This tag is for questions about cardinals and related topics such as cardinal arithmetics, regular cardinals and cofinality. Do not confuse with [large-cardinals] which is a technical concept about strong axioms of infinity.

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2answers
31 views

Proove the next cardinal property: $\kappa>1$ $\Rightarrow$ $\lambda \leq \kappa^{\lambda}$

Let $\kappa>1$ and $\lambda$ be cardinals. Proove that: $\lambda \leq \kappa^{\lambda}$
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0answers
23 views

Is 2 a regular cardinal?

there are different definitions of regular cardinals. (1)a cardinal k is regular if cf(k)=k,since 2 is a successor cardinal,cf(2)=1.so cf(2) is not 2,so 2 is not regular. (2)a cardinal k is regular if ...
2
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1answer
39 views

If $|X|<|Y|$ then $|Y|=|Y-X|$ (with $Y$ infinite)

Like the title says, I would like to prove that if $|X|<|Y|$ then $|Y|=|Y-X|$. (with $Y$ infinite) I know I have to use the axiom of choice, but I've no idea about how to proceed. Any help is ...
0
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1answer
44 views

Are these ordinals cardinals?

Consider $\omega_2 \times \omega$ and $\omega \times \omega_2$ with ordinal arithmetic. Then $| \omega_2 \times \omega | =\omega_2$ and $| \omega \times \omega_2 | =\omega_2$ Does this imply ...
16
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5answers
1k views

Why study cardinals, ordinals and the like?

Why is the study of infinite cardinals, ordinals and the like so prevalent in set theory and logic? What's so interesting about infinite cardinals beyond $\aleph _0 $ and $\mathfrak{c} $? It seems ...
2
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1answer
39 views

Proving $|X^{\mathbb{R}}| \lt |\mathbb{R}^X|$ for $X=\mathbb{R}^{\mathbb{R}}$

Let $X=\mathbb{R}^{\mathbb{R}}$. Claim: $|X^{\mathbb{R}}| \lt |\mathbb{R}^X|$ How can this be shown? Note: We are assuming AC and $A^B$ represents the set of functions from B into A
2
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1answer
38 views

What is the cardinality of Maclaurin series that are entire that induce a bijection between ${\mathbb Z}$ and itself?

So the cardinality of linear polynomials that induce a bijection from ${\mathbb Z}$ to itself is countable, because it is simply the set of linear polynomials of the form $x + n$ where $n$ is an ...
10
votes
0answers
126 views

Sets of Cardinals without choice

I have a theory that the axiom of choice is equivalent to the statement that sets of distinct cardinals are well ordered by cardinality. I can prove that the axiom of choice implies this. However I am ...
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2answers
62 views

Prove that if an injection exists such that $f: A\to \mathbb{N}$, the set $A$ is countable

I know that since an injection, $f: A \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ exists, that $|A| \leq |\mathbb{N}|$. That's as far as I've gotten. The definition for "countable" from my book states that "A set is ...
5
votes
1answer
92 views

Landing between $\beth_\lambda$ and $\beth_{\lambda+1}.$

Main Question. Is it consistent with ZFC that there exists a limit ordinal $\lambda$ and a cardinal number $\nu$ satisfying $$\beth_\lambda < \beth_\lambda^\nu < \beth_{\lambda+1}?$$ I am also ...
3
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1answer
50 views

Is it true that for all infinite cardinal numbers $\nu,$ the set $\{\kappa \mid \kappa^\nu > \kappa\}$ is unbounded?

Bind all lowercase greek letters to cardinal numbers. Question. Is it true that for all infinite cardinal numbers $\nu,$ we have that $\{\kappa \mid \kappa^\nu > \kappa\}$ is unbounded? For ...
0
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1answer
34 views

A question about Choice Functions.

Assume the axioms of ZFC. Suppose that X is an infinite set of infinite (and pairwise disjoint) sets, none of which has a cardinal number greater than that of X. Is the cardinal number of the set of ...
5
votes
2answers
135 views

What is the value of $\beth_{\omega_1}^{\aleph_0}$?

It is well known that $\beth_\omega^{\aleph_0} = \beth_{\omega+1}$. This follows since for strong limit $\kappa$, we have $\kappa^\kappa = \kappa^{\mathrm{cf}(\kappa)}.$ Question. To the extent that ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Is it true that if $\kappa < \kappa^\nu$, then ${\mathrm{cf}(\kappa)} \leq \nu$?

Let $\kappa$ denote an infinite cardinal number. Then we know the following. $$\kappa<\kappa^{\mathrm{cf}(\kappa)}$$ Question. Is it true that if $$\kappa < \kappa^\nu,$$ then ...
1
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2answers
58 views

Is a limit ordinal necessarily a cardinal?

Maybe this is a trivial question. I see that every infinite cardinal is necessarily a limit ordinal, but is the converse true ?
3
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1answer
73 views

What are the fixed points of cardinal exponentiation?

Whenever $\kappa$ is an infinite cardinal number, write $\mathrm{cl}_\kappa$ for the unique function $\mathrm{Card} \rightarrow \mathrm{Card}$ given by $\mathrm{cl}_\kappa(\nu) = \nu^\kappa.$ It ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

$A<_c B \implies P(A)<_c P(B)$

Just started studying set theory. It's seems to me intuitivly correct that if $A<_c B \implies P(A)<_c P(B)$ where $_c$ is the cardinality of a set and $P(\cdot)$ is the powerset. Am I right? I ...
0
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2answers
69 views

What should Aleph-Two mean?

Just curious, what should Aleph-Two mean? I know that Aleph-One is distinct from Aleph-Null and Aleph-One is not countable, but does Aleph-Two mean?
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Is the cardinality of an ordinal, $\alpha$ less than $\alpha$?

Let $k^+=\{\alpha : \alpha \hspace{2mm} \text{is an ordinal,and} \hspace{2mm} |\alpha|<\kappa\}$ where $k^+$ is an infinite cardinal. I am trying to understand the proof the the following ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Given cardinal numbers $\kappa < \nu$ with $\nu$ an aleph fixed-point, do we necessarily have $\aleph_\kappa < \nu$?

Given cardinal numbers $\kappa < \nu$ with $\nu$ an aleph fixed-point, its clear that $\aleph_\kappa \leq \nu$. Is this inequality in fact strict?
1
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1answer
42 views

Is the following characterization of weak inaccessibility correct?

Let us accept the von Neumann cardinal assignment for this question. Furthermore, given a cardinal number $\kappa$, let us write $2^\kappa$ for the unique cardinal number isomorphic to the powerset of ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

Proving König's lemma (technical problems)

the aim of my exercise is to give a proof of the König's lemma. So, let $\kappa, \lambda$, be cardinals such that $cf(\kappa)\leq \lambda$. My professor's suggested us to prove that there exists a ...
5
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1answer
93 views

Do we need choice to prove that $|\mathbb{N} \times A| = |A|$ for all infinite sets $A$?

I can't think of any way to prove it without choice.
1
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1answer
49 views

How can we show that $\omega_1$ is a regular cardinal?

A cardinal $\kappa$ is regular if and only if there is no $\lambda<\kappa$ for which there is a function $f:\lambda\rightarrow\kappa$ with range cofinal in $\kappa$. How can we see in ZFC that ...
0
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2answers
56 views

Determining the cardinality of these sets.

I am having trouble with determining the cardinality(finite, denumerable, uncountable) of these two sets: The set of all circles in $\mathbb{R}^2$ in form $(x-a)^2+(y-b)^2=R^2$ with ...
3
votes
2answers
64 views

Cardinality of the set of at most countable subsets of the real line?

I'm exploring an unrelated question about power series with complex coefficients. While exploring this question, I wondered: What is the cardinality of the set of all such power series? Or with ...
2
votes
3answers
56 views

Cardinality of the set of all involutions from $\mathbb N$ to itself

The following is a section in my homework, I couldnt solve it so I'm asking for some help. I have the following set : $\{f:\mathbb N \to \mathbb N | f(f(a)) = a \text{ for all } a\in \mathbb N\}$. I ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Preserve Cardinals and Adding No Bounded Subsets

In Chapter 15 at the bottom of page 228 of $\textit{Set Theory}$ by Jech, he writes that if $\kappa$ is a cardinal in $V$ and if $\kappa$ has no new bounded subsets in $V[G]$, then $\kappa$ remains a ...
1
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1answer
67 views

How many ways can we totally order a set $X$ (but not necessarily the whole set $X$, perhaps just a subset) up to isomorphism?

Here's Attempt #2 at asking this question. Suppose $X$ is a set (not necessarily finite), and let $T$ denote the collection of all totally ordered sets $(A,\leq)$ such that $A \subseteq X.$ Now let ...
1
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3answers
63 views

Prove that $\{(a,b):a,b\in\mathbb N, a\geq b\}$ is denumerable.

If $S=\{(a,b):a,b\in\mathbb N, a\geq b\}$, how do I prove that $S$ is denumerable? Work: Since $S \subseteq\mathbb{N\times N}$ I know that $S$ is denumerable. But I don't know how to structure the ...
2
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2answers
90 views

Proving that (0,1) and [0,1] are numerically equivalent.

as the title suggests, I need help proving that the cardinality of $(0,1)$ and $[0,1]$ are the same. Here is my work: $f:[0,1] \rightarrow (0,1)$ Let $n\in N$ Let $A=\{\frac{1}{2}, \frac{1}{3}, ...
1
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2answers
45 views

cardinality with finite sets

$A,B,C$ are finite sets. Suppose $A\subseteq B \subseteq C$ and $\#A=\#C$. Prove that $\#A=\#B$ and $\#B=\#C$. Should I prove this by showing that there exist an element in $A$ that exist in $B$ and ...
1
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2answers
56 views

Cardinality of $\lim_{k\to\infty}\mathbb N^k$ vs. $\mathbb N^\infty$

My friend and I are having a disagreement over whether the number of terms in the following series is countable or uncountable: $$\sum_{i=1}^\infty a_i + \sum_{i=1}^\infty\sum_{j=1}^\infty a_{ij}+ ...
1
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0answers
15 views

If $X$ is a finite set of cardinality $n$, where $n$ exists in $P$, show that the following conditions on a function $f: X \to X$ are equivalent: [duplicate]

(a) $f$ is an injection (b) $f$ is a surjection (c) $f$ is a bijection I know that (c) implies (a) and (b) and (a) and (b) imply (c). I also have the following definition that I've been playing ...
0
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2answers
72 views

Cardinality of two sets cross-multiplied

Let $A$ and $B$ be sets. Prove that $ \#(A \times B) = \#(B \times A)$. What I have done: There exist an element $m$ in $A$ such that the element also exists in $B$. If $\#A = \#B$, then $\#B = ...
4
votes
2answers
58 views

Proving that $\mathrm{card}(2^{\mathbb{N}})=\mathrm{card}(\mathbb{N}^\mathbb{N})$

I'd like to prove that $\mathrm{card}(2^{\mathbb{N}})=\mathrm{card}(\mathbb{N}^\mathbb{N})$, I have the following 'sketch' but I'm not sure if this works. ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

An alternative succinct proof needed for trivial cardinality fact

Let $|X|$ denote the cardinality of a set, i.e. the least ordinal $\alpha$ such that there is a bijection between X and $\alpha$. For any sets $X$ and $Y$ we write $X\preccurlyeq Y$ if the exists an ...
2
votes
1answer
124 views

What are interesting examples of existential proofs based on cardinality arguments?

Probably the most famous example of a proof, where consideration of cardinalities is used to show existence of some object, it the Cantor's proof that there exist transcendental numbers. What are ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Bigger infinity than real number infinity [duplicate]

Is there a bigger infinity than the infinity of cardinality of the real numbers $R$ ? i.e. is there a set to which real numbers can't be mapped one-one to ?
0
votes
3answers
69 views

Are the following sets countable?

I'm trying to determine if the following sets are countable: (a) $\mathbb{Z}^{[0,1]}, (b) [0,1]^{\mathbb{Z}}, (c) \mathbb{Z}^{\mathbb{Z}}$, (d) the set given by functions $f:\mathbb{Z}\to\mathbb{R}$ ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Cardinality of rational exponentiation orbit space

Let $X=(0,\infty)$ be the set of positive real numbers. Let $G=\mathbb{Q}\backslash\{0\}$ be the multiplicative group of rational numbers. $G$ acts freely on $X$ by exponentiation: $r\cdot x=x^r$ for ...
0
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1answer
38 views

Cardinal arithmetic basics

Let's say we have $\omega + \omega$. Since these sets are not disjoint we can replace them by disjoint sets of the same cardinality, namely $\omega \times \{0\}$ and $\omega \times \{1\}$. Then $\big ...
5
votes
1answer
101 views

Existence of a regular uncountable $\aleph_{\alpha}$ without $\mathsf{AC}$

Set theory (Jech) $\text{p.}\;27:$ It is an open problem whether one can prove without the axiom of choice that there exists a regular uncountable $\aleph_{\alpha}\;($the informed guess is that ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Can we define ordinals such that the following sentences are independent of ZFC?

Can we explicitly define two ordinals $\alpha$ and $\beta$ in the language of $\{\in\}$ such that the following hold? ZFC proves that $\alpha$ and $\beta$ exist. ZFC proves that $\beth_\beta \neq ...
4
votes
1answer
40 views

If $2^{\kappa}<\lambda$, how many subsets of size $\kappa$ are there of a set of size $\lambda$.

Assume both cardinals are infinite. Also assume AC as needed. So, the obvious bound is that there are no more than $\lambda^\kappa\leq 2^\lambda$ of them. But it seems there should be an easy bound ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Does for a set of cardinals a finite subset exist such that for any cardinal in the set a larger cardinal in the subset exists?

I am writing an essay for which I need to prove that sufficiently many graphs of a certain type exist. Is it true that for any set of sets (or set of cardinals) $S$ a countable subset $C$ exists such ...
2
votes
2answers
118 views

A property of strong limit cardinal

Suppose $\lambda$ is a strong limit cardinal, i.e. $\forall \alpha<\lambda \ 2^\alpha<\lambda$, and the cofinality of $\lambda$: $cf(\lambda)=\omega$. How do we show that $2^\lambda \leq ...
0
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2answers
39 views

A question about the size of the set of all countably-infinite subsets of a countably-infinite set

Let $A$ be a countably-infinite set , then how do we prove that the power set of $A$ and the set of all countably-infinite subsets of $A$ have the same cardinality (i.e. that there is a bijection) ? ...
3
votes
2answers
94 views

Is there, for every set $X$, a set $Y$ for which $|Y| < |X|$ but $|\mathcal{P}(Y)| \geq |X|$?

As the title says, my question is: Is there, for every set $X$, a set $Y$ for which $|Y| < |X|$ but $|\mathcal{P}(Y)| \geq |X|$? I'm fairly certain this is true for finite sets but maybe ...
4
votes
4answers
219 views

Conclusion about cardinalty.

Assume that: $$\left| T \right| > {\aleph _0}$$ Why can't one assume immediately that: $$\left| T \right| \cdot \left| T \right| > \left| T \right| \cdot {\aleph _0}$$