A "closed form expression" is any representation of a mathematical expression in terms of "known" functions, "known" usually being replaced with "elementary".

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Integral ${\large\int}_0^\infty\frac{\ln x}{1+x}\sqrt{\frac{x+\sqrt{1+x^2}}{1+x^2}}\ dx$

Please help me to evaluate this integral: $$I={\large\int}_0^\infty\frac{\ln x}{1+x}\sqrt{\frac{x+\sqrt{1+x^2}}{1+x^2}}\ dx.\tag1$$ Mathematica could not evaluate it in a closed form. A numerical ...
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0answers
26 views

BCH (Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff) formula for $[X,Y]=xY-yX$

If some $X$ and $Y$ satisfy the commutation relation $[X,Y]=XY-YX=xY-yX$, where $x$ and $y$ are numbers (or commute mutually and with $X$ and $Y$), then what is the closed form of $\ln(\exp X \exp ...
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1answer
35 views

Do all series have a closed form representation of their partial sum? If not, can we feasibly prove that this is not the case?

The question was motivated by the way in which we approach the convergence and divergence of some series. During my undergraduate analysis course one of the only times in which the partial sum was ...
2
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0answers
52 views

Find the exact value of expression

Let $$S=\sqrt{4+\sqrt[3]{4+\sqrt[4]{4+\sqrt[5]{4+\sqrt[6]{4+\cdots}}}}}$$ Is it possible to write $S$ in terms of standard mathematical functions and operators? If yes, what is the exact value of $S$? ...
6
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1answer
110 views

How do people on MSE find closed-form expressions for integrals, infinite products, etc?

I always wanted to ask this question since when I joined MSE, but because I was afraid of asking too many soft questions I never asked it. I've seen some pretty complicated integrals and infinite ...
2
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1answer
45 views
+100

Convergence of ${\large\int}_{-\infty}^\infty J_0(x)\,J_0(x+a)\,dx$

Consider $$I(a)={\int}_{-\infty}^\infty J_0(x)\,J_0(x+a)\,dx,$$ where $J_0(z)$ is the Bessel Function of the $1^{st}$ kind and $a>0$. Does this integral converge for any values of $a$? If so, is ...
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3answers
156 views

A closed form of $\int_0^1\frac{\ln\ln\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)}{x^2-x+1}dx$

This integral has been bugging me since yesterday: $$\int_0^1\frac{\ln\ln\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)}{x^2-x+1}dx$$ I've tried substitution $y=\frac{1}{x}$ and $e^y=\frac{1}{x}$, but those didn't ...
1
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0answers
12 views

Derivative of a generalized hypergeometric function

Let $$f(a)={_2F_3}\left(\begin{array}c1,\ 1\\\tfrac32,\ 1-a,\ 2+a\end{array}\middle|-\pi^2\right).$$ How to find $f'(0)$ in a closed form?
1
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1answer
47 views

Closed form for the recursion $\displaystyle u_n=\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} u_ku_{n-1-k}$

I was completing a computer science problem when the following recursion popped up: $u_0=1$ $\displaystyle u_n=\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} u_ku_{n-1-k}$ Is there a closed form for this recursion ? I ...
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2answers
48 views

Find a closed form for the generating function for this sequence

The sequence: $0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, \ldots$ The book gives the answer of $\frac{x^3}{1-x}$ but I'm not sure how to get this answer. I understand the generating function of this sequence will be ...
3
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0answers
70 views

Closed form $\sum_{n=2}^{\infty} \frac{1}{\ln^n{n}}$ and $\sum_{n=2}^{\infty} \frac{n}{\ln^n{n}}$

Apologies if this has been asked before, but I was playing around with Wolfram Alpha and got approximations but not closed forms for $$\sum_{n=2}^{\infty} \frac{1}{\ln^n{n}} \approx 3.2426094109 $$ ...
2
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1answer
28 views

Constructing an indicator function from a braid group which represents 'all strings have returned to their initial position'.

TL;DR Is there a well-defined closed formula from the braid group $B_n$ to $\{-1,1\} \left(\text{ or }\{0,1\}\right)$ which represents whether all the strings have returned to their initial ...
3
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0answers
48 views

Prove this polylogarithmic integral has the stated closed form value

Question. Prove the following polylogarithmic integral has the stated value: $$I:=\int_{0}^{1}\frac{\operatorname{Li}_2{(1-x)}\log^2{(1-x)}}{x}\mathrm{d}x=-11\zeta{(5)}+6\zeta{(3)}\zeta{(2)}.$$ ...
3
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1answer
46 views

Does $\int { y\cosh \left(\beta y^2\right)}J_0\left(\gamma y^2 \right) dy$ have a closed form

I am trying to solve the following indefinite integral $$F_Y(y) = \int {y\cosh \left(\beta y^2\right)}J_0\left(\gamma y^2 \right) dy$$ Where $J_0$ is the Bessel function of the first kind. I tried ...
2
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0answers
99 views

Definite trigonometric integral

This question is motivated by Iterative Mean, Covariance Algorithm Convergence: Is there a closed form for the integral $$ \int_0^{2 \pi} ...
1
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1answer
49 views

Identities involving adjoint action

I'm looking for list of identities involving adjoint action $\mathrm{ad}_A X = [A,X] = AX - XA$. For example, it can be easily shown that: \begin{equation} e^{\mathrm{ad}_A} X = e^A X e^{-A} ...
3
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1answer
53 views

Find a sequence

Find the function for the sequence $a_0 = 0, a_1 = 1$ and $a_{n}=a_{n+10}+a_n$ for all $n>0$.
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1answer
267 views

Packing an infinite sequence of disks

Let $a > 1$ and $Q(a)$ denote the supremum of values of $q$ such that a countably infinite collection of disks, whose areas form an infinitely decreasing geometric progression with the start value ...
2
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3answers
178 views

What is the closed form for $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac1n - \frac1{n+1/p}$?

A while ago, I started to look at expressions of the following form: $$ S_p:=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac1n - \frac1{n+1/p}, $$ where $p$ is prime, because otherwise things get too complicated for me at ...
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3answers
46 views

Closed-form term for $\sum_{i=1}^{\infty} i q^i$ [duplicate]

I am interested in the following sum $$\sum_{i=1}^{\infty} i q^i$$ for some $q<1$. Is there a closed-form-term for this? If yes, how does one derive this? I am also interested in ...
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0answers
27 views

Closed-form solution to polynomials of this special form?

I have two sets of real numbers $\{a_k\}$ and $\{b_k\}$ such that: $$a_n \leq \ldots \leq a_1 < b_1 \leq \ldots \leq b_n$$ Now consider the following polynomial equation: $$\prod_{k=1}^n (x - ...
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2answers
47 views

closed form for $\int_0^1x^{a+1}(1-x^2)^bJ_a(cx)dx$

$$\int_0^1x^{a+1}(1-x^2)^bJ_a(cx)dx$$ my friend posted the integral on the fb and I tried to solve it but I faild because I have little information about bessel function so could some one help ?
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4answers
72 views

closed-form term for this sum:

related to this question: Is there an easy closed-form term for $$\sum_{j=k}^{\infty} \frac{x^j}{j!}e^{-x},$$ thus when the sum starts at a constant $k$ instead of $1$? EDIT: Thanks for your help. ...
4
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1answer
67 views

Closed form of $\sum_{k=0}^nk\binom{k}{3}\binom{2n}{k}$

Recently, I came across the following exercise on the course of discrete math Find a closed form for $\sum_{k=0}^nk\binom{k}{3}\binom{2n}{k}$ So I tried some of the usual techniques: Let ...
0
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1answer
39 views

closed form expression for an infinite sum

Is there any closed form expression for the infinite sum $\sum_{n≥0}q^{n^2}u^n$ where both q and n are variables and $n \in N∪0$ ?
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0answers
45 views

closed form expression for an infinite series

Is there any closed form expression for the infinite sum $∑_{n≥0}q^{n(n+1)/2}(1+q)(1+q^2)...(1+q^n)u^n$ where both q and n are variables and $n \in N∪0$?
2
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0answers
56 views

Evaluate $\int_0^\infty x^{\lambda-1} \exp\left(-ax-b\sqrt x-\frac{c}{\sqrt x} - \frac{d}{x}\right) \: dx$

Is there a closed form for the integral $$\int_0^\infty x^{\lambda-1} \exp\left(-ax-b\sqrt x-\frac{c}{\sqrt x} - \frac{d}{x}\right) \: dx?$$ where $\lambda>0$, $a>0$, $d>0$ and where $b$, ...
0
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2answers
67 views

Is there a closed form solution to this equation?

I have the following equation $e^{-x/b}(a+x) = e^{x/b}(a-x)$ where $b > 0$, and $a > 0$ I need to solve for $x$. I can do it numerically, but would prefer if there was a closed form solution. ...
2
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2answers
110 views

Closed form for $f(x)=\int_{0}^{+\infty}e^{it^{x}}dt$?

Let $x>1$ and $f(x)=\int_{0}^{+\infty}e^{it^{x}}dt$. Does this integral have a closed form ? Fist point, the integral converges. Indeed let $u=e^{it^{x}}$ and $v=\frac{-i}{x}t^{1-x}$ we have ...
5
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3answers
172 views

Help with logarithmic definite integral: $\int_0^1\frac{1}{x}\ln{(x)}\ln^3{(1-x)}$

I'm look for a closed form evaluation of the following improper definite integral involving logarithms: $$\begin{align} I:&=\int_{0}^{1}\frac{1}{x}\ln{(x)}\ln^3{(1-x)}\,\mathrm{d}x\\ ...
2
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1answer
29 views

Does $\sum_{i=1}^{k-1}\lceil \log_2\frac{N}{i}\rceil$ have a closed form?

Does the following have a closed formula? $$\sum_{i=1}^{k-1}\left\lceil \log_2\frac{N}{i}\right\rceil$$
7
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1answer
135 views

Proving that $\int_0^\infty\Big(\sqrt[n]{1+x^n}-x\Big)dx~=~\frac12\cdot{-1/n\choose+1/n}^{-1}$

How can we prove, without employing the aid of residues or various transforms, that, for $n>2$ $$\int_0^\infty\Big(\sqrt[n]{1+x^n}-x\Big)dx~=~\frac12\cdot{-1/n\choose+1/n}^{-1}$$ Motivation: ...
15
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1answer
199 views

Approximate value of a slowly-converging sum of $\sum|\sin n|^n/n$

In this question on Math.SE there appears this sum: $$ S = \sum_{n\geq1}s_n, \qquad s_n = \frac{|\sin n|^n}{n}, $$ which converges very slowly. What methods would you suggest for evaluating it ...
4
votes
1answer
216 views

Is there a closed form expression for the sum of all the proper divisors of an integer?

I have already found a summation formula here: http://math.stackexchange.com/a/22723, and also a very interesting recursive formula here: http://math.stackexchange.com/a/22744. Any ideas on how to ...
1
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0answers
83 views

What is the sum of Psi/Digamma-function of consecutive arguments? Is there a closed form?

In a consideration of summation of a series $$ s = a_0 + a_1 + a_2 + \cdots \tag 1$$ with $$\lim_{k \to \infty} a_k=0$$ but slowly decreasing, the coefficients $a_k$ are somehow related to $1/k^2$ ...
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0answers
32 views

Help getting a closed-form solution to a maximisation problem

I'm working through a maximisation problem that I can't seem to get a closed-form solution to. It may be the case that there is no closed-form solution, but I would like a second opinion, since I've ...
20
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4answers
570 views

Evaluate $\int_{0}^1 \prod_{k=2}^n \lfloor kx \rfloor dx$

Let $n\ge2$ be an integer , then $$\int_{0}^1 \prod_{k=2}^n \lfloor kx \rfloor dx=\text{ ?}, $$ where $\lfloor \space \rfloor$ is the "floor-function"
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5answers
319 views

Find a closed expression for a formula including summation

Let: $$\sum\limits_{k = 0}^n {k\left( {\matrix{ n \cr k \cr } } \right)} \cdot {4^{k - 1}} \cdot {3^{n - k}}$$ Find a closed formula (without summation). I think I should define this as a ...
18
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2answers
278 views

A closed form for a lot of integrals on the logarithm

One problem that has been bugging me all this summer is as follows: a) Calculate $$I_3=\int_{0}^{1}\int_{0}^{1}\int_{0}^{1} \ln{(1-x)} \ln{(1-xy)} \ln{(1-xyz)} \,\mathrm{d}x\, \mathrm{d}y\, ...
2
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0answers
42 views

Seeking closed-form solution to $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\log{(1+n)}}{(1+n)^{\alpha}-1}$

I'm looking for a closed-form solution to this infinite series: $$S(\alpha):=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\log{(1+n)}}{(1+n)^{\alpha}-1},~~~\Re(\alpha)>1.$$ My attempt All I've really been ...
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2answers
45 views

Summation closed form.

I have tried to figure out how to get the close form of: $$\sum_{k=0}^n k^22^{n-k}.$$ I tried to write down each number of the summation but couldn't find any thing to do with that.. can please ...
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1answer
10 views

How to determine a deficit of base 10 exponent from a minimum unit

I'm trying to determine if a number includes a portion in deficit of a base 10 exponent from a minimum unit. For example, given a minimum unit of $0.01$, $1$ would pass the test, but $1.001$ would ...
5
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0answers
69 views

Relations between definite integrals not having a known closed form

Are there any known cases, when there are two (or more) definite integrals, none of them having any known closed-form expression on its own, but there is still a non-trivial$^\dagger$ elementary ...
0
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0answers
11 views

Compact closed form for linear recurrence formulas

Assume you have some linear recursion formula $$f(\vec x)=\sum_{\vec y\in Y}w_{\vec y}f(\vec x - \vec y)$$ Where $\vec y\geq 0 $ and $||\vec y||>0$, $w_{\vec y}\in\mathbb{R}$ and $\vec x , \vec ...
8
votes
3answers
202 views

How to evaluate improper integral $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\tan^{-1}{x}}{e^{ax}-1}dx$?

I'm trying to evaluate the improper integral, $$I(a)=\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\tan^{-1}{x}}{e^{ax}-1}\mathrm{d}x,~~~\text{where }a\in\mathbb{R}^+.$$ Does this integral have a simple closed form ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

Closed form of a trigonometric integral sought

I am trying to evaluate the definite integral $I(a,b)$, with $a,b\in\mathbb{R}$, defined by $$I(a,b):=\int_{0}^{2\pi}\sqrt{1-(a+b\cos{\theta})^2}\mathrm{d}\theta.$$ Assume $a,b$ are suitably ...
6
votes
2answers
121 views

Superelliptic Area Of $x^5+y^5=r^5$

$${\LARGE\int}_0^\tfrac\pi2\frac{dx}{\bigg(\sqrt[{\Large 5}]{\cos^5x+10\cos^3x\sin^2x+5\cos x\sin^4x}\bigg)^{\large 2}}~=~?$$ Its numerical value is about $1.40171345128228$. Maple, Mathematica, ...
1
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1answer
36 views

Does sequences related to function for $lcm(1,2,3 \cdots n)$ exists?

This just came out of curiosity let $$L(n)=lcm(1,2,3 \cdots n)$$ and I know that we can write this with the help of some product involving primes and all . But what I am interested is in Does ...
7
votes
1answer
113 views

Compute $\sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac{\mathrm{e}^{-\sqrt{n}}}{\sqrt{n}}$

Does the following series have a closed form ? $$\sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac{\mathrm{e}^{-\sqrt{n}}}{\sqrt{n}}$$ Motivation : The original exercise is Compute $\int_{1}^{+\infty} ...
13
votes
2answers
370 views

Evaluating $\int_0^{2\pi}\frac{dt}{\sqrt[4]{P(\cos t,\sin t)}}$

$${\LARGE\int}_0^{2\pi}\frac{dt}{\sqrt[{\LARGE 4}]{A\Big(\sin^8t+\cos^8t\Big)+B\Big(\sin^6t\cos^2t+\sin^2t\cos^6t\Big)+C~\sin^4t\cos^4t}}~=~?$$ where $A=0.3$, $B=-3.3$, and $C=10$. Its numerical ...