For basic questions about limits, derivatives, integrals, and applications, mainly of one-variable functions.

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2
votes
1answer
32 views

Old calculus books?

this is really a question about math and not books. I am mainly wondering if reading really old calculus books is still beneficial for undrgraduate students today. I was told that the material covered ...
1
vote
2answers
16 views

Div$f$ is invariant under an orthogonal change of coordinates

Let $f: \mathbb{R^n} \to \mathbb{R^n}$ and $Df$ exists. I need to show that div$f$ is invariant under an orthogonal change of coordinates. Let $T:\mathbb{R^n} \to \mathbb{R^n}$ be an orthogonal ...
10
votes
2answers
110 views

$\lim x_n^{x_n}=4$ prove that $\lim x_n=2$ [duplicate]

Let $(x_n)$ be a sequence of real numbers, such that: $\lim x_n^{x_n}=4$, prove that $\lim x_n=2$ I'm not sure if my proof is right. I assumed that $\lim x_n $ isn't 2 and using Cauchy's criterion: ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Please Help Me - Is this conclusion true?

In a sliding mode control, we have : $ s = \dot e + \Lambda e $ we know that e and $ \dot e $ are independent variables. Now in order to find control effort from the system dynamics, we rewrite the ...
-1
votes
1answer
13 views

Flatten grid coordinates to find display order.

I have a grid measuring (3 * 3) for example (though there may be more rows, there will always be 3 columns only), and i need to find the display order of a particular item, given it's x, y position. ...
1
vote
3answers
43 views

Consider the function f(x)=sin(x) in the interval x=[π/4,7π/4]. The number and location(s) of the local minima of this function are?

This is MCQ of a competitive exam(GATE), Answer is (d) given by GATE , and from other sources ,explanation is (b) somewhere and (d) somewhere , I am going with (b) as minimum at $270$, I have drawn ...
3
votes
4answers
167 views

Basic of Partial Differential Equation

I pretty new to calculus and I am trying to understand the following transformations: $2uu_{t} = \frac{\partial }{\partial t}u^{2} $ $2u_{t}u_{tt} = \frac{\partial }{\partial t}u_{t}^{2} $ $2uu_{xx} ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

Prove or disprove that a series is convergent

I was given the following task which I struggle with. Prove the following statement, or disprove it by giving a counter example: if $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ is convergent then $\sum_{n=1}^\infty ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

limit of homogeneous polynomials as the order approaches infinity?

Let $f_n(x,y)=\sum a_ix^iy^{n-i}$ be a sequence of homogeneous polynomials with fixed coefficients $a_i$, is it possible to make $f_n$ converge as $n\rightarrow\infty$ after possible renormalization? ...
7
votes
2answers
82 views

Name of $|x|^p+|y|^p\le (|x|+|y|)^p$ ($p\ge 1$)?

I checked these What is the difference between square of sum and sum of square? Prove $(|x| + |y|)^p \le |x|^p + |y|^p$ for $x,y \in \mathbb R$ and $p \in (0,1]$. It is easy to see $p$-th power ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Understanding second step in derivation of joint distribution

This is a follow up to an earlier question Understanding step in derivation of joint distribution. In a derivation I am trying to understand, there is the following argument: $$ n! \int \prod_{i=1}^n ...
1
vote
2answers
29 views

Evaluating the bounds for a triple integral

I've working on the problem: Evaluate $\iiint_Q$ $1/(x^2 + y^2 + z^2)$, where Q is the solid region ABOVE the xy-plane (and we must do this in spherical coordinates). What I've done thus far is ...
3
votes
3answers
27 views

A balloon rises at a certain rate (in body), What is velocity of balloon after 40 seconds?

A balloon rises vertically from the ground so that its height after $t$ seconds is $h(t) =\frac12t^2+\frac12t$ feet where $t$ is between $0$ and $60$. What is the velocity of the balloon after $40$ ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

How to find unkown height of triangle without hyptenuse

I been trying to solve this question and have tried to solve it for many days, but do not know how, any help would be much oblidged. A cable company owns the roads marked with the dotted lines in ...
2
votes
2answers
29 views

Limit with fraction in numerator

I need to find the limit for $$ \lim_{x\,\rightarrow\,0} \frac {\frac{1}{x+3} - \frac{1}{3}}{x} $$ It's supposed to be $-1/9$. I've tried changing it around multiple ways, and get the $9$ but never ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Can someone suggest some reference for a particular kind of infinite series

Can someone suggest some reference for the properties of the series $\lim_{n \to \infty} \sum_{i = 0}^{n} f(n, i)$ For example, when can we apply approximations to $f(n, i)$ that only works when $n ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Will this method always find the maximum of a positive-definite function?

Definitions: A real-valued, continuously differentiable function $f$ is positive definite on a neighborhood of the origin, $D$, if $f(0) = 0$ and $f(x) > 0$ for every non-zero $x \in D$. ...
-1
votes
0answers
20 views

How do you calculate an area enclosed by four tangents by using the integration method?

For example, make it $y=3x-6$, $y=3x-15.48$, $y=-0.25x+1.25$, and $y=-0.25x-1.06$. It's been taken by finding the tangent line of a curve $y=(x-2)(x-3)(x-5)$.
1
vote
1answer
18 views

A question about fixed-point iteration sequence of a two times continuously differentiable function

I am stuck at this problem: Let $g:[a,b]\to[a,b]$ be a 2 times continuously differentiable function that satisfy: for all $x\in [a,b]$, $g''(x)\neq 0$ And let $s$ be an arbitrary fixed-point of ...
2
votes
2answers
60 views

how to prove that $ \lim x_n^{y_n}=\lim x_n^{\lim y_n}$?

Let $(x_n)$ and $(y_n)$ be two sequences of real numbers, such that: $\lim x_n = a > 0$ and $\lim y_n = b \in \mathbb R$ I need to prove that: $$\lim \left( x_n ^{y_n} \right) = a^b$$ I tried ...
1
vote
4answers
59 views

evaluate $\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{r=1}^{n-1}\frac{e^{r/n}}{n}$

Each term in the equation given in title tends to zero. $e^{\frac{r}{n}}$ tends to 1 and the denominator tends to infinity. Also, even the greatest numerator in the summation $e^{\frac{n-1}{n}}$ ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

GRE Math Subject Practice Test Question $53$

f and g are function of a real variable such that $g(x) = \int_0^x f(y)(y-x)dy$ for all $x$. If g is three times continuously differentiable, what is the greatest integer n for which f must be $n$ ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

simplifying complex expression

Hi I am trying to simplify the following expression:$$ \left|\frac{1}{a+ib}\left(\frac{J_1(c x)}{J_1(c b)}-x\right)\right|^2,\quad a,b,x\in \mathbb{R}, \ c\in \mathbb{C} $$ Is there a simple way of ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Integral $\int z^2\Re(J_1(z))dz$

$$ \int x^2 \, \Re\left[{J_1(a x)}\right]dx=\frac{1}{a^3}\int z^2 \Re\left[\frac{z}{2}\sum_{k\geq 0} \frac{(-1)^k}{k!\Gamma(k+2)} \left(\frac{z}{2}\right)^{2k}\right]dz $$ where $a\in \mathbb{C}$ and ...
6
votes
0answers
75 views

Could it possibly have a nice closed form? $\int _0^1\int _0^1\frac{x y}{(x+1) (y+1) \log (x y)}\ dx \ dy$

Using multiple integrals it's not hard to show that the present integral reduces to some integral over squared digamma functions, but then things become harder. How would you tackle the problem? ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Understanding step in derivation of joint distribution

In a derivation I am trying to understand, there is the following argument: \begin{align} &=\int n!\prod_{i=1}^n f_X(x_i)\mathbb{I}_{x_1\le x_2\le\ldots\le ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

How to calculate the partition function of a given distribution?

As noted in A FULL BAYESIAN APPROACH FOR INVERSE PROBLEMS, let $ y = Ax + n$, where $x$ is a $m$ dimensional signal and $n$ is white Gaussian noise with precision $\beta$, so we have: $$ y|x, \beta ...
2
votes
2answers
25 views

Show that any 2D vectors can be expressed in the form…

(a) Show that any 2D vector can be expressed in the form $s \begin{pmatrix} 3 \\ -1 \end{pmatrix} + t \begin{pmatrix} 2 \\ 7 \end{pmatrix},$ where $s$ and $t$ are real numbers. (b) Let $u$ and $v$ be ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Condition on p for convergence of $\sum{\frac{1}{n(\log(n))^p}}$

For what values of $p$ is the series $\sum{\frac{1}{n(\log(n))^p}}$ divergent and for what values it is convergent?
1
vote
3answers
72 views

Series convergence $x+\frac{2^2x^2}{2!}+\frac{3^3x^3}{3!}+\frac{4^4x^4}{4!}+\cdots$ [on hold]

Choose the right option. The series $x+\dfrac{2^2x^2}{2!}+\dfrac{3^3x^3}{3!}+\dfrac{4^4x^4}{4!}+\cdots$ is convergent if a. $0<x<1/e$ b. $x>1/e$ c. $2/e<x<3/e$ d. $3/e<x<4/e$ ...
5
votes
2answers
78 views

Problem 7 IMC 2015 - Integral and Limit

I'm trying to solve problem 7 from the IMC 2015, Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria (Day 2, July 30). Here is the problem Compute $$\large\lim_{A\to\infty}\frac{1}{A}\int_1^A A^\frac{1}{x}\,\mathrm dx$$ ...
-5
votes
2answers
36 views

solve this linear equation

Using linear differential equation, solve the following equation $( y \log (x)-2) y \textrm{d} x =x \textrm{d}y$. Source: "higher engineering mathematics by grewal"
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Proof that the sum of a certain infinite series can be bounded to zero

$\forall 0 < \alpha < 1$, there exists $\lambda > 0$, $k > 0$, s.t. $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} \sum_{w = 1}^{\lambda n} \binom{n}{w} \frac{1}{2^{\alpha n}}\left(1 +\left(1 - ...
1
vote
3answers
68 views

Does l'Hopital rule work for -inf/inf?

If you have an indeterminate form: $\frac{-\infty}\infty$ $\frac\infty{-\infty}$ $\frac{-\infty}{-\infty}$ does l'Hôpital's rule also apply?
1
vote
2answers
23 views

Convex function and second devirative

I would like to ask a question about the condition of a convex function. We know that a function $f(x)$ is convex if and only if $f''(x) \geq 0$. But what if a function has more than one variable? ...
2
votes
3answers
41 views

Interpretation of the curl of a vector field

Let us assume the curl of a vector field is $$ P=(xy)(a_x)+ (y z) (a_y) +(z x) (a_z) $$ Where $ a_x, a_y, a_z $ are unit vectors along x y and z . Then is the curl at a point in the field the ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

find the total differential of this equation $ xyz + \sqrt{ x^2 + y^2 + z^2} = \sqrt 2 $

How to calculate the total differential of $ z= z(x,y)$, which is $ xyz + \sqrt{ x^2 + y^2 + z^2} = \sqrt 2 $ at point (1, 0, -1)? The evaluation of mine seems wrong, $ dz= \frac{\partial ...
6
votes
1answer
43 views

For nonnegative continuous $f$, if $f'(x)-f(x)\leq 0, \forall x\geq 0$ and $f(0)=0$, find the value of $f(1)$. [duplicate]

Let $f(x)$ be a non-negative continuous function such that $f'(x)-f(x)\leq 0, \forall x\geq 0$ and $f(0)=0,$find the value of $f(1)$. $f'(x)-f(x)\leq 0$$\Rightarrow f'(x)\leq f(x)$$\Rightarrow ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Tough problem on sum of infinite series

I've been working on the problem for quite a while but have no idea how to approach it. This proposition arises from a practical probabilistic bound problem, but it seems very deep. Lots of thanks to ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Evaluating a limit I

Consider the limit \begin{align} \lim_{x \to \infty} \left[ \frac{(x+a)^{x+1}}{(x+b)^{x}} - \frac{(x+a-n)^{x+1-n}}{(x+b-n)^{x-n}} \right]. \end{align} It is speculated that the resulting value is ...
2
votes
4answers
65 views

Does $\displaystyle\sum^{\infty}_{n=1}\left(\frac{n!}{n^n}\right)$ converge or diverge? [duplicate]

Does $\displaystyle\sum^{\infty}_{n=1}\left(\frac{n!}{n^n}\right)$ converge or diverge? I've tried the ratio test, but i'm unsure if I can continue this way. ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

Anti-deriving composition of a non-linear activation function on Fourier series?

My pea-brain is not commensurate with the big words in the title. But I'm working on a project where I need to compute definite integrals of the composition $f(g(x))$, where $f(x)$ is any non-linear ...
1
vote
2answers
28 views

Minimize the area of a wire divided into a circle and square.

A wire is divided into two parts. One part is shaped into a square, and the other part is shaped into a circle. Let r be the ratio of the circumference of the circle to the perimeter of the square ...
4
votes
1answer
79 views

Integral $\int_0^\infty\text{Li}_2\left(e^{-\pi x}\right)\arctan x\,dx$

Please help me to evaluate this integral in a closed form: $$I=\int_0^\infty\text{Li}_2\left(e^{-\pi x}\right)\arctan x\,dx$$ Using integration by parts I found that it could be expressed through ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Evaluating triple integrals that are bounded

I'm slowly learning how to bound triple integration problems, but this one has me a little confused. $\iiint_D(x+2y)dV$, where D is bounded by the parabolic cylinder, $y = x^2$, and the planes x=z, ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Minimize distance between polynomials, of a certain form, with Laguerre polynomials

A typical problem that I may encounter on an upcoming test looks like this: Find the polynomial $P(x)$ of a degree less than or equal to three that minimizes $$\int_0^\infty (x^4 - ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Closed form solution (formula) for possible events

Let's have 100 time units and 4 possible events A1, A2, B1, B2 that might occur within the 100 units. A1 always occurs before A2, B1 always occurs before B2, t1 < t2 < t3 < t4. There are 2 ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Finding the volume of a solid region

I'm trying to find the volume of the solid region inside the sphere $x^2+y^2+z^2=4$, and the upper nappe of the cone $z^2=3x^2+3y^2$ (I only have to set up the triple integral itself, not evaluate ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Difference between line integrals in complex analysis and real analysis,

The formula in complex analysis is $$\int f(\gamma(t))\cdot(\gamma'(t)dt$$ and the formula in the real variable setting, for a gradient field, is: $$\int F\cdot dr$$ $$=\int f_x\,dx + f_y\,dy + ...
-1
votes
1answer
42 views

Calculating the limit of a quotient with exponential functions using exponent rules

I need to calculate the following limit $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\frac{3\cdot2^n - 2\cdot3^n}{ 5\cdot2^n - 6\cdot3^n}.$$ Any way, back to our topic, according to my book and wolframalpha, the answer is ...