A "closed form expression" is any representation of a mathematical expression in terms of "known" functions, "known" usually being replaced with "elementary".

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13
votes
1answer
167 views

How to calclulate a derivate of a hypergeometric function w.r.t. one of its parameters?

Is it possible to take a derivative of a hypergeometric function w.r.t. one of its parameters and express it in a closed form? I am particularly interested in this case: ...
21
votes
1answer
259 views

Integral $\int_0^\infty\frac{1}{\sqrt[3]{x}}\left(1+\log\frac{1+e^{x-1}}{1+e^x}\right)dx$

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{1}{\sqrt[3]{x}}\left(1+\log\frac{1+e^{x-1}}{1+e^x}\right)dx$$
21
votes
2answers
464 views

Conjecture: $\int_0^1\frac{3x^3-2x}{(1+x)\sqrt{1-x}}K\big(\!\frac{2x}{1+x}\!\big)\,dx\stackrel ?=\frac\pi{5\sqrt2}$

$$\int_0^1\frac{3x^3-2x}{(1+x)\sqrt{1-x}}K\left(\frac{2x}{1+x}\right)\,dx\stackrel ?=\frac\pi{5\sqrt2}$$ The integral above comes from the evaluation of the integral ...
14
votes
1answer
307 views

Further our knowledge of a certain class of integral involving logarithms.

$\newcommand{\limitp}{\alpha}\newcommand{\innerp}{\beta}$I am fascinated by definite integrals. Exploring math.stackexchange, I have found many interesting integrals of the form $$ ...
39
votes
1answer
1k views

Conjecture $\int_0^1\frac{dx}{\sqrt{1-x}\ \sqrt[4]x\ \sqrt[4]{2-x\,\sqrt3}}\stackrel?=\frac{2\,\sqrt2}{3\,\sqrt[8]3}\pi$

$$\int_0^1\frac{dx}{\sqrt{1-x}\ \sqrt[4]x\ \sqrt[4]{2-x\,\sqrt3}}\stackrel?=\frac{2\,\sqrt2}{3\,\sqrt[8]3}\pi\tag1$$ The equality numerically holds up to at least $10^4$ decimal digits. Can we ...
8
votes
2answers
385 views

Does the sequence $1,-1,1,1,-1,1,1,1,-1,1,1,1,1,-1,1,1,1,1,1,-1,\ldots$ have a closed form?

Question : Can we represent the following sequence $\{a_n\}\ (n\ge 0)$ as a closed form?$$a_n : 1,-1,1,1,-1,1,1,1,-1,1,1,1,1,-1,1,1,1,1,1,-1,\ldots$$ Suppose that there exist ${(i+1)}$ $1_s$ ...
43
votes
2answers
1k views

Conjecture $\int_0^1\frac{dx}{\sqrt[3]x\,\sqrt[6]{1-x}\,\sqrt{1-x\left(\sqrt{6}\sqrt{12+7\sqrt3}-3\sqrt3-6\right)^2}}=\frac\pi9(3+\sqrt2\sqrt[4]{27})$

Let $$\alpha=\sqrt{6}\ \sqrt{12+7\,\sqrt3}-3\,\sqrt3-6.\tag1$$ Note that $\alpha$ is the unique positive root of the polynomial equation $$\alpha^4+24\,\alpha^3+18\,\alpha^2-27=0.\tag2$$ Now consider ...
9
votes
1answer
139 views

An integral involving the inverse of $f(x)=\log x-\log\cos x+x\tan x$

Let the function $f:\left(0,\,\displaystyle\frac\pi2\right)\to\mathbb{R}$ be defined as $$f(x)=\log x-\log\cos x+x\tan x.$$ Let its inverse be denoted as ...
8
votes
1answer
134 views
13
votes
1answer
255 views

Closed form for $\int_0^\infty\frac{\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x^2+1}}}{\sqrt{x\phantom{|}}\sqrt{x^2+1}}e^{-x}dx$

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x^2+1}}}{\sqrt{x\phantom{|}}\sqrt{x^2+1}}e^{-x}dx$$
34
votes
1answer
602 views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{x^9\left(x^4+x^2-x-1-5\ln x\right)}{\left(x^{10}-1\right)\ln x}dx$

A friend of mine sent me an integral that she had not been able to crack, and me neither. It comes with a result, but without a proof (I suppose it originated in some math contest). Could you please ...
7
votes
1answer
104 views

Need your help with the integral $\int_0^\infty\frac{dx}{e^{\,e^{-x}} \cdot e^{\,e^{x}}}$.

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{dx}{e^{\,e^{-x}} \cdot e^{\,e^{x}}}$$
16
votes
5answers
781 views

Evaluating $\int_0^1 \frac{\log x \log \left(1-x^4 \right)}{1+x^2}dx$

I am trying to prove that $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log x \log \left(1-x^4 \right)}{1+x^2}dx = \frac{\pi^3}{16}-3G\log 2 \tag{1}$$ where $G$ is Catalan's Constant. I was able to express it in terms of ...
17
votes
3answers
572 views

Fourier transform of $\left|\frac{\sin x}{x}\right|$

Is there a closed form (possibly, using known special functions) for the Fourier transform of the function $f(x)=\left|\frac{\sin x}{x}\right|$? $\hspace{.7in}$ I tried to find one using ...
10
votes
2answers
372 views

Another math contest problem: $\int_0^{\frac{\ln^22}4}\,\frac{\arccos\frac{\exp\sqrt x}{\sqrt2}}{1-\exp\sqrt{4\,x}}dx$

Prove: $$ {\Large\int_{0}^{\ln^{2}\left(2\right) \over4}}\, \frac{\arccos\left(\vphantom{\huge A} {\exp\left(\vphantom{\large A}\sqrt{x\,}\right) \over \sqrt{\vphantom{\large A}2\,}}\right)} ...
1
vote
3answers
214 views

Is there a closed form for the sum $\sum_{k=2}^N {N \choose k} \frac{k-1}{k}$?

I am interested in finding a closed form for the sum $\sum_{k=2}^N {N \choose k} \frac{k-1}{k}$. Does anyone know if there is some Binomial identity that might be helpful here? Thank you.
12
votes
2answers
290 views

Conjecture $\int_0^1\frac{\ln\left(\ln^2x+\arccos^2x\right)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}dx\stackrel?=\pi\,\ln\ln2$

$$\int_0^1\frac{\ln\left(\ln^2x+\arccos^2x\right)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}dx\stackrel?=\pi\,\ln\ln2$$ Is it possible to prove this?
22
votes
2answers
715 views

Are there other cases similar to Herglotz's integral $\int_0^1\frac{\ln\left(1+t^{4+\sqrt{15}}\right)}{1+t}\ \mathrm dt$?

This post of Boris Bukh mentions amazing Gustav Herglotz's integral $$\int_0^1\frac{\ln\left(1+t^{\,4\,+\,\sqrt{\vphantom{\large A}\,15\,}\,}\right)}{1+t}\ \mathrm ...
18
votes
1answer
397 views

Simplify $\frac{_3F_2\left(\frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{4},\frac{5}{4};1,\frac{3}{2};\frac{3}{4}\right)}{\Pi\left(\frac{1}{4}\big|\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}\right)}$

Is it possible to simplify the ratio $$\mathcal{E}=\frac{_3F_2\left(\frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{4},\frac{5}{4};\ 1,\frac{3}{2};\ \frac{3}{4}\right)}{\Pi\left(\frac{1}{4}\Big|\frac{1}{\sqrt{3}}\right)},$$ ...
47
votes
2answers
1k views

Integral $\int_1^\infty\frac{\operatorname{arccot}\left(1+\frac{2\pi}{\operatorname{arcoth}x-\operatorname{arccsc}x}\right)}{\sqrt{x^2-1}}dx$

Consider the following integral: $$\mathcal{I}=\int_1^\infty\frac{\operatorname{arccot}\left(1+\frac{2\,\pi}{\operatorname{arcoth}x\,-\,\operatorname{arccsc}x}\right)}{\sqrt{x^2-1}}dx,$$ where ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Is it possible to get a 'closed form' for $\sum_{k=0}^{n} a_k b_{n-k}$?

This came up when trying to divide series, or rather, express $\frac1{f(x)}$ as a series, knowing that $f(x)$ has a zero of order one at $x=0$, and knowing the Taylor series for $f(x)$ (that is ...
7
votes
1answer
211 views

Integral $\int_0^\infty\frac{dx}{\frac{x^4-1}{x\cos(\pi\ln x)+1}+2x^2+2}$

I need your help with this integral: $$\int_0^\infty\frac{dx}{\frac{x^4-1}{x\cos(\pi\ln x)+1}+2\,x^2+2}.$$ I wasn't able to evaluate it in a closed form, although an approximate numerical evaluation ...
2
votes
2answers
106 views

Help calculating $\sum^{R}_{k=1} \bigl\lfloor{\sqrt { R^2-k^2}}\bigr\rfloor$

I'm trying to calculate, or at least approximate, $$\sum^{R}_{k=1} \left\lfloor{\sqrt { R^2-k^2}}\right\rfloor,$$ where $R$ is a natural number. I have tried factoring this as $$\sum_{k=1}^R ...
5
votes
1answer
176 views

A conjecture $\int_{-\infty}^\infty\frac{\arctan e^x}{\cosh x}\cdot\frac{\tanh\frac{x}2}{x}dx\stackrel?=\frac\pi2\ln2$

I need to find a closed form for this integral: $$\mathcal{I}=\int_{-\infty}^\infty\frac{\arctan e^x}{\cosh x}\cdot\frac{\tanh\frac{x}2}{x}dx.$$ A numerical integration results in an approximation ...
23
votes
3answers
605 views

A conjectured closed form of $\int_0^\infty\frac{x-1}{\sqrt{2^x-1}\ \ln\left(2^x-1\right)}dx$

Consider the following integral: $$\mathcal{I}=\int_0^\infty\frac{x-1}{\sqrt{2^x-1}\ \ln\left(2^x-1\right)}dx.$$ I tried to evaluate $\mathcal{I}$ in a closed form (both manually and using ...
23
votes
2answers
380 views

A closed form of $\int_0^\infty\frac{\sqrt[\phi]{x}\ \arctan x}{\left(x^\phi+1\right)^2}dx$

Is it possible to evaluate the following integral in a closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\sqrt[\phi]{x}\ \arctan x}{\left(x^\phi+1\right)^2}dx,$$ where $\phi$ is the golden ratio: ...
6
votes
2answers
185 views

Is there a closed form expression for $1 + x + x^{4} + x^{9}+x^{16}+x^{25} +..+x^{k^2}$?

We all know what the sum of a geometric series is $1 + x + x^2 + x^3 + ... + x^k = \frac{x^{k+1} - 1}{x - 1}$ . I was wondering if similar formulas exist in case the exponents form some other ...
2
votes
2answers
107 views

Find a good candidate for a closed-form solution of this recurrence relation: $P(n-1)+n^2$.

I want to find a candidate for this recurrence relation: $$ P(n) = \left\{\begin{aligned} &1 &&: n = 0\\ &P(n-1)+n^2 &&: n>0 \end{aligned} \right.$$ Starting from 0 the ...
2
votes
2answers
137 views

Closed form for $\int \frac{1}{x^7 -1} dx$?

I want to calculate: $$\int \frac{1}{x^7 -1} dx$$ Since $\displaystyle \frac{1}{x^7 -1} = - \sum_{i=0}^\infty x^{7i} $, we have $\displaystyle(-x)\sum_{i=0}^\infty \frac{x^{7i}}{7i +1} $. Is ...
25
votes
2answers
721 views

A conjectural closed form for $\sum\limits_{n=0}^\infty\frac{n!\,(2n)!}{(3n+2)!}$

Let $$S=\sum\limits_{n=0}^\infty\frac{n!\,(2n)!}{(3n+2)!},\tag1$$ its numeric value is approximately $S \approx 0.517977853388534047...$${}^{[more\ digits]}$ $S$ can be represented in terms of the ...
3
votes
1answer
117 views

An example of Risch algorithm for integrating $y$, $F(x,y)=0$.

I would like to compute the integral $$ \int y\,dx, \qquad y=\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x+1}},\\ F(x,y)=y^4-2xy^2+x^2-x-1=0, $$ in closed form, where $F(x,y)$ is a polynomial in $\mathbb{C}[x,y]$. I am trying to ...
9
votes
2answers
195 views

Conjectural closed form for $\int_0^\infty\sqrt[3]z\ \operatorname{Ei}^2(-z)\,dz$

While trying to answer the question "A closed form for $\displaystyle\int_0^1\frac{\ln(-\ln x)\ \operatorname{li}^2x}{x}dx$", I came up with a conjecture: $$\int_0^\infty\sqrt[3]z\ ...
16
votes
2answers
228 views

A closed form for $\int_0^1\frac{\ln(-\ln x)\ \operatorname{li}^2x}{x}dx$

Let $\operatorname{li}x$ denote the logarithmic integral $^{[1]}$$^{[2]}$$^{[3]}$: $$\operatorname{li}x=\int_0^x\frac{dt}{\ln t}$$ and $$I=\int_0^1\frac{\ln(-\ln x)\ ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Minimization of $\text{tr} (W^TMW)-\text{tr}(NW)$ subject to $W^TW=I$

Is there a closed-form solution for finding W that minimizes the objective function: $\text{tr} (W^TMW)-\text{tr}(NW)$ subject to $W^TW=I$ where $M$ and $N$ are fixed matrices. I find it difficult to ...
1
vote
4answers
67 views

closed form $f_n=\sqrt{2f_{n-1}}$ ? [duplicate]

I am trying to write up a proof for the convergence of this recursive function. I was wondering if there exists a closed form. Given first term in sequence is $\sqrt{2}$ and second is ...
1
vote
4answers
106 views

How to solve a recursive equation

I have been given a task to solve the following recursive equation \begin{align*} a_1&=-2\\ a_2&= 12\\ a_n&= -4a_n{}_-{}_1-4a_n{}_-{}_2, \quad n \geq 3. \end{align*} Should I start by ...
22
votes
2answers
1k views

Integrating $\int_0^ex^{1/x}\;dx$

Compute $$\int_0^ex^{1/x}\;\mathrm dx.$$ There is an analytical anti-derivative found in this answer. How does one compute this? Using the anti-derivative approach we have $$\int x^{1/x}\;\mathrm d ...
19
votes
1answer
601 views

A definite integral $\int_0^\infty\frac{2-\cos x}{\left(1+x^4\right)\,\left(5-4\cos x\right)}dx$

I need to find a value of this definite integral: $$\int_0^\infty\frac{2-\cos x}{\left(1+x^4\right)\,\left(5-4\cos x\right)}dx.$$ Its numeric value is approximately $0.7875720991394284$, and lookups ...
20
votes
2answers
572 views

Integral $\int_0^\infty\left(x+5\,x^5\right)\operatorname{erfc}\left(x+x^5\right)\,dx$

Is it possible to find a closed form (possibly using known special functions) for this integral? $$\int_0^\infty\left(5\,x^5+x\right)\operatorname{erfc}\left(x^5+x\right)\,dx$$ where ...
0
votes
1answer
79 views

Closed Forms of Certain Zeta constants?

The Riemann Zeta function $\zeta(s)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^s}$ converges for $Re(s)>1$. I am interested in some particular "irrational " Values of it. Like $\zeta(\pi)=1.176241738...$ ...
35
votes
4answers
1k views

An integral involving Airy functions $\int_0^\infty\frac{x^p}{\operatorname{Ai}^2 x + \operatorname{Bi}^2 x}dx$

I need your help with this integral: $$\mathcal{K}(p)=\int_0^\infty\frac{x^p}{\operatorname{Ai}^2 x + \operatorname{Bi}^2 x}dx,$$ where $\operatorname{Ai}$, $\operatorname{Bi}$ are Airy functions: ...
6
votes
0answers
135 views

Need help with $\int_0^2\frac{1}{2+\sqrt{3\,e^x+3\,e^{-x}-2}}dx$

Could you please help me to solve this integration problem? $$\int_0^2\frac{1}{2+\sqrt{3\,e^x+3\,e^{-x}-2}}dx$$ Its approximate numeric value is $0.419197813818367...$, but I could not find an exact ...
23
votes
1answer
447 views

Integral $\int_0^1\ln\ln\,_3F_2\left(\frac{1}{4},\frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{4};\frac{2}{3},\frac{4}{3};x\right)\,dx$

I encountered this scary integral $$\int_0^1\ln\ln\,_3F_2\left(\frac{1}{4},\frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{4};\frac{2}{3},\frac{4}{3};x\right)\,dx$$ where $_3F_2$ is a generalized hypergeometric function ...
23
votes
6answers
952 views

Evaluating $‎\sum_{n=2}^{\infty}\frac{\zeta(n)}{k^n}$

‎If $f\left(z \right)=\sum_{n=2}^{\infty}a_{n}z^n$ and $\sum_{n=2}^{\infty}|a_n|$ converges then‎, $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}f\left(\frac{1}{n}\right)=\sum_{n=2}^{\infty}a_n\zeta\left(n\right)‎.$$ ‎Since ...
18
votes
1answer
254 views

A closed form for $\int_0^\infty\frac{e^{-x}\ J_0(x)\ \sin\left(x\,\sqrt[3]{2}\right)}{x}dx$

I am stuck with this integral: $$\int_0^\infty\frac{e^{-x}\ J_0(x)\ \sin\left(x\,\sqrt[3]{2}\right)}{x}dx,$$ where $J_0$ is the Bessel function of the first kind. Is it possible to express this ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Number of points in a Bresenham's circle

The Midpoint circle algorithm generates a set of quantized coordinates for a circle of a given radius. The number of points generated for is of course a multiple of $4$ due to symmetry, but I didn't ...
2
votes
4answers
559 views

How to find a closed form solution to a recurrence of the following form?

I need to find the closed form solution to the following recurrence -: $ T(n) = 8*T(n/2) + 0.25*n^2$ with $T(1) = 1$ and $n=2^j$ and this is what I have tried so far but just can't seem to get a ...
4
votes
0answers
99 views

closed form for $\int_{0}^{\infty}\text{Ci}(x)^ndx$ [closed]

$$\int_{0}^{\infty}\text{Ci}(x)^ndx$$ where $$\text{Ci}(x)=-\int_{x}^{\infty}\frac{\cos t}{t}dt$$ is cosine integral
17
votes
3answers
228 views

A closed form for $\int_0^\infty e^{-a\,x} \operatorname{erfi}(\sqrt{x})^3\ dx$

Let $\operatorname{erfi}(x)$ be the imaginary error function $$\operatorname{erfi}(x)=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\int_0^xe^{z^2}dz.$$ Consider the following parameterized integral $$I(a)=\int_0^\infty ...
16
votes
2answers
310 views

A closed form for $\int_0^\infty\frac{\sin(x)\ \operatorname{erfi}\left(\sqrt{x}\right)\ e^{-x\sqrt{2}}}{x}dx$

Let $\operatorname{erfi}(x)$ be the imaginary error function $$\operatorname{erfi}(x)=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\int_0^xe^{z^2}dz.$$ Consider the integral $$I=\int_0^\infty\frac{\sin(x)\ ...