Coefficients involved in the Binomial Theorem. $\binom{n}{k}$ counts the subsets of size $k$ of a set of size $n$.

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How prove this inequality $(1+\frac{1}{16})^{16}<\frac{8}{3}$

show that $$(1+\dfrac{1}{16})^{16}<\dfrac{8}{3}$$ it's well know that $$(1+\dfrac{1}{n})^n<e$$ so $$(1+\dfrac{1}{16})^{16}<e$$ But I found this $e=2.718>\dfrac{8}{3}=2.6666\cdots$ ...
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954 views

Squared binomial coefficient

I've got the following finite sum: $s_{n}=\sum\limits_{k=0}^{n}\binom{n}{k}^2p^k$ (esp. if $p$ is a function of $n$, like $p=\frac1{n}$), which can be rewritten as ...
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2answers
249 views

Expansion of $ (a_1 + a_2 + \cdots + a_k)^n $

Is there an expansion for the following summation? $$ (a_1 + a_2 + \cdots + a_k)^n $$
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3answers
135 views

How to prove the following limit: $\lim_{n \to +\infty} 4^n\left[\sum_{k=0}^n (-1)^k{n\choose k}\ln (n+k)\right]=0$?

How to prove the following limit: $$\lim_{n \to +\infty} 4^n\left[\sum_{k=0}^n (-1)^k{n\choose k}\ln (n+k)\right]=0?$$
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Combinatorial argument for the identity $k\binom{n}{k} = n\binom{n-1}{k-1}$

I am looking for the combinatorial argument for the identity: \begin{equation} k\binom{n}{k} = n\binom{n-1}{k-1} \end{equation} This is easy to show algebraically as: \begin{equation} \binom{n}{k} ...
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370 views

A Curious Binomial Sum Identity without Calculus of Finite Differences

Let $f$ be a polynomial of degree $m$ in $t$. The following curious identity holds for $n \geq m$, \begin{align} \binom{t}{n+1} \sum_{j = 0}^{n} (-1)^{j} \binom{n}{j} \frac{f(j)}{t - j} = (-1)^{n} ...
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362 views

How to count matrices with rows and columns with an odd number of ones?

I proved that $\displaystyle \left(\sum_{k\, \rm odd}\binom{m}{k}\right)^{n-1}=\left(\sum_{k\;{\rm odd}}\binom{n}{k}\right)^{m-1}$ by counting matrices of size $n\times m$ with entries in $\{0,1\}$ ...
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355 views

Simplify $\sum_{k=1}^{n} {k\choose m} {k}$

$\sum_{k=1}^{n} {k\choose m} {k}$ I have tried to expand it, but the m is pretty annoying. Any ideas to get rid of the summation and give a simple formula? There is a part before $\sum_{k=1}^{n} ...
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1answer
190 views

Closed-form expression for $\sum_{n=1}^{k} (-1)^{n+1}n^2(n^2-1)\binom{2k}{k-n}$?

Wolframalpha tells me that $$\sum_{n=1}^{k} (-1)^{n+1}n^2(n^2-1)\binom{2k}{k-n}=0$$ for $k>2$ However I have not been able to come up with a proof and I simply don't see how to do it. Does anyone ...
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About one generating function

Initially, I have the following problem: find $$\sum_{k=0}^{n+1}(−1)^{n−k}4^k{n+k+1 \choose 2k}.$$ I thought, if I found the function $g_n(x) = \sum_{k=0}^{n}{n+k \choose 2k}x^k$, the answer would be ...
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Combinatorial Identity $(n-r) \binom{n+r-1}{r} \binom{n}{r} = n \binom{n+r-1}{2r} \binom{2r}{r}$

Show that $(n-r) \binom{n+r-1}{r} \binom{n}{r} = n \binom{n+r-1}{2r} \binom{2r}{r}$. In the LHS $\binom{n+r-1}{r}$ counts the number of ways of selecting $r$ objects from a set of size $n$ where ...
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Roots of a polynomial whose coefficients are ratios of binomial coefficients

Prove that $\left\{\cot^2\left(\dfrac{k\pi}{2n+1}\right)\right\}_{k=1}^{n}$ are the roots of the equation $$x^n-\dfrac{\dbinom{2n+1}{3}}{\dbinom{2n+1}{1}}x^{n-1} + ...
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Show that there are infinitely many integers such that $ \binom{m}{n-1} = \binom{m-1}{n} $

This question comes from the 1st Brazilian's IMO TST of 2004. I have found no solutions of it online, though I have developed one. After getting to $ mn = (m-n)(m-n+1) $, my solution relies on the ...
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187 views

Cousin of the Vandermonde binomial identity

The Vandermonde binomial identity can be expressed as \begin{align*} \sum_{i+j=r} \binom{m}{i} \binom{n}{j} = \binom{m+n}{r} && r \leq m +n. \end{align*} While working on an algebra problem, I ...
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227 views

$\sum_{i=0}^m \binom{m-i}{j}\binom{n+i}{k} =\binom{m + n + 1}{j+k+1}$ Combinatorial proof

Is there a simple combinatorial proof for the following identity? $$\sum_{0\leq i \leq m} \binom{m-i}{j}\binom{n+i}{k} =\binom{m + n + 1}{j+k+1}$$ where $m,j \geq 0$, $k \geq n \geq 0$.
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Intuition behind negative combinations

Take $\binom{n}{r}$. It denotes how in how many different ways you can choose $r$ elements from a set of $k$ elements. For case $\binom{4}{3}$ which evaluates to $\frac{4!}{3!(4-3)!}=4$, it perfectly ...
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Bounds on $\sum_{k=0}^{m} \binom{n}{k}x^k$ and $\sum_{k=0}^{m} \binom{n}{k}x^k(1-x)^{n-k}, m<n$

I've read this interesting article by Woersch (1994) dealing with approximation of binomial coefficients (rows of Pascal's triangle). I'm just wondering if similar bounds exist for partial binomial ...
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310 views

A binomial coefficient identity?

Suppose $p$, $k$ and $s$ are integers with $s,k \le p$. Consider the following polynomial in $x$ and $y$, $$ \sum_{\ell=0}^k \binom{s}{\ell} \binom{p-s}{k-\ell} x^\ell y^{p-\ell}$$ Does this ...
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1answer
226 views

A finite sum involving the binomial coefficients and the harmonic numbers

Wikipedia has a proof of the identity $$ H_{n} =\sum_{k=1}^{n} (-1)^{k-1} \binom{n}{k} \frac{1}{k}$$ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonic_number#Calculation Curiously, there is also the identity ...
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A binomial identity from Mathematical Reflections

Here is the problem: Let $m,n$ be positive integers with $n>m$. Prove that $\displaystyle\sum_{k=0}^{\lfloor\frac{n+m}2\rfloor} (-1)^{k}\binom{n}{k}\binom{m+n-2k}{n-1}=\binom{n}{m+1}$ This ...
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177 views

Determining when a certain binomial sum vanishes

Consider the following sum of signed binomial coefficients: $$S_{n,a,p} = \sum_{i \equiv a \mod p} \binom{n}{i}(-1)^i$$ ($n$ is a positive integer, $p$ is an odd prime, $a$ is between $0$ and ...
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Asymptotics of binomial coefficients and the entropy function

I found a question while I was trying to practice Combinatorics and Probabilistic methods.I tried to solve it with no success.. this is the question: Use the Stirling approximation of the ...
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274 views

Asymptotic difference between a function and its binomial average

The origin of this question is the identity $$\sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k} H_k = 2^n \left(H_n - \sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1}{k 2^k}\right),$$ where $H_n$ is the $n$th harmonic number. Dividing by $2^n$, we ...
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Does this really converge to 1/e? (Massaging a sum)

Short version: can we prove that $$\sum_{k=0}^n (-1)^k \binom{n}{k}^2 \frac{k!}{n^{2k}} \to \frac1e$$ as $n \to \infty$? Long version: First, consider $$a_n = \sum_{k=0}^n \frac{(-1)^k}{k!}$$ It is ...
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asymptotics of the expected number of edges of a random acyclic digraph with indegree and outdegree at most one

A recent discussion, which may be found here, examined the problem of counting the number of acyclic digraphs on $n$ labelled nodes and having $k$ edges and indegree and outdegree at most one. It was ...
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421 views

Combinatorial Interpretation of Fractional Binomial Coefficients

My question is a bit imprecise - but I hope you like it. I even strongly think it has a proper answer. The binomial coefficient $\binom{\frac{1}{2}}{n}$ is strongly related to Catalan numbers - the ...
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1answer
288 views

Vandermonde identity in a ring

Let $R$ be a commutative $\mathbb{Q}$-algebra. For $r \in R$ and $n \in \mathbb{N}$ we can define the binomial coefficient $\binom{r}{n}$ as usual by $\binom{r}{0}=1$ and ...
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Asymptotics for sum of binomial coefficients from Concrete Mathematics

Concrete Mathematics EXERCISE 9.25: Supposing \[ S_n = \sum_{k=0}^n \binom{3n}k \] Prove that \[ S_n = \binom{3n}{n}\left(2-\frac4n+O\left(\frac1{n^2}\right)\right) \] This sequence also ...
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Solution of $\large\binom{x}{n}+\binom{y}{n}=\binom{z}{n}$ with $n\geq 3$

I found this question in an old problem set. There's no hint or solution mentioned. For $n \geq 3$, prove or disprove the existence of $(x,y,z) \in \mathbb N^3, ...
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Lower bound on binomial coefficient

I encountered the following claim $$\frac{1}{n+1}2^{nH_2(k/n)} \le \binom{n}{k} \le 2^{nH_2(k/n)}$$ where $H_2$ is the binary entropy function. The upper bound is rather well known but how does one ...
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Find the coefficient of $\sqrt{3}$ in $(1+\sqrt{3})^7$?

I just want to ask you if my solution is correct. Here's the problem, Using the Binomial Theorem, find the coefficient of $\sqrt{3}$ in $(1+\sqrt{3})^7$. Solution: The binomial theorem is, ...
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Simplify $\sum_{i=0}^n (i+1)\binom ni$

Simplifying this expression$$1\cdot\binom{n}{0}+ 2\cdot\binom{n}{1}+3\cdot\binom{n}{2}+ \cdots+(n+1)\cdot\binom{n}{n}= ?$$ $$\text{Hint: } \binom{n}{k}= \frac{n}{k}\cdot\binom{n-1}{k-1} $$
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Probability that given a 1000 page book with 1000 misprints, a page will have 3 misprints.

Setting A book of 1000 pages contains 1000 misprints. Estimate the chances that a given page contains at least three misprints. Solution My solution is ...
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5answers
431 views

Closed-form expression for $\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}kk^p$ for integers $n,\,p$

Is there a closed-form expression for the sum $\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}kk^p$ given positive integers $n,\,p$? Earlier I thought of this series but failed to figure out a closed-form expression in $n,\,p$ ...
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How to compute $\sum^n_{k=0}(-1)^k\binom{n}{k}k^n$

When trying to answer this question I arrived at $$\int^\infty_0\frac{\sin(nx)\sin^n{x}}{x^{n+1}}dx=\frac{\pi}{2}\frac{(-1)^n}{n!}\sum^n_{k=0}(-1)^k\binom{n}{k}k^n$$ After using Wolfram Alpha to ...
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Derivation of binomial coefficient in binomial theorem.

How was the binomial coefficient of the binomial theorem derived? $$\frac{n!}{k!(n-k)!}$$
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A question about limit $\lim_{n\to\infty} {n \choose n/2}/2^n$

My question is: What is the result of this limit: $\displaystyle \lim_{n \to +\infty} \frac{{n \choose n/2}}{2^n}=$ ?
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What is the coefficient of $x^{25}$ in $(x^3 + x + 1)^{10}$?

Here's what I have so far on the off chance that my thinking is correct... So using Vieta's the coefficient of the $x^{25}$ should be $-(r_1r_2r_3r_4r_5+r_1r_3r_4r_5r_6+...+r_6r_7r_8r_9r_{10})$ Since ...
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Proving $ { 2n \choose n } = 2^n \frac{ 1 \cdot 3 \cdot 5 \cdots (2n-1)}{n!} $

How to prove this binomial identity : $$ { 2n \choose n } = 2^n \frac{ 1 \cdot 3 \cdot 5 \cdots (2n-1)}{n!} $$ The left hand side arises while solving a standard binomial problem the right hand ...
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The value of $\binom{50}0\binom{50}1+\binom{50}1\binom{50}2+\dots+\binom{50}{49}\binom{50}{50}$ is

The value of $\binom{50}0\binom{50}1+\binom{50}1\binom{50}2+\dots+\binom{50}{49}\binom{50}{50}$ is? I tried this: ...
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The maximum of $\binom{n}{x+1}-\binom{n}{x}$

The following question comes from an American Olympiad problem. The reason why I am posting it here is that, although it seems really easy, it allows for some different and really interesting ...
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218 views

Short and intuitive proof that $\left(\frac{n}{k}\right)^k \leq \binom{n}{k}$

The simple inequality that $\left(\frac{n}{k}\right)^k \leq \binom{n}{k}$ has a number of different proofs. But is there a particularly intuitive, short and elegant proof that uses the natural ...
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Identity for $\sum\limits_{j = a}^{N} \binom{N}{j} \binom{j}{a} d^{-j}$?

I have run across the following multinomial series: $$ \sum_{j = a}^{N} \binom{N}{j} \binom{j}{a} d^{-j} $$ Here, $d>1$. This seems like a formula which has either a well-known identity, ...
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$\binom{n}{r}$ versus $^n\mathrm{C}_r$ : which notation is more used?

I know that the notation $\binom{n}{r}$ is more standard to use since we have a $\LaTeX$ command for it while there is no such thing for $^n\mathrm{C}_r$. Now, I'm wondering which notation do people ...
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2answers
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Is there a “counting groups/committees” proof for the identity $\binom{\binom{n}{2}}{2}=3\binom{n+1}{4}$?

This is exercise number $57$ in Hugh Gordon's Discrete Probability. For $n \in \mathbb{N}$, show that $$\binom{\binom{n}{2}}{2}=3\binom{n+1}{4}$$ My algebraic solution: ...
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295 views

Is there a binomial identity for this expression $\frac{\binom{r}{k}}{\binom{n}{k}}$?

What I'm trying to prove is this summation: $$\sum_{i=0}^{k} \dfrac{\dbinom{r}{i} \cdot \dbinom{n - r}{k - i}}{\dbinom{n}{k}} \cdot i = \dfrac{r}{n} \cdot k$$ I used induction on $k$ as follows: ...
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Combinatoric proof for $\sum_{k=0}^n{n\choose k}\left(-1\right)^k\left(n-k\right)^4 = 0$ ($n\geqslant5$)

I'm trying to proove the following: $For\space every\space n \ge 5$: $$\sum_{k=0}^n{n\choose k}\left(-1\right)^k\left(n-k\right)^4 = 0$$ I've tried cancelling one $(n-k)$, and got this: ...
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3answers
135 views

Bounds for $\binom{n}{cn}$ with $0 < c < 1$.

Are there really good upper and lower bounds for $\binom{n}{cn}$ when $c$ is a constant $0 < c < 1$? I know that $\left(\frac{1}{c^{cn}}\right) \leq \binom{n}{cn} \leq ...
6
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3answers
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Proving that $\sum_{k=0}^{n} {{m+k} \choose{m}} = { m+n+1 \choose m+1 }$ [duplicate]

I have to prove that: $$\sum_{k=0}^{n} {{m+k} \choose{m}} = { m+n+1 \choose m+1 }$$ I tried to open up the right side with Pascal's definition that: $$ { n \choose k} = {n-1 \choose {k}} + {n-1 ...
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278 views

Number of acyclic digraphs on $[n]$ with $k$ edges and each indegree, outdegree $\leq 1$

How many (labelled) acyclic digraphs are there on the vertex set $[n]$ with exactly $k$ edges and each indegree, outdegree $\leq 1$? The answer is $${n \choose k} {n-1 \choose k} k!.$$ Is there a ...