Coefficients involved in the Binomial Theorem. $\binom{n}{k}$ counts the subsets of size $k$ of a set of size $n$.

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Asymptotics of binomial coefficients and the entropy function

I found a question while I was trying to practice Combinatorics and Probabilistic methods.I tried to solve it with no success.. this is the question: Use the Stirling approximation of the ...
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Asymptotic difference between a function and its binomial average

The origin of this question is the identity $$\sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k} H_k = 2^n \left(H_n - \sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1}{k 2^k}\right),$$ where $H_n$ is the $n$th harmonic number. Dividing by $2^n$, we ...
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Does this really converge to 1/e? (Massaging a sum)

Short version: can we prove that $$\sum_{k=0}^n (-1)^k \binom{n}{k}^2 \frac{k!}{n^{2k}} \to \frac1e$$ as $n \to \infty$? Long version: First, consider $$a_n = \sum_{k=0}^n \frac{(-1)^k}{k!}$$ It is ...
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Inductive proof that ${2n\choose n}=\sum{n\choose i}^2.$

I would like to prove inductively that $${2n\choose n}=\sum_{i=0}^n{n\choose i}^2.$$ I know a couple of non-inductive proofs, but I can't do it this way. The inductive step eludes me. I tried naively ...
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asymptotics of the expected number of edges of a random acyclic digraph with indegree and outdegree at most one

A recent discussion, which may be found here, examined the problem of counting the number of acyclic digraphs on $n$ labelled nodes and having $k$ edges and indegree and outdegree at most one. It was ...
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Combinatorial Interpretation of Fractional Binomial Coefficients

My question is a bit imprecise - but I hope you like it. I even strongly think it has a proper answer. The binomial coefficient $\binom{\frac{1}{2}}{n}$ is strongly related to Catalan numbers - the ...
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Vandermonde identity in a ring

Let $R$ be a commutative $\mathbb{Q}$-algebra. For $r \in R$ and $n \in \mathbb{N}$ we can define the binomial coefficient $\binom{r}{n}$ as usual by $\binom{r}{0}=1$ and ...
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Asymptotics for sum of binomial coefficients from Concrete Mathematics

Concrete Mathematics EXERCISE 9.25: Supposing \[ S_n = \sum_{k=0}^n \binom{3n}k \] Prove that \[ S_n = \binom{3n}{n}\left(2-\frac4n+O\left(\frac1{n^2}\right)\right) \] This sequence also ...
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Solution of $\large\binom{x}{n}+\binom{y}{n}=\binom{z}{n}$ with $n\geq 3$

I found this question in an old problem set. There's no hint or solution mentioned. For $n \geq 3$, prove or disprove the existence of $(x,y,z) \in \mathbb N^3, ...
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Find the coefficient of $\sqrt{3}$ in $(1+\sqrt{3})^7$?

I just want to ask you if my solution is correct. Here's the problem, Using the Binomial Theorem, find the coefficient of $\sqrt{3}$ in $(1+\sqrt{3})^7$. Solution: The binomial theorem is, ...
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Simplify $\sum_{i=0}^n (i+1)\binom ni$

Simplifying this expression$$1\cdot\binom{n}{0}+ 2\cdot\binom{n}{1}+3\cdot\binom{n}{2}+ \cdots+(n+1)\cdot\binom{n}{n}= ?$$ $$\text{Hint: } \binom{n}{k}= \frac{n}{k}\cdot\binom{n-1}{k-1} $$
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Probability that given a 1000 page book with 1000 misprints, a page will have 3 misprints.

Setting A book of 1000 pages contains 1000 misprints. Estimate the chances that a given page contains at least three misprints. Solution My solution is ...
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Closed-form expression for $\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}kk^p$ for integers $n,\,p$

Is there a closed-form expression for the sum $\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}kk^p$ given positive integers $n,\,p$? Earlier I thought of this series but failed to figure out a closed-form expression in $n,\,p$ ...
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What is the coefficient of $x^{25}$ in $(x^3 + x + 1)^{10}$?

Working on some contest problems and came across this question. Here's what I have so far on the off chance that my thinking is correct... So using Vieta's the coefficient of the $x^{25}$ should be ...
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Short and intuitive proof that $\left(\frac{n}{k}\right)^k \leq \binom{n}{k}$

The simple inequality that $\left(\frac{n}{k}\right)^k \leq \binom{n}{k}$ has a number of different proofs. But is there a particularly intuitive, short and elegant proof that uses the natural ...
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Identity for $\sum\limits_{j = a}^{N} \binom{N}{j} \binom{j}{a} d^{-j}$?

I have run across the following multinomial series: $$ \sum_{j = a}^{N} \binom{N}{j} \binom{j}{a} d^{-j} $$ Here, $d>1$. This seems like a formula which has either a well-known identity, ...
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The value of $\binom{50}0\binom{50}1+\binom{50}1\binom{50}2+\dots+\binom{50}{49}\binom{50}{50}$ is

The value of $\binom{50}0\binom{50}1+\binom{50}1\binom{50}2+\dots+\binom{50}{49}\binom{50}{50}$ is? I tried this: ...
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Is there a binomial identity for this expression $\frac{\binom{r}{k}}{\binom{n}{k}}$?

What I'm trying to prove is this summation: $$\sum_{i=0}^{k} \dfrac{\dbinom{r}{i} \cdot \dbinom{n - r}{k - i}}{\dbinom{n}{k}} \cdot i = \dfrac{r}{n} \cdot k$$ I used induction on $k$ as follows: ...
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Bounds for $\binom{n}{cn}$ with $0 < c < 1$.

Are there really good upper and lower bounds for $\binom{n}{cn}$ when $c$ is a constant $0 < c < 1$? I know that $\left(\frac{1}{c^{cn}}\right) \leq \binom{n}{cn} \leq ...
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Number of acyclic digraphs on $[n]$ with $k$ edges and each indegree, outdegree $\leq 1$

How many (labelled) acyclic digraphs are there on the vertex set $[n]$ with exactly $k$ edges and each indegree, outdegree $\leq 1$? The answer is $${n \choose k} {n-1 \choose k} k!.$$ Is there a ...
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How to understand this combinatorially: $\sum^{2k}_{i=0} \binom{4k}{2i} (-1)^{i}=2^{2k}(-1)^{k}$

The TAs in my department are stuck in assisting an undergraduate with the following problem: $$\sum^{2k}_{i=0} C^{4k}_{2i}(-1)^{i}=2^{2k}(-1)^{k}.$$ We tried to solve this via induction (obviously ...
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Inductive proof for the Binomial Theorem for rising factorials

I want to proove the following equality containing rising factorials $$(x+y)^\overline{n}\overset{(*)}{=}\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}{k}x^\overline{k}y^\overline{n-k}.$$ For $n=1$ this equality is ...
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How to simplify or calculate a formula with very big factorials

I'm facing a practical problem where I've calculated a formula that, with the help of some programming, can bring me to my final answer. However, the numbers involved are so big that it takes ages to ...
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What is $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} \frac{n^d}{ {n+d \choose d} }$?

What is $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} \frac{n^d}{ {n+d \choose d} }$ in terms of $d$? Does the limit exist? Is there a simple upper bound interms of $d$?
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Inequality involving factorial

I am trying to prove following inequality: $$\binom{n}{k}<(en/k)^k$$ I tried Stirling approximation but I could not get anything further. Then I get $$\binom{n}{k}\approx \frac{\sqrt{2\pi ...
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Truncated alternating binomial sum

It is easily checked that $ \sum_{i = 0}^n (-1)^i \binom{n}{i} = 0$, for example by appealing to the binomial theorem. I'm trying to figure out what happens with the truncated sum $\sum_{i=0}^{D} ...
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Help evaluating a limit

I have the following limit: $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}e^{-\alpha\sqrt{n}}\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}2^{-n-k} {{n-1+k}\choose k}\sum_{m=0}^{n-1-k}\frac{(\alpha\sqrt{n})^m}{m!}$$ where $\alpha>0$. ...
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Is this binomial coefficient identity known?

I stumbled across this identity involving binomial coefficients this morning: If $n$, $k$, $a$, and $b$ are positive integers and $n=a+b$, then $ \displaystyle \binom{n}{k} =\sum_{i=0}^k ...
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Yet another sum involving binomial coefficients

Let $k,p$ be positive integers. Is there a closed form for the sums $$\sum_{i=0}^{p} \binom{k}{i} \binom{k+p-i}{p-i}\text{, or}$$ $$\sum_{i=0}^{p} \binom{k-1}{i} \binom{k+p-i}{p-i}\text{?}$$ ...
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How to solve 0.5 choose 4?

I was solving this problem for homework. It says, in the problem, that if n is positive you use the generalized definition of binomial coefficients. In my case, n is positive so I just plugged n= 0.5 ...
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Binomial Theorem past exam question, what do I do?

I have trouble understanding what I'm supposed to do in some of these math questions. Here's an exam question from an old exam: Let $A$ be a set with $n$ elements. The number of subsets of $A$ with ...
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Choice Problem: choose 5 days in a month, consecutive days are forbidden

I'm "walking" through the book "A walk through combinatorics" and stumbled on an example I don't understand. Example 3.19. A medical student has to work in a hospital for five days in January. ...
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Using the Taylor expansion for ${(1+x)}^{-1/2}$, evaluate $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \binom{2n}{n} a^n$

Using the Taylor expansion for $${(1+x)}^{-1/2}$$ we have $${(1+x)}^{-1/2}= \sum_{n=0}^\infty \binom{-1/2}{n} (x^n)$$ for $|x|<1$. But if $|a| <1$, how can we use the above fact to find ...
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Formula for $\sum_{k=0}^n k^d {n \choose 2k}$

If $d \geq 1$ is an integer, is there a general formula for $$\sum_{k=0}^n k^d {n \choose 2k}\,?$$ We know that $\sum_{k=0}^n k {n \choose 2k} = \frac{n2^n}{8}$ and $\sum_{k=0}^n k^2 {n \choose 2k} = ...
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a problem about binomial coefficients sum

I want to know how to caculate $\binom{2n}{0}^3-\binom{2n}{1}^3+\cdots+(-1)^k\binom{2n}{k}^3 \cdots+\binom{2n}{2n}^3$? The sum equals $ (-1)^{n}\binom{3n}{2n}\binom{2n}{n} $, but I donot know how to ...
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Help with a Binomial Identity: $\sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \binom{n+k}{k}2^{-k} = 2^{n+1}$

The following is a problem from the 5th edition of Niven's An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers: Problem 23 of Section 1.4 asks us to prove that $$\sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \binom{n+k}{k}2^{-k} = ...
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Wanted: Insight into formula involving binomial coefficients

There is the formula $$\sum_i (-1)^i\binom{a}{k+i}\binom{l+i}{b} = (-1)^{a+k} \binom{l-k}{b-a}.$$ Only finitely many summands are non-zero (those for $i\in\{b-l,\ldots,a-k\}$), so the sum is finite. ...
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Combinatorial proof: $p^{r-n}$ divides $\binom{p^{r-2}}{n}$

Let $p$ be an odd prime. Then if $1<n<r$, $$p^{r-n}\,\left|\,\binom{p^{r-2}}{n}\right.$$ Does anyone have a clever combinatorial proof of this fact? There's an easy argument just by counting ...
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Fractional Binomial Coefficients

I recently examined the binomial coefficient $\binom{\frac{1}{2}}{k}$ and found that the denominator was always a power of two. The same is true of $\binom{\frac{1}{3}}{k}$, where the denominator is ...
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How does Combination formula relates in getting the coefficients of a Binomial Expansion?

Sorry for the very basic question. I'm a programmer, not a mathematician. The title says it all but I'll just include a little background on why I asked the (stupid?) question. I'd just finished ...
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Prove the identity $\sum\limits_{s=0}^{\infty} {p-s \choose m}{q+s \choose q} = {p+q+1 \choose p-m} $

I need to prove $$\sum_{s=0}^{\infty} {p-s \choose m}{q+s \choose q} = {p+q+1 \choose p-m} $$ using: $$(1-x)^{-m-1} (1-x)^{-q-1} = (1-x)^{-m-q-2} .$$ ok, generating function :$\frac1{(1-x)^{m+1}} = ...
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Binomial probability with summation

Show that $$\sum_{k=0}^{m} \frac{m!(n-k)!}{n!(m-k)!} = \frac{n+1}{n-m+1}$$ Attempt: It becomes: $$\sum_{k=0}^{m } \frac{\binom{m}{k}}{\binom{n}{k}}$$ Telescoping, pairing, binomial theorem don't ...
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How many solutions are possible to this equation?

Given $$A+2B+3C=N $$ where $N$ is a given positive integer. $A ,B,C\in\mathbb{N}$ vary from $0$ to $\infty$. How many solutions will be there to this equation?
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Evaluation of $\sum_{k=0}^n{n\choose k}^2u^k$

I am trying to evaluate the finite sum \begin{equation} f(u)=\sum_{k=0}^n{n\choose k}^2u^k,\quad 0<u\le1 \end{equation} In an first attempt, I think of the generating function \begin{equation} ...
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Show that $\sum_{k=2012}^{n} 2^k\binom{n}{k} = \Theta(3^n)$

In this question we are asked to show that $\sum_{k=2012}^{n} 2^k\binom{n}{k} = \Theta(3^n)$ What I did: $\sum_{k=2012}^{n} 2^k\binom{n}{k} = \sum_{k=2012}^{n} 2^k*1^{n-k}\binom{n}{k} \leq ...
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find the sum $\sum_{k=0}^{n} k\binom{n}{k}^2p^k$

I need to find the sum $$\sum_{k=0}^{n} \binom{n}{k}^2kp^k,$$ for an integer $n$ and $0<p<1$. Mathematica would only return $$\sum_{k=0}^{n} k p^k \binom{n}{k}^2 = n^2 p \ _2F_1(1-n, 1-n, 2, ...
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An enlightening proof of a specific combinatorial identity

Concerns about the arithmetic genus of projective hypersurfaces led me to make the following combinatorial conjecture: $${d-1\choose n+1} =\sum_{i=0}^{n+1} (-1)^{n+i+1} {d\choose i}$$ for $d \geq 1$, ...
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Combinatorial Interpretation of a Binomial Identity

The original post due to David Peterson is here. How to establish the following Binomal identity combinatorially: $$\displaystyle \sum\limits_{k = 0}^{[n/2]}\binom{n-k}{k}2^k = ...
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Partial sum of rows of Pascal's triangle

I'm interested in finding $$\sum_{k=0}^m \binom{n}{k}, \quad m<n$$ which form rows of Pascal's triangle. Surely $\sum\limits_{k=0}^n \binom{k}{m}$ using addition formula, but the one above ...
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Are these two binomial sums known? Proven generalization to the Hockey Stick patterns in Pascal's Triangle

English translation. You can see the original - deprecated - in Portuguese here Hi, I arrived at a generalization for the Hockey Stick Patterns, from our beloved Pascal's Triangle. This ...