For basic questions about limits, derivatives, integrals, and applications, mainly of one-variable functions.

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43
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3answers
2k views

Calculus conjecture

When I was a senior in high school in 2001, as I took calculus, I made the following conjecture that proves resistive to attack. It goes like this: For every positive integer $n$, there are exactly $n$...
42
votes
3answers
4k views

A strange integral having to do with the sophomore's dream:

I recently noticed that this really weird equation actually carries a closed form! $$\int_0^1 \left(\frac{x^x}{(1-x)^{1-x}}-\frac{(1-x)^{1-x}}{x^x}\right)\text{d}x=0$$ I honestly do not know how to ...
42
votes
8answers
53k views

What is Jacobian Matrix?

What is Jacobian matrix? What are its applications? What is its physical and geometrical meaning? Can someone explain with examples? Thanks! :)
42
votes
5answers
2k views

Convergence/Divergence of infinite series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(\sin(n)+2)^n}{n3^n}$

$$ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(\sin(n)+2)^n}{n3^n}$$ Does it converge or diverge? Can we have a rigorous proof that is not probabilistic? For reference, this question is supposedly a mix of real ...
42
votes
2answers
2k views

Integral $\int_{-1}^{1} \frac{1}{x}\sqrt{\frac{1+x}{1-x}} \log \left( \frac{(r-1)x^{2} + sx + 1}{(r-1)x^{2} - sx + 1} \right) \, \mathrm dx$

Regarding this problem, I conjectured that $$ I(r, s) = \int_{-1}^{1} \frac{1}{x}\sqrt{\frac{1+x}{1-x}} \log \left( \frac{(r-1)x^{2} + sx + 1}{(r-1)x^{2} - sx + 1} \right) \, \mathrm dx = 4 \pi \...
42
votes
6answers
4k views

Bag of tricks in Advanced Calculus/ Real Analysis/Complex Analysis

I am studying for an exam and I have been studying my butt off during the winter break for it. During the course of my study I have written down quite a number of tricks, which in my opinion were '...
42
votes
1answer
1k views

Closed form for $\int_0^\infty\frac{\log\left(1+\frac{\pi^2}{4\,x}\right)}{e^{\sqrt{x}}-1}\mathrm dx$

I encountered this integral in my calculations: $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\log\left(1+\frac{\pi^2}{4\,x}\right)}{e^{\sqrt{x}}-1}\mathrm dx=2\int_0^\infty\frac{x\log\left(1+\frac{\pi^2}{4\,x^2}\right)}{e^x-...
42
votes
1answer
1k views

Prove that $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \large\frac{k}{\text{e}^{2\pi k}-1}=\frac{1}{24}-\frac{1}{8\pi}$

Prove that $$\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{k}{\text{e}^{2\pi k}-1}=\frac{1}{24}-\frac{1}{8\pi}$$
41
votes
2answers
2k views

Why does $ \int_0^1 \lceil { x\sin({1 \over x})} \rceil \,dx = 1 - \frac{\log(4)}{2\pi} $?

One time I was bored and played around a bit with integrals and wolfram alpha and tested the following integral: http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=integral_0%5E1+ceil%28x*sin%281%2Fx%29%29 Note: ...
41
votes
5answers
951 views

How to find $\int_0^\infty\frac{\log\left(\frac{1+x^{4+\sqrt{15}}}{1+x^{2+\sqrt{3}}}\right)}{\left(1+x^2\right)\log x}\mathrm dx$

I was challenged to prove this identity $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\log\left(\frac{1+x^{4+\sqrt{15\vphantom{\large A}}}}{1+x^{2+\sqrt{3\vphantom{\large A}}}}\right)}{\left(1+x^2\right)\log x}\mathrm dx=\...
41
votes
3answers
2k views

Are all limits solvable without L'Hôpital Rule or Series Expansion

Is it always possible to find the limit of a function without using L'Hôpital Rule or Series Expansion? For example, $$\lim_{x\to0}\frac{\tan x-x}{x^3}$$ $$\lim_{x\to0}\frac{\sin x-x}{x^3}$$ $$\...
40
votes
9answers
6k views

Where is the flaw in this “proof” that 1=2? (Derivative of repeated addition)

Consider the following: $1 = 1^2$ $2 + 2 = 2^2$ $3 + 3 + 3 = 3^2$ Therefore, $\underbrace{x + x + x + \ldots + x}_{x \textrm{ times}}= x^2$ Take the derivative of lhs and rhs and we get: $\...
40
votes
6answers
3k views

Which derivatives are eventually periodic?

Which derivatives are eventually periodic? I have noticed that is $a_{n}=f^{(n)}(x)$, the sequence $a_{n}$ becomes eventually periodic for a multitude of $f(x)$. If $f(x)$ was a polynomial, and $...
40
votes
2answers
3k views

Is it mathematically valid to separate variables in a differential equation?

I read the following statement in a book on Calculus, as part of my mathematics course: Technically this separation of $\frac{dy}{dx}$ is not mathematically valid. However, the resulting ...
40
votes
4answers
2k views

Integral $\int_0^\infty\frac{\operatorname{arccot}\left(\sqrt{x}-2\,\sqrt{x+1}\right)}{x+1}\mathrm dx$

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\operatorname{arccot}\left(\sqrt{x}-2\,\sqrt{x+1}\right)}{x+1}\mathrm dx$$
40
votes
3answers
1k views

Prove $\int_{0}^{\pi/2}\frac{dx}{1+\sin^2{(\tan{x})}}=\frac{\pi}{2\sqrt{2}}\bigl(\frac{e^2+3-2\sqrt{2}}{e^2-3+2\sqrt{2}}\bigr)$

Prove the following integral $$I=\int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\dfrac{dx}{1+\sin^2{(\tan{x})}}=\dfrac{\pi}{2\sqrt{2}}\left(\dfrac{e^2+3-2\sqrt{2}}{e^2-3+2\sqrt{2}}\right)$$ This integral result was ...
40
votes
5answers
867 views

Closed form for $\prod_{n=1}^\infty\sqrt[2^n]{\frac{\Gamma(2^n+\frac{1}{2})}{\Gamma(2^n)}}$

Is there a closed form for the following infinite product? $$\prod_{n=1}^\infty\sqrt[2^n]{\frac{\Gamma(2^n+\frac{1}{2})}{\Gamma(2^n)}}$$
40
votes
5answers
4k views

The Meaning of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

I am currently taking an advanced Calculus class in college, and we are studying generalizations of the FTC. We just started on the version for Line Integrals, and one can see the explicit symmetry ...
40
votes
4answers
16k views

Are calculus and real analysis the same thing?

I guess this may seem stupid, but how calculus and real analysis are different from and related to each other? I tend to think they are the same because all I know is that the objects of both are ...
40
votes
3answers
1k views

Function that is the sum of all of its derivatives

I have just started learning about differential equations, as a result I started to think about this question but couldn't get anywhere. So I googled and wasn't able to find any particularly helpful ...
40
votes
3answers
2k views

Making trigonometric substitutions rigorous

I've been tutoring some basic calculus, and it made me think about something pretty basic. Let me explain the problem by example: Say we are given the integral $\int \frac{x^2}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\ \...
39
votes
3answers
3k views

Why, although these functions have the same derivative, do they not differ by a constant?

I calculated the derivative of $\arctan\left(\frac{1+x}{1-x}\right)$ to be $\frac{1}{1+x^2}$. This is the same as $(\arctan)'$. Why is there no $c$ that satisfies $\arctan\left(\frac{1+x}{1-x}\right) =...
39
votes
3answers
520 views

Is $\lfloor n!/e\rfloor$ always even for $n\in\mathbb N$?

I checked several thousand natural numbers and observed that $\lfloor n!/e\rfloor$ seems to always be an even number. Is it indeed true for all $n\in\mathbb N$? How can we prove it? Are there any ...
39
votes
3answers
3k views

Addition is to Integration as Multiplication is to ______

Addition is to Integration as Multiplication is to ______ ? Everyone knows that definite integration is "a way to sum continuum-many terms" in a rough sense. Can we "multiply continuum-many factors" ...
39
votes
1answer
3k views

Convergence of $\sum \limits_{n=1}^{\infty}\sin(n^k)/n$

Does $S_k= \sum \limits_{n=1}^{\infty}\sin(n^k)/n$ converge for all $k>0$? Motivation: I recently learned that $S_1$ converges. I think $S_2$ converges by the integral test. Was the question ...
39
votes
7answers
3k views

Why is there antagonism towards extended real numbers?

In my backstory, I was introduced to the geometric concept of infinity rather young, through reading about the inversive plane. In the course of learning calculus, I'm pretty sure I formed a concept ...
39
votes
2answers
1k views

Evaluate $ \int_{0}^{\pi/2}\frac{1+\tanh x}{1+\tan x}dx $

I need the method to evaluate this integral (the closed-form if possible). $$ \int_{0}^{\pi/2}\frac{1+\tanh x}{1+\tan x}\,dx $$ I used the relationship between $\tan x$ and $\tanh x$ but it didn't ...
38
votes
16answers
4k views

Why does the derivative of sine only work for radians?

I'm still struggling to understand why the derivative of sine only works for radians. I had always thought that radians and degrees were both arbitrary units of measurement, and just now I'm ...
38
votes
5answers
1k views

How to prove $\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} f(x)dx = \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} f\left(x - \frac{1}{x}\right)dx?$

If $f(x)$ is a continuous function on $(-\infty, +\infty)$ and $\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} f(x) \, dx$ exists. How can I prove that $$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} f(x) \, dx = \int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} f\...
38
votes
20answers
2k views

Problem with basic definition of a tangent line.

I have just started studying calculus for the first time, and here I see something called a tangent. They say, a tangent is a line that cuts a curve at exactly one point. But there are a lot of lines ...
38
votes
3answers
818 views

Calculate the following infinite sum in a closed form $\sum_{n=1}^\infty(n\ \text{arccot}\ n-1)$?

Is it possible to calculate the following infinite sum in a closed form? If yes, please point me to the right direction. $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty(n\ \text{arccot}\ n-1)$$
38
votes
2answers
2k views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{\arctan^2x}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\mathrm dx$

Is it possible to evaluate this integral in a closed form? $$I=\int_0^1\frac{\arctan^2x}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\mathrm dx$$ It also can be represented as $$I=\int_0^{\pi/4}\frac{\phi^2}{\cos \phi\,\sqrt{\cos 2\...
38
votes
2answers
1k views

Closed form for ${\large\int}_0^1\frac{\ln(1-x)\,\ln(1+x)\,\ln(1+2x)}{1+2x}dx$

Here is another integral I'm trying to evaluate: $$I=\int_0^1\frac{\ln(1-x)\,\ln(1+x)\,\ln(1+2x)}{1+2x}dx.\tag1$$ A numeric approximation is: $$I\approx-0....
38
votes
1answer
947 views

Integral $\int_0^1\frac{x^9\left(x^4+x^2-x-1-5\ln x\right)}{\left(x^{10}-1\right)\ln x}\mathrm dx$

A friend of mine sent me an integral that she had not been able to crack, and me neither. It comes with a result, but without a proof (I suppose it originated in some math contest). Could you please ...
38
votes
1answer
1k views

Prove that $\int_{0}^{1}\sin{(\pi x)}x^x(1-x)^{1-x}\,dx =\frac{\pi e}{24} $

I've found here the following integral. $$I = \int_{0}^{1}\sin{(\pi (1-x))}x^x(1-x)^{1-x}\,dx=\int_{0}^{1}\sin{(\pi x)}x^x(1-x)^{1-x}\,dx=\frac{\pi e}{24}$$ I've never seen it before and I also didn'...
37
votes
7answers
11k views

What function can be differentiated twice, but not 3 times?

In complex analysis class professor said that in complex analysis if a function is differentiable once, it can be differentiated infinite number of times. In real analysis there are cases where a ...
37
votes
4answers
5k views

Explain $\iint \mathrm dx\,\mathrm dy = \iint r \,\mathrm \,d\alpha\,\mathrm dr$

It is changing the coordinate from one coordinate to another. There is an angle and radius on the right side. What is it? And why? I got: $2\,\mathrm dy\,\mathrm dx = r(\cos^2\alpha-\sin^2\alpha)\,\...
37
votes
6answers
3k views

Fun Geometric Series Puzzle

I recently was reminded of a puzzle I solved in college and thought I'd give it a shot again. However, being distanced from college math, I am having a harder time remembering how I arrived at the ...
37
votes
4answers
2k views

Closed form for ${\large\int}_0^1\frac{\ln^2x}{\sqrt{1-x+x^2}}dx$

I want to find a closed form for this integral: $$I=\int_0^1\frac{\ln^2x}{\sqrt{x^2-x+1}}dx\tag1$$ Mathematica and Maple cannot evaluate it directly, and I was not able to find it in tables. A numeric ...
37
votes
13answers
3k views

Why do differentiation rules work? What's the intuition behind them? (Not asking for proofs)

Differentiation rules have been bugging me ever since I took Basic Calculus. I thought I'd develop some intuitive understanding of them eventually, but so far all my other math courses (including ...
37
votes
8answers
9k views

When to Stop Using L'Hôpital's Rule

I don't understand something about L'Hôpital's rule. In this case: $$ \begin{align} & {{}\phantom{=}}\lim_{x\to0}\frac{e^x-1-x^2}{x^4+x^3+x^2} \\[8pt] & =\lim_{x\to0}\frac{(e^x-1-x^2)'}{(x^4+...
37
votes
13answers
53k views

What are the practical applications of the Taylor Series?

I started learning about the Taylor Series in my calculus class, and although I understand the material well enough, I'm not really sure what actual applications there are for the series. Question: ...
37
votes
6answers
4k views

Is it possible to write a sum as an integral to solve it?

I was wondering, for example, Can: $$ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(3n-1)(3n+2)}$$ Be written as an Integral? To solve it. I am NOT talking about a method for using tricks with integrals. But ...
37
votes
6answers
1k views

A series involving the harmonic numbers : $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{H_n}{n^3}$

Let $H_{n}$ be the nth harmonic number defined by $ H_{n} = \sum_{n=1}^{n} \frac{1}{k}$. I'm interested in knowing how to show that $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{H_n}{n^3}=\frac{\pi^4}{72}.$$ I tried ...
37
votes
4answers
1k views

What is $\int_0^1\frac{x^7-1}{\log(x)}\mathrm dx$?

/A problem from the 2012 MIT Integration Bee is $$ \int_0^1\frac{x^7-1}{\log(x)}\mathrm dx $$ The answer is $\log(8)$. Worlfram alpha gives an indefinite form in terms of the logarithmic integral ...
37
votes
3answers
931 views

Find the value of $\int_0^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{(x^4+1)(e^x-1)}\mathrm dx$

I need to find a closed-form for the following integral. Please give me some ideas how to approach it: $$\int_0^{\infty}\frac{x^3}{(x^4+1)(e^x-1)}\mathrm dx$$
37
votes
8answers
9k views

Why is $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac {\ln x}{1+x^2} \mathrm{d}x =0$?

We had our final exam yesterday and one of the questions was to find out the value of: $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac {\ln x}{1+x^2} \mathrm{d}x $$ Interestingly enough, using the substitution $x=\frac{1}{...
37
votes
1answer
663 views

How can I prove this closed form for $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{(4n)!}{\Gamma\left(\frac23+n\right)\,\Gamma\left(\frac43+n\right)\,n!^2\,(-256)^n}$

How can I prove the following conjectured identity? $$\mathcal{S}=\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{(4\,n)!}{\Gamma\left(\frac23+n\right)\,\Gamma\left(\frac43+n\right)\,n!^2\,(-256)^n}\stackrel?=\frac{\sqrt3}{2\,...
37
votes
3answers
5k views

$\sqrt{c+\sqrt{c+\sqrt{c+\cdots}}}$, or the limit of the sequence $x_{n+1} = \sqrt{c+x_n}$

(Fitzpatrick Advanced Calculus 2e, Sec. 2.4 #12) For $c \gt 0$, consider the quadratic equation $x^2 - x - c = 0, x > 0$. Define the sequence $\{x_n\}$ recursively by fixing $|x_1| \lt c$ and ...
37
votes
5answers
2k views

A question on Taylor Series and polynomial

Suppose $ f(x)$ that is infinitely differentiable in $[a,b]$. For every $c\in[a,b] $ the series $\sum\limits_{n=0}^\infty \cfrac{f^{(n)}(c)}{n!}(x-c)^n $ is a polynomial. Is true that $f(x)$ is a ...