A "closed form expression" is any representation of a mathematical expression in terms of "known" functions, "known" usually being replaced with "elementary".

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5
votes
1answer
67 views

Closed-form of $\int_0^1\left(\frac{\left(x^2+1\right)\arcsin(x)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}+2\ln\left(x^2+1\right)\right)\frac{\ln x}{x^3+x}\,dx$

I've conjectured the following closed-form: $$ I = \int_0^1\left(\frac{\left(x^2+1\right)\arcsin(x)}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}+2\ln\left(x^2+1\right)\right)\frac{\ln x}{x^3+x}\,dx = -2\,G\,\ln2, $$ where $G$ is ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Intriguing Poisson sum with hyperbolic function

I've been playing with lots of Poisson sums lately, and I thought this one to be interesting:\ $$\sum_{k\in\mathbb{Z}}\left(\frac{1}{(k+x)\sinh{(k+x)\pi q}}-\frac{1}{\pi q (k+x)^2}\right)$$I want to ...
6
votes
3answers
129 views

Closed-form of $\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{\left(a+\cosh x\right)^{1/n}} \, dx$ for $a=0,1$

While I was working on this question by @Vladimir Reshetnikov, I've conjectured the following closed-forms. $$ I_0(n)=\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{\left(\cosh x\right)^{1/n}} \, dx \stackrel{?}{=} ...
5
votes
2answers
103 views

The value of the integral $\int_0^2\left(\sqrt{1+x^3}+\sqrt[3]{x^2+2x}\:\right)dx$

The value of definite integral $$\int\limits_{0}^{2}\left(\sqrt{1+x^3}+\sqrt[3]{x^2+2x}\:\right)dx$$ is $$(A)\,4 \quad(B)\,5 \quad (C)\,6 \quad(D)\,7$$ My attempt: I tried using ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Is there a closed-form solution (even approximated) to this inequality?

I have the following function: $f(x, \theta) = (1-\theta)(x+1)^{-\theta}\left[ \frac{2-2\theta}{1- 2\theta} (N^{1-2\theta} - (x+1)^{1-2\theta}) - (x+1)^{-\theta}(N^{1-\theta} - (x+1)^{1-\theta}) ...
0
votes
1answer
135 views

An Infinite series I

By decompising fractions one can show that \begin{align} \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n \, (n+1)^{2} \, (n+3)} = \frac{65}{72} - \frac{\zeta(2)}{2}. \end{align} The fraction can also be seen in the ...
4
votes
2answers
99 views

Is there a name for the closed form of $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{1+ a^n}$?

I hope this is not a duplicate question. If we modify the well known geometric series, with $a>1$, to $$ \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{1+a^n} $$ is there a closed form with a name? I suspect ...
3
votes
1answer
51 views

Help on finding the closed form of the integral

Can anyone help me to find closed solution of the integral $$\int_0^{1-e^{-\lambda x}}\frac{u^{b-1}\,(1-u)^{a+c-1}}{[1-(1-e^{-\lambda_1 t_1})u]^{a+b+c}}\,{\rm d}u,$$ where ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Infinite Telescoping Sum: $\sum_{i=1}^{\infty} (X_i - X_{i-1})=$?

Let $(X_i)_{i \geq 0}$ be any countable sequence of numbers and suppose that a limit exists, so $$\lim_{i \rightarrow \infty} X_i = x.$$ Consider $\sum_{i=1}^{\infty} (X_i - X_{i-1})$. Is this ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Find the value of $h$ from a Kepler-type equation

$$V = \frac{0.5r^{2}\cdot \cos^{-1}(\frac{r-h}{r})\cdot 2-\sin(\cos^{-1}(\frac{r-h}{r})\cdot 2)}{10^{6}}$$ This is the equation to find the volume of liquid in a tank in the shape of a capsule. Where ...
9
votes
0answers
106 views

A difficult logarithmic integral ${\Large\int}_0^1\log(x)\,\log(2+x)\,\log(1+x)\,\log\left(1+x^{-1}\right)dx$

A friend of mine shared this problem with me. As he was told, this integral can be evaluated in a closed form (the result may involve polylogarithms). Despite all our efforts, so far we have not ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

Try to solve this nested radical - I have the answer [on hold]

I have discovered the closed solution to the nested radical: $$\sqrt{n^{2^0-1}+\sqrt{n^{2^1-1}+\sqrt{n^{2^2-1}+\sqrt{n^{2^3-1}+\cdots}}}}.$$ I challenge anyone to find the closed form for any $n$. I ...
3
votes
1answer
30 views

What is the closed form of the following expansion

I need some help figuring out the closed form of the following expansion. T[n]=T[n-1]+T[1]*T[n-2]+T[2]*T[n-3]+T[3]*T[n-4]+...+T[n-1] I haven't done this type of ...
8
votes
3answers
168 views

Sum of the series $\sum\limits_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{(3n+1)^3}$

The following result matches very good numerically: $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{(3n+1)^3}=\frac{13}{27}\zeta(3)+\frac{2\pi^3}{81\sqrt{3}}.$$ Though I'm not sure how to approach this. How can we ...
8
votes
0answers
87 views

A conjectured identity for tetralogarithms $\operatorname{Li}_4$

I experimentally discovered (using PSLQ) the following conjectured tetralogarithm identity: $$\begin{align}&\phantom{+\;}19\!\;\pi^4-570\ln^42-90\ln^43\\ ...
5
votes
1answer
88 views

Solve $a^x+b^x=c$ for $x$

I need to solve an equation of the form $$a^x+b^x=c$$ with $a,b\in (0,1)$ and $c\in(0,2)$ (and I'm solving for $x\in\mathbb{R}_{>0}$). I know this admits a solution (details below), but it's such ...
1
vote
2answers
96 views

Find a closed form of the series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{x^n}{n^2+3n+2}$

The question I've been given is this: Using both sides of this equation: $$ \frac{x}{1-x} = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}x^n $$ Find an expression for: $$ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{x^n}{n^2+3n+2} $$ Any help ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

Recurrence relation: $c_{k+1}=c_k+\frac{1}{(k+1)!}$

I have no idea how to proceed solving a recurrence relation like this. I know that the terms approach $e$ but beyond that I have no idea. The relation is$$c_{k+1}=c_k+\frac{1}{(k+1)!} \ \ ; \ c_0=1$$ ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Solving $x - a \log(x)=b$

Let $a>0$ and $b \in \mathbb{R}$: Assume there exists an $x >0 $ s.t. $$x - a\log(x) = b$$ holds. How can it be determined in closed-form?
4
votes
2answers
147 views

Evaluating $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty } 2^{-n} \tanh (2^{-n})$

Reading in some tables pages I found $$\sum _{n=0}^{\infty } 2^{-n} \tanh \left(2^{-n}\right)=\tanh (1) \left(1+\coth ^2(1)-\coth (1)\right)$$ I try to split in two sum using the roots of the ...
2
votes
2answers
67 views

HowTo solve this integral involving logarithm

I would like to solve integrals of the form $$I(c) := \int_0^\infty \log(1+x) x^{-c} \, dx ,$$ where $c \in (1,2)$. Mathematica says either 1) $I(c) = \frac{\pi}{1-c} \csc(\pi c)$ or 2) $I(c) = ...
1
vote
1answer
97 views

Kovacic's algorithm

Is there any reference with some example, about how to solve a "riccati" equation in this (below) form :$$y'(x)+a(x)y^2(x)+b(x)y(x)+c(x)=0$$ by Kovacic's algorithm? Or can anybody help me to ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Closed-Form Modular Arithmetic

Is there a way to define modulo division (or functions of modular arithmetic in general) as superposition of (elementary?) functions? For example, the multiplication is first introduced as ...
3
votes
1answer
96 views

How to prove $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{e^{-\left(\sqrt{x}-a/\sqrt{x}\right)^2}}{\sqrt{x}}dx=\sqrt{\pi},\,a>0$?

We know that $$\Gamma\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)=\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{e^{-x}}{\sqrt{x}}dx=\sqrt{\pi} $$ but it seems that, for every $a>0 $ we have ...
1
vote
3answers
101 views

How do i find a closed form expression for $\sum_{k=0}^n \frac{(x-1)^k}{k+1}$?

How do I Find a closed form expression for : $$\sum_{k=0}^n \frac{(x-1)^k}{k+1}$$ Note :I have no idea how to do that, I am bad at evaluating series when we cannot use some standard series to do it. ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

I suspect this integral has a closed form but I can't find it

$$\int_a^b \frac{\text{d}\eta}{\eta}\sin\left(A\eta^3\right)\sin\left(A(\eta-B)^3\right)$$ $$\int_a^b \frac{\text{d}\eta}{\eta}\sin\left(A\eta^3\right)\cos\left(A(\eta-B)^3\right)$$ where ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Better closed form for generating function $\sum \binom{n}{2k} x^k$

I have a power series $F_n(x) = \sum_k \binom{n}{2k} x^k$, which has a closed form of $F_n = \frac12 \left((1 + \sqrt{x})^n + (1 - \sqrt{x})^n\right)$. $$\begin{align} (1 + \sqrt{x})^n + (1 - ...
10
votes
3answers
315 views

Evaluating the limit of a certain definite integral

Let $\displaystyle f(x)= \lim_{\epsilon \to 0} \frac{1}{\sqrt{\epsilon}}\int_0^x ze^{-(\epsilon)^{-1}\tan^2z}dz$ for $x\in[0,\infty)$. Evaluate $f(x)$ in closed form for all $x\in[0,\infty)$ ...
3
votes
2answers
81 views

Does anyone know of a closed form solution to the following integral?

Does anyone know of a closed form solution to the following integral? $$ \DeclareMathOperator\erf{erf} \newcommand{d}{\;\mathrm{d}} \int^{+\infty}_{-\infty} \erf^{\;m}\!(x) \frac{\d^n ...
4
votes
4answers
124 views

Closed form of $\sum_{n=1}^\infty (-1)^n\frac{\sin(n\theta)}{n^3}$ for $\theta\in (-\pi,\pi)$

We have to find the closed form of the following series $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty (-1)^n\frac{\sin(n\theta)}{n^3}$$ for $\theta\in (-\pi,\pi)$. We tried to use the following form of the sine ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Recurrence involving square root

The recurrence equation I have is: $$ T_n = c_1 + T_{n-1} + 2\sqrt{c_2 + c_1 T_{n-1}} $$ $$ T_0 = a $$ $c_1,c_2,a$ are positive real numbers I need to somehow convert this into a linear homogeneous ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

How to solve this kind of recurrence relation in closed form? $F(n) = aF(n-1) + bF(n-2) + cF(n-3) + dF(n-4)$

How to solve this recurrence relation in closed form? $$F(n) = aF(n-1) + bF(n-2) + cF(n-3) + dF(n-4)$$ I know how to solve recurrence relations for less than four calls by solving the ...
6
votes
3answers
203 views

Closed form for a binomial series

I am wondering if any knows how to compute a closed form for the following two series. $$\sum_{m=1}^{n}\frac{(-1)^m}{m^2}\binom{2n}{n+m}$$ $$\sum_{m=1}^{n}\frac{(-1)^m}{m^4}\binom{2n}{n+m}$$ ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Multiplication of 2 sums that equal another multiplication of 2 sums

I have been trying to prove a formula of mine and i come across something very interesting, well to me it is. If the formula is correct, it states that: $$ \left(\sum_{m=0}^{k-c} {k-c \choose m}{ms_1 ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

How to Evaluate this Summation to Find a Closed Form

While taking the incomplete Bell Polynomil of $x^a$ i found out that: $$ B_{n,k}^{x^a}(x) = x^{ak-n} \sum_{m=0}^k \frac{(am)!(-1)^{k-m}}{m!(k-m)!(am-n)!} $$ Now, what i am wondering is, what is the ...
21
votes
3answers
450 views

How can I prove $\pi=e^{3/2}\prod_{n=2}^{\infty}e\left(1-\frac{1}{n^2}\right)^{n^2}$?

I am interested about some infinite product representations of $\pi$ and $e$ like this. Last week I found this formula on internet ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Proving the closed form for an infinite sum (related to Chebyshev polynomials)

How do I prove the following identity? For $y\not= 0$, we have $$ \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \dfrac{1}{2y}\left( (x+y)^{n+1}-(x-y)^{n+1}\right) = \dfrac{1}{(x+y-1)(x-y-1)}. $$ I am trying to find the ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

A closed form for the coefficients of Chebyshev polynomials

The Chebyshev polynomials are defined recursively: $T_0(x)=1$; $T_1(x)=x$; $T_n(x)=2xT_{n-1}(x)-T_{n-2}(x)$ I have been trying to find a closed form for the coefficient on the monomial $x^j$ of the ...
3
votes
2answers
239 views

Can the recurrence $C_n = 2 C_1 C_{n-1} - C_{n-2}$ be expressed in a closed expression?

I was wondering if the expression: $$ C_n = 2 C_1 C_{n-1} - C_{n-2} $$ could be expressed as a closed expression in terms of (hopefully polynomials of) $C_1$ (or $C_2$). The bases cases for this ...
6
votes
1answer
59 views

closed form for $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{ \beta(a+ix,a-ix)}{\beta(b+ix,b-ix)}\frac{dx}{(b^2+x^2)}$

closed form for : $$\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{ \beta(a+ix,a-ix)}{\beta(b+ix,b-ix)}\frac{\mathrm{dx}}{(b^2+x^2)}$$ where $\beta$ is beta function I tried with the definition of beta and i got ...
13
votes
1answer
236 views

Evaluating $\int{ \frac{x^n}{1 + x + \frac{x^2}{2} + \cdots + \frac{x^n}{n!}}}dx$ using Pascal inversion [duplicate]

(Note: I apreciate very much who marked this as a duplicate but I would like an answer for why my proof is wrong) This is my solution, I have no clue why it failed. Let's start: define $$I_n(m) = ...
4
votes
1answer
52 views

Simplifying real part of hypergeometric function with complex parameters

I am looking for a simpler representation of the following hypergeometric function with complex parameters in terms of more basic functions and manifestly real parameters: ...
8
votes
1answer
153 views

Finding closed form for a generating function with different powers of $x$ in parameter

I'm working on a math/programming puzzle that involves an integer series defined as having a recurrence relating values $a(n)$ to $a(\lfloor\frac{n}{2}\rfloor)$ and $a(\lfloor\frac{n}{4}\rfloor)$. ...
2
votes
1answer
106 views

Closed form for $\sqrt {-1\sqrt {-2 \sqrt {-3 \sqrt {-4 \ldots}}}}$ [closed]

Does $\sqrt {-1\sqrt {-2 \sqrt {-3 \sqrt {-4 \ldots}}}}$ converge? Is there a closed form for it?
3
votes
1answer
27 views

A uncountable an closed subset of the Liouvilles Number

I am trying to "find" a closed and uncountable subset of the Liouville's numbers. $x\in L$ means that for all $n\in \mathbb{N}$ exists $p,q\in \mathbb{Z}$ with $q>1$ such that $$0<\vert ...
1
vote
0answers
92 views

A closed form for $\int x^nf(x)\mathrm{d}x$

When trying to find a closed form for the expression $$\int x^nf(x)\mathrm{d}x$$ in terms of integrals of $f(x)$ I found that $$\int xf(x)\mathrm{d}x=x\int f(x)\mathrm{d}x-\iint ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Eliminating a summation

I need to approach the new position $(x_t,y_t)$ at moment $t$ of a moving object at $(x_0,y_0)$ given its horizontal velocity $vx_0$, its vertical velocity $vy_0$ and some constant resistance $r$ that ...
2
votes
3answers
43 views

Prove that for any positive integer $n$ and $d$, $\sum_{k=0}^d 2^k\log_2(\frac{n}{2^k})=2^{d+1}\log_2(\frac{n}{2^{d-1}})-2-\log_2{n}$

I could prove it by induction, but I need to see how I might have discovered it for myself (cause that's what's gonna be on exam).
4
votes
1answer
103 views

Formula for $\sum\limits_{j=1}^{m-1}\frac{1}{\sin^{2p}(\frac{j\pi}{m})}$

Let $m\geq 2$ be an integer, then there is the well known formula $$\sum\limits_{j=1}^{m-1}\frac{1}{\sin^2(\frac{j\pi}{m})}=\frac{m^2-1}{3},$$ I'm interested in similar equations for the following ...
14
votes
3answers
307 views

How to compute $\sum_{n\text{ odd}}\frac{1}{n\sinh n\pi\sqrt 3}$?

I came across an old question asking to show that $$\displaystyle\sum_{n\text{ odd}}\frac{1}{n\sinh n\pi}=\frac{\ln 2}{8}.\tag{1}$$ Although I have managed to prove this formula, my proof uses ...