A "closed form expression" is any representation of a mathematical expression in terms of "known" functions, "known" usually being replaced with "elementary".

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Summation closed form.

I have tried to figure out how to get the close form of: $$\sum_{k=0}^n k^22^{n-k}.$$ I tried to write down each number of the summation but couldn't find any thing to do with that.. can please ...
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1answer
10 views

How to determine a deficit of base 10 exponent from a minimum unit

I'm trying to determine if a number includes a portion in deficit of a base 10 exponent from a minimum unit. For example, given a minimum unit of $0.01$, $1$ would pass the test, but $1.001$ would ...
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0answers
70 views

Relations between definite integrals not having a known closed form

Are there any known cases, when there are two (or more) definite integrals, none of them having any known closed-form expression on its own, but there is still a non-trivial$^\dagger$ elementary ...
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12 views

Compact closed form for linear recurrence formulas

Assume you have some linear recursion formula $$f(\vec x)=\sum_{\vec y\in Y}w_{\vec y}f(\vec x - \vec y)$$ Where $\vec y\geq 0 $ and $||\vec y||>0$, $w_{\vec y}\in\mathbb{R}$ and $\vec x , \vec ...
8
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3answers
204 views

How to evaluate improper integral $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\tan^{-1}{x}}{e^{ax}-1}dx$?

I'm trying to evaluate the improper integral, $$I(a)=\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\tan^{-1}{x}}{e^{ax}-1}\mathrm{d}x,~~~\text{where }a\in\mathbb{R}^+.$$ Does this integral have a simple closed form ...
3
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1answer
71 views

Closed form of a trigonometric integral sought

I am trying to evaluate the definite integral $I(a,b)$, with $a,b\in\mathbb{R}$, defined by $$I(a,b):=\int_{0}^{2\pi}\sqrt{1-(a+b\cos{\theta})^2}\mathrm{d}\theta.$$ Assume $a,b$ are suitably ...
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122 views

Superelliptic Area Of $x^5+y^5=r^5$

$${\LARGE\int}_0^\tfrac\pi2\frac{dx}{\bigg(\sqrt[{\Large 5}]{\cos^5x+10\cos^3x\sin^2x+5\cos x\sin^4x}\bigg)^{\large 2}}~=~?$$ Its numerical value is about $1.40171345128228$. Maple, Mathematica, ...
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1answer
37 views

Does sequences related to function for $lcm(1,2,3 \cdots n)$ exists?

This just came out of curiosity let $$L(n)=lcm(1,2,3 \cdots n)$$ and I know that we can write this with the help of some product involving primes and all . But what I am interested is in Does ...
7
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1answer
113 views

Compute $\sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac{\mathrm{e}^{-\sqrt{n}}}{\sqrt{n}}$

Does the following series have a closed form ? $$\sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac{\mathrm{e}^{-\sqrt{n}}}{\sqrt{n}}$$ Motivation : The original exercise is Compute $\int_{1}^{+\infty} ...
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2answers
375 views

Evaluating $\int_0^{2\pi}\frac{dt}{\sqrt[4]{P(\cos t,\sin t)}}$

$${\LARGE\int}_0^{2\pi}\frac{dt}{\sqrt[{\LARGE 4}]{A\Big(\sin^8t+\cos^8t\Big)+B\Big(\sin^6t\cos^2t+\sin^2t\cos^6t\Big)+C~\sin^4t\cos^4t}}~=~?$$ where $A=0.3$, $B=-3.3$, and $C=10$. Its numerical ...
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2answers
87 views

A logarithm integral

Calculate the integral \begin{align} \int_{0}^{1} \frac{ \ln(\sqrt{x} - \sqrt{1-x}) }{ \sqrt{x} } \ dx \end{align} and show the value is negative.
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2answers
52 views

$x^x-x+5=\frac{29}{4}$

A friend of mine is claiming to have a closed form solution to $x^x-x+5=\frac{29}{4}$, plotting it into wolfram alpha gives an approximation, and the equation doesn't seem very easy to solve. Can any ...
5
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3answers
194 views

Harmonic Numbers series I

Can it be shown that \begin{align} \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \binom{2n}{n} \ \frac{H_{n+1}}{n+1} \ \left(\frac{3}{16}\right)^{n} = \frac{5}{3} + \frac{8}{3} \ \ln 2 - \frac{8}{3} \ \ln 3 \end{align} where ...
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0answers
47 views

Dilogarithm in closed form

Is there a closed form expression for \begin{align} e^{\Large\frac{i\pi}3} \text{Li}_{2}\left( \frac{e^{\Large\frac{i\pi}3} }{2}\right) + e^{-\Large\frac{i\pi}3} \text{Li}_{2}\left( ...
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1answer
73 views

Summing up numbers from the continued fraction of $e ^ \pi$ and $\pi ^e$

I don't remember it well ,but it was around 5-6 years ago , I was 8 and I had found this new interest - continued fractions .I used to play with their terms sum them up and thought of getting ...
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37 views

Are generating functions ever analytic for logarithmic series?

Given a series $s_n = \ln(n) f(n)$ where $f(\cdot)$ is an elementary analytic function which does not involve the logarithm. More precisely $f$ can have simple poles but no branch cuts or essential ...
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1answer
65 views

May I know that there is a special structure or solution on this linear fractional optimization?

I am not familar with the optimization problems, but I want to know a very simple formulation: \begin{array}{cc} {{\max_\mathbf{x}}} & \frac{\mathbf{a}^{T}\mathbf{x}}{\mathbf{b}^{T}\mathbf{x}}\\ ...
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4answers
156 views

Do these integrals have a closed form? $I_1 = \int_{-\infty }^{\infty } \frac{\sin (x)}{x \cosh (x)} \, dx$

The following integrals look like they might have a closed form, but Mathematica could not find one. Can they be calculated, perhaps by differentiating under the integral sign? $$I_1 = \int_{-\infty ...
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0answers
71 views

Log Log Integrals III

The integrals \begin{align} I_{7} = \int_{0}^{1} \ln(x) \ \ln^{2}\left( \ln \left(\frac{1}{x}\right) \right) \ \frac{dx}{1-x} \end{align} and \begin{align} I_{8} = \int_{0}^{1} \ln(x) \ \ln^{2}\left( ...
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0answers
52 views

Closed form definite integral. [closed]

I have a definite integral that I am trying to solve. Any hint or reference is urgently sought $$\int_0^\infty \nu y^r e^{\nu y}\{1+\psi(e^{\nu y}-1)\}^{-\tfrac1\psi -1}dy.$$ where $r$ is any ...
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1answer
54 views

What is this waveform?

Consider the following infinite series: $\text{f} \left( x \right) =\displaystyle \sum \limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac {\sin \left( n x\right)}{n^2}$ We know that $\text{f} \left( x \right)$ is ...
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3answers
184 views

Definite integral - closed form: $\int_{0}^{\infty}\cos\left(x^{4} + 1 \over x^{2}\right)\,{\rm d}x$

I'm struggling with this definite integral: $$ \int_{0}^{\infty}\cos\left(x^{4} + 1 \over x^{2}\right)\,{\rm d}x. $$ Any help will be greatly appreciated.
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2answers
95 views

Log Log Integrals

Evaluate the integrals \begin{align} I_{1} &= \int_{0}^{1} \ln^{2n}(x) \ \ln\left(\ln\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)\right) dx \end{align} and \begin{align} I_{2} = \int_{0}^{1} \ln^{2n}(x) \ ...
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1answer
67 views

Finding the area enclosed by Batman curve

I was reading this thread: Is this Batman equation for real? and I wondered if the area bounded by the curve had a nice closed form. The resulting integrals were slightly beyond me, so I thought I ...
0
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2answers
66 views

Closed form of a sequence containing the pattern $\{+,-,-,+,+,-,-,…\}$

I was in the middle of answering this question that asked how to get the Taylor series of $cos(x)$ centered at $a=\frac{\pi}{3}$. I was reaching the point where I was about to write $(-1)^n$ making ...
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1answer
46 views

Matrix exponential of a simple bidiagonal matrix

I am interested in finding an expression (closed form or recursive) for the matrix exponential of this banded matrix: $$ \begin{pmatrix} 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 & \cdots & 0 & 0 ...
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29 views

Simple representation of a Sum

I have a probably pretty simple question. if I have $\sum_{i=0}^{n} 4^i$ and I want a closed representation, Wolfram Alpha gives me: $4^{n+1}/3-1/3$ Why is that? How do I get to that? Thanks!
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1answer
65 views

Is there closed form for $(1-p)(1-p^2)(1-p^3)…$ or its Taylor expansion?

I was considering the following problem: Somebody uses a backup for something (e.g. backups a file) and the backup is equally reliable as original storage. The storage is not perfectly reliable and ...
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1answer
46 views

Quadratic differential equation - closed form solution?

Can a solution for x(t) be found from the following real valued differential equation $$a\frac{d}{dt}\!(x(t))^2 + x(t) +b\frac{d}{dt}\!(y(t)) = 0$$ in terms of only y(t), it's integrals or ...
0
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1answer
23 views

Going from recurrence relations to closed form

How do I go from the following recurrence relation a(n) = (n+1)a(n-1) where a(0) = 2 to a closed form? I know I need to use an iterative approach but I am not ...
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3answers
111 views

Guess the closed form on the following sequence?

any help would be appreciated, have no idea where to start $u_1 = 2/3$ and $u_{k+1}$ such that: $$u_k + \frac{1}{(k+2)(k+3)}$$ for all, k are natural numbers guess a general formula (i.e the ...
0
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1answer
54 views

Closed form for nth term of generating function

How would I find the closed form for the $n^{th}$ term of a sequence? Is there a general formula I can follow for these types of problems? Taking this sequence for example... $$\frac{x^5}{(1-x)^4}$$
13
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298 views

$\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n}{(2n+1)^{2m+1}}=\frac{(-1)^m E_{2m}\pi^{2m+1}}{4^{m+1}(2m)!}$

I'm looking for a way to prove $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n}{(2n+1)^{2m+1}}=\frac{(-1)^m E_{2m}\pi^{2m+1}}{4^{m+1}(2m)!}$$ Since ...
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1answer
47 views

Closed form questions [closed]

Please could you help me to find the generating functions of the following sequences in closed form: (a) 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, … (b) 2, –4, 6, –8, 10, –12, …
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1answer
90 views

Does this integral have any closed form? $\displaystyle\int\frac{1}{x+\sin(x+1)}\mathop{\mathrm dx}$

Does this integral have any closed form? $$\int\frac{1}{x+\sin(x+1)}\mathop{\mathrm dx}$$ I think the substitution $x=(u-1)+2\pi$ will do it, no?
0
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2answers
70 views

What is the sum of this series given the closed form?

The closed form of a series I am trying to identify is: $$ a_n=\frac{250}{2n -1} $$ How could I get the sum of the series equation from this? I am used to geometric sequences and arithmetic sequences ...
3
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2answers
92 views

How could I have found the closed form of $\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{k}{(k+1)!}$ in advance?

If you calculate the first three sums, a pattern becomes clear revealing the closed form which is easily proven by induction: $$\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{k}{(k+1)!} = \frac{(n+1)!-1}{(n+1)!}$$ I’ve been ...
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2answers
67 views

Closed form for $\prod_{k=1}^n \binom{k^2+2k}{k^2}$

Does anybody know how I can find a closed form for the expression $$ \prod_{k=1}^n \binom{k^2+2k}{k^2}? $$ There are many ways to handle such things, but with sum instead of product. Here, I have no ...
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1answer
88 views

Integration of $\int_0^\pi\int_0^\pi[\sin x\sin y\ge a]\,dx\,dy$

Does the integral $$I(a)=\int_0^\pi\int_0^\pi[\sin x\sin y\ge a]\,dx\,dy$$ have any closed-form solution? This is the area under the contours of $\sin x\sin y$; $[\cdot]$ is the Iverson bracket, which ...
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0answers
66 views

Evaluating $\int_2^\infty \zeta(x) - 1 \,\, \mathrm{d}x$

While looking at a table of values for the zeta function, the fact that they approach $1$ made me wonder what the improper integral of the fractional part of the zeta function would be. I've found ...
23
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2answers
571 views

Closed form for $\int_0^{\pi/2}\frac{\sqrt{1+\sin\phi}}{\sqrt{\sin2\phi}\,\sqrt{\sin\phi+\cos\phi}}d\phi$

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$I=\int_0^{\pi/2}\frac{\sqrt{1+\sin\phi}}{\sqrt{\sin2\phi} \,\sqrt{\sin\phi+\cos\phi}}d\phi$$ Its approximate numeric value is ...
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4answers
79 views

Probability of choosing a subset of elements where each element has a different probability

I am trying to write a C++ program to do this but nobody on Stackoverflow can seem to help me so I thought I'd try to do it myself with some help from you guys. My post on Stackoverflow can be found ...
5
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1answer
101 views

Closed form of $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log(x)-\log(a)}{x-a}e^{-x} \mathrm{d}x$.

Can the integral $$ \int_0^\infty \frac{\log(x)-\log(a)}{x-a}e^{-x} \mathrm{d}x $$ be expressed in terms of some simple special function? I have searched through integral tables but couldn't find ...
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2answers
200 views

Need help with $\int_0^\infty\frac{e^{-x}}{\sqrt[3]2+\cos x}dx$

Please help me to evaluate this integral: $$\int_0^\infty\frac{e^{-x}}{\sqrt[3]2+\cos x}dx$$
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2answers
51 views

Closed form of $T(n)=T(\lceil n/2 \rceil)+T(\lfloor n/2 \rfloor)+2$

How in God's name could I find a closed form of $T(n)=T(\lceil n/2 \rceil)+T(\lfloor n/2 \rfloor)+2$? I'm looking at the first numbers in sequence and I just don't see any relation...
0
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1answer
185 views

How to calc $\min ||J\Delta\tau + D||_*$

How to calculate $$ \min_{\tau} ||J_1 \tau_1 + \cdots + J_p \tau_p + D ||_* $$ where $\tau_1, \cdots, \tau_p \in \mathbb{R}$ $J_1, \cdots, J_p, D \in \mathbb{R}^{m \times n}$ $||\cdot||_*$ is sum ...
5
votes
2answers
72 views

Closed form of generating function consisting of power of two binomials

Let $g(x)$ be infinite formal power series and $$g(x) = (1 + x)(1 + x^2)\cdots(1 + x^{2^k})\cdots$$ Show that $(1 - x) g(x) = 1$. My book gives following proof: Using a fact that $(1 - x^k)(1 + ...
0
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0answers
59 views

Is there a way to simplify Legendre-squared sum $\sum_{n} \frac{[P'_{n}(x)]^2}{n(n+1)}$

Is there a closed-form expression for $$F(x) = \sum_{n=2,{\rm even}}^{\infty} \frac{[P'_{n}(x)]^2}{n(n+1)}$$ where $P'_{n}(x)$ is the derivative of the $n^{\rm th}$ Legendre polynomial? Simple ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Close form of a power series starting at $n=2$

This is the power series I am looking at $\sum_{n=2}^{\infty}{n(n-1)z^n}$. I want to find the closed form of this power series. This is my approach, if I divide the power series by $z^2$, then I ...
4
votes
3answers
256 views

Find a closed form from the given power series

I have the power series $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} {z^{2n}\over{n!}}$, how do I find the closed form for this power series. I am aware that $e^z=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} {z^{n}\over{n!}}$, so I tried to ...