pi x)}{\Gamma\left(x+a\right)}\,dx$

I would like to evaluate this integral: $$\mathcal F(a)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty\frac{\Gamma(x)\,\sin(\pi x)}{\Gamma\left(x+a\right)}\,dx,\quad a>0.\tag1$$ For all $a>0$ the integrand is a smooth ...
2
votes
2answers
70 views

Evaluate $\int_0^{\pi/2}(\sin x)^n e^{-(2+\cos x)\log k}dx$ for fixed integers $n,k\geq 1$

My question is the following Question. Can you compute some of the following $$c_{n,k}=\int_0^{\pi/2}(\sin x)^n e^{-(2+\cos x)\log k}dx$$ where $n\geq 1$ is a fixed integer and $k\geq 1$ is ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Has it been proven that there is no closed form for the hailstone numbers?

I know none has been found, and there probably isn't one considering the effort people have put into it, but has it been proven? (for some reasonable definition of "closed form"). I'm mostly ...
12
votes
2answers
178 views

Relations between definite integrals not having a known closed form

Are there any known cases, when there are two (or more) definite integrals, none of them having any known closed-form expression on its own, but there is still a non-trivial$^\dagger$ elementary ...
5
votes
1answer
126 views

Does this integral $\int_0^\infty \frac{dx}{(1+e^x)(a+x)}$ have a closed form?

Note that $a>0$, thus I'm not sure if we can apply residues here. (For $a=0$ the integral doesn't converge). $$\int_0^\infty \frac{dx}{(1+e^x)(a+x)}$$ Despite the simple expression under the ...
21
votes
1answer
343 views

How to prove $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\operatorname{arccot}\frac{\sqrt[2^n]2+\cos\frac\pi{2^n}}{\sin\frac\pi{2^n}}=\operatorname{arccot}\frac{\ln2}\pi$?

How can I prove the following identity? $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\operatorname{arccot}\frac{\sqrt[2^n]2+\cos\frac\pi{2^n}}{\sin\frac\pi{2^n}}=\operatorname{arccot}\frac{\ln2}\pi$$
13
votes
1answer
136 views

Family of definite integrals involving Dedekind eta function of a complex argument, $\int_0^{\infty} \eta^k(ix)dx$

The Dedekind eta function is denoted by $\eta(\tau)$, and is defined on the upper half-plane ($\Im \tau >0$). Put $\tau = i x$ where $x$ is a positive real number. The function has the following ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Summation Closed form for floor$\left(\log_n\right)$

The closed sum for the floors of logs of consecutive integers is: $$\sum_{i=0}^n \lfloor \log_2i\rfloor = n\lfloor \log_2n\rfloor-2^{\lfloor \log_2n\rfloor+1}+\lfloor \log_2n\rfloor+2$$ This formula ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

General Two-State Markov Chain: $P(X_{n}=1)=\frac{b}{a+b}+(1-a-b)^n \big(P(X_0=1)-\frac{b}{a+b}\big)$

Consider a general chain with the state space $S=\{1,2\}$ and write the transition probability as $$\begin{pmatrix} 1-a&a\\ b&1-b\end{pmatrix}$$ Use the Markov property to show that $$P(X_{n}=...
8
votes
3answers
209 views

The value of the integral $\int_0^2\left(\sqrt{1+x^3}+\sqrt[3]{x^2+2x}\:\right)dx$

The value of definite integral $$\int\limits_{0}^{2}\left(\sqrt{1+x^3}+\sqrt[3]{x^2+2x}\:\right)dx$$ is $$(A)\,4 \quad(B)\,5 \quad (C)\,6 \quad(D)\,7$$ My attempt: I tried using $\int\limits_{0}^{a}...