Questions asking for a "big list" of examples, illustrations, etc. Please do not ask too many of these. Please do not use this as the only tag for a question.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

1
vote
1answer
50 views

Mathematicians average in student life but later became significant

What are the examples of mathematicians who were below the average in their student life (say, upto university level but it may be less) but later in life became significant mathematicians. Up until ...
0
votes
4answers
31 views

Recommendation for free graph plotter that can produce beautiful graphs

Can anyone please recommend a good free graph plotter that I can download. I am looking for a program that can produce neat looking graphs with all the axes, grids and that can plot many different ...
6
votes
3answers
143 views

Mathematical results that were generally accepted but later proven wrong?

I am giving a presentation on mathematical results that were widely accepted for a period of time and then later proven wrong, or vice versa. This talk is geared towards undergraduates who are likely ...
3
votes
2answers
27 views

Applications of Baire's Threom [duplicate]

In a lecture on Baire's Theorem (for complete metric spaces), I gave, for a rather advanced undergraduate class in Real Analysis (covering the theory of metric spaces and elements of general ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Other Useful Series Tests

So after taking calculus II, or maybe a first course in analysis, everyone learns a few series tests. They learn 1) Divergence Tests 2) Integral Test (from which we deduce things like $p$-series. ...
29
votes
1answer
365 views

What did mathematicians study as an undergraduate/graduate before modern mathematics such as modern algebra and analysis?

I am curious as to what mathematicians such as Leibnitz and Gauss and the Bernoulli's studied when they were students in university. I find it fascinating how we are taught calculus and abstract ...
2
votes
2answers
95 views

Introductory example(s) of a functor that is full but not faithful

What is your favourite example to offer real beginners of a functor which is full but not faithful?
0
votes
0answers
41 views

Favourite proofs by induction?

I am searching for nice proofs by induction, that can be used to teach. I remember this example, that my analysis professor presented to us in first semester and I am searching for more such easily ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Accessible resources to learn about bicharacteristic strips

I'm taking an introductory course in PDEs and, once seen the method of characteristics, the professor briefly talked about bicharacteristic strips and micro-local analysis. I'd hate to pass by such a ...
8
votes
2answers
272 views

How to show that five points in ℝ³ are cospherical?

There are many conditions equivalent to the cocircularity of four points on a plane, however i could not find any such lists for the three-dimensional analog. When do five points in three-dimensional ...
-1
votes
0answers
75 views

Big list of books that focus on intuitive explanations [closed]

Sometimes, it happens that I come across books that at times give some intuitive explanations of ideas and concepts. But now I would like to ask if you can make a list of books that focus on giving ...
30
votes
17answers
2k views

Suggestion for Math Movies [closed]

I am interested in Math movies which inspire and motivate. I know about A Beautiful Mind, Good Will Hunting, and Pi. Are there any others someone can suggest?
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Important integral inequalities list.

What are the most important and usefull integral inequalities? I know Chebyshev and Schwarz. Google search provides very few results, mathworld doesn't provide a list.
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Constructing noncommutative nilpotent rings of given index

When I read about algebra I often see a certain disregard for examples or perhaps a disregard for a reader whose knowledge of examples is limited. When I'm interested in a property $p$ of an algebraic ...
28
votes
3answers
2k views

“Stick it to the man!” Mathematical discoveries that resulted in persecution.

As the old story goes, Pythagoras and his followers were adamant that all numbers were rational, until Hippasus came along and proved that $\sqrt{2}$ (the length of the diagonal of the unit square) is ...
2
votes
4answers
165 views

Theorems in number theory whose first proofs were long and difficult

What are the examples of important theorems of number theory that has been shown to have surprisingly simple proofs though their first demonstration wasn't at all simple enough. Now simple proof is an ...
6
votes
2answers
87 views

How To Prove:$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^n}{n^4} = -\frac{7}{{720}}{\pi ^4}$

When I tried to solve this integral: $$\int_0^\infty {\frac{{{x^3}}}{{1 + {e^x}}}} \;{\rm{d}}x$$ I had trouble computing the sieries: $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^n}{n^4}$$ Thanks.
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Big list of fun mathematical book to “play” with classmates

I am searching for some fun maths books "have fun" (mathematically) with my classmates. To give you a better idea of what I'm looking for, I'll mention some books that I find suitable: Roger B. ...
-1
votes
0answers
36 views

Interesting Characterizations of Woodin Cardinals

Woodin cardinals are very important large cardinals by many technical reasons. In this big list question I would like to start a thread for collecting all known/interesting characterizations of Woodin ...
8
votes
1answer
129 views

Reference request: books that describe application of physical reasoning to mathematical problems

I am searching for more books like Uspenski's Some applications of mechanics to mathematics and Levi's The Mathematical Mechanic. In other words, I am looking for books that show interesting and ...
1
vote
7answers
117 views

Text books on computability

I collected the following "top eight" text books on computability (in alphabetical order): Boolos et al., Computability and Logic Cooper, Computability Theory Davis, Computability and unsolvability ...
10
votes
2answers
228 views

Abstract algebra book with real life applications

Is there an abstract algebra book that emphasizes the applications to "real world" problems? Update: By real world, I mean mostly related to physics or other sciences. But references to coding theory ...
4
votes
1answer
68 views

The best of Martin Gardner…

Martin Gardner's 100th Birthday is just about to come and I am a huge fan of his books as well as his puzzles and games . I personally loved his puzzles like the "Reversed Trousers" which said ...
2
votes
0answers
42 views

Math software for plotting phase portraits

I'm looking for math software which is possible to plot phase portraits for ODE and systems of differential equations. Is there a software which can create not only simple 2D phase portrait plots but ...
8
votes
13answers
462 views

Mathematics and literature

Are there novels (or other kinds of books) that include substantial references to topics and ideas closely related to mathematics (even if there are no explicit references to theorems, proofs, ...)?
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Practical determinations of trigonometric identities

I am looking for articles, or any reference, that detail practical determinations of trigonometric identities, with particular emphasis on trigonometric functions raised to the power of 3 or higher. ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Methods to prove axiom independence

What methods have been used to prove the independence of axioms? For instance, in many abstract algebra books the axiom of choice is stated to be independent of all the other axioms of set theory, but ...
17
votes
5answers
345 views

Big list of serious but fun “unusual” books

I would like to have some suggestions about serious (that is, with good mathematical content) but fun books that cover topics (or propose problems) in "recreational mathematics"; in any other field ...
0
votes
2answers
32 views

Important examples of measures which are not $\sigma$-finite

I think a measure which is not $\sigma$-finite is pain in the ass. I wish I could safely assume all the measures are $\sigma$-finite. I wonder if my wish is reasonable. Here's my question: what are ...
1
vote
2answers
64 views

Enlightening ideas and methods that change one's appoach to problems, theorems or mathematics as a whole

I would like to collect a "big-list" of ideas and methods from different areas (although I'm particularly interested in elementary number theory, algebra, calculus, linear algebra, geometry, physics, ...
6
votes
3answers
150 views

Books that you think you should have read during your undergraduate years

A quite popular question here is "If you could go back in time and tell yourself to read a specific book at the beginning of your career as a mathematician, which book would it be?" I would like to ...
5
votes
4answers
210 views

Books that use probabilistic/combinatorial/graph theoretical/physical/geometrical methods to solve problems from other branches of mathematics

I am searching for some books that describe useful, interesting, not-so-common, (possibly) intuitive and non-standard methods (see note *) for approaching problems and interpreting theorems and ...
2
votes
0answers
52 views

Is Legendre’s solution of the general quadratic equation the only one?

Legendre famously solved the general quadratic equation $$ ax^2+bxy+cy^2+dx+ey+f=0 $$ by noting that \begin{equation*} 4a(b^2-4ac)(ax^2+bxy+cy^2+dx+ey+f) = 0 \tag{$\star$} \end{equation*} along with ...
16
votes
21answers
1k views

Concepts in mathematics which are referred to as 'generalizations' [closed]

I am curious to know some theorems usually taught in advanced math courses which are considered 'generalizations' of theorems you learn in early university or late high school (or even late ...
74
votes
9answers
4k views

Really advanced techniques of integration (definite or indefinite)

Okay, so everyone knows the usual methods of solving integrals, namely u-substitution, integration by parts, partial fractions, trig substitutions, and reduction formulas. But what else is there? ...
0
votes
0answers
66 views

Hard-to-put-together but easy-to-prove results

What are the most important examples of theorems and definitions which are post factum obvious, i.e., hard to put together but easy to understand and use (and prove, in the case of theorems) once you ...
2
votes
2answers
70 views

Alternate proof for $a^2+b^2+c^2\le 9R^2$

As I studying geometric inequalities, one of those famous inequalities is $$a^2+b^2+c^2\le 9R^2$$ I did some research and I found that there is a proof (not exactly the this inequality but an useful ...
6
votes
8answers
211 views

Calculate $\pi$ By Hand?

All over the internet the only hand equation i found was $$\frac\pi4 = 1 - \frac13 + \frac15 - \frac17+\cdots.$$ But this takes something like a thousand iterations to get to four digits, is there a ...
8
votes
0answers
116 views

Known exact values of the $\operatorname{Li}_3$ function

We know some exact values of the trilogarithm $\operatorname{Li}_3$ function. Known real analytic values for $\operatorname{Li}_3$: $\operatorname{Li}_3(-1)=-\frac{3}{4} \zeta(3)$ ...
6
votes
3answers
381 views

Undergraduate mathematical magazines to improve mathematical knowledge

I'm sorry my ignorance, I don't know very much about mathematical magazines. I'm finishing my master degree in pure mathematics and I'm looking for mathematical magazines which could improve my ...
-1
votes
3answers
88 views

A big list of non-trivial examples of functions from outside mathematics

I will be teaching my students about functions, and want to stress that functions are not only the usual mathematical ones (linear, logs, exponential, ...), but that function is fundamentally a ...
3
votes
0answers
35 views

Books with “project”-like questions

I'm looking for a big list of resources for advanced undergraduate - beginning graduate (and even beyond, really) with a particular feature. Namely, I really like solving "project"-like problems that ...
8
votes
3answers
267 views

Resources for Integrals?

I want to learn to solve integrals of some type, probably definite integrals with results involving various constants such as Catalan's, Euler-Mascheroni,Golden-ratio etc. and involving various ...
4
votes
0answers
127 views

What do group automorphisms fix? [closed]

I have often found it useful to sit and contemplate what kinds of elements, subsets, or structures do the automorphisms of an object fix or permute. Sometimes the observations do not have immediate ...
2
votes
3answers
152 views

Abstract Algebra Book Request

I am looking for a good undergraduate level book on Abstract Algebra. By a 'good book' I mean a book which gives equal importance to both, rigor and the historical perspective of the subject. For ...
4
votes
7answers
110 views

Finite sequences of prime numbers

There is a lot of prime sequences: prime numbers in a special form. For example Mersenne primes are primes of the the form $2^n-1$, or Pythagorean prime are primes of the form $4n+1$. Even primes are ...
7
votes
2answers
171 views

Theorems with one-line proofs [closed]

Inspired by this very concise answer, which proves that $$\sin^2(\theta)+\cos^2(\theta) \equiv 1 $$ as follows: $f(\theta)=\cos^2\theta+\sin^2\theta \quad;$ then it's simple to see that ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

What are some [mostly trivial] Pell transformations?

Euler looked at some transformations which turned one Pell[-type] equation into another. Example 1: $$u^2-av^2=-1 \quad\iff\quad (2u^2+1)^2-a(2uv)^2=1.$$ Example 2: $$u^2-av^2=-2 \quad\iff\quad ...
9
votes
2answers
201 views

Which statements are equivalent to the parallel postulate?

I would like to have a long-ish list of statements that are equivalent to the parallel postulate. If a line segment intersects two straight lines forming two interior angles on the same side that ...
7
votes
1answer
121 views

Handwaving gone wrong

My motivation for this question is twofold: On one hand, I'm studying algebraic topology, where - at least in the book written by Hatcher - there is quite a lot of handwaving (e.g. maps are continous ...