A Banach space is a complete normed vector space: A vector space equipped with a norm such that every Cauchy sequence converges.

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Prove that $X'$ is a Banach space

I'm taking a new course on functional analysis and meet with the following problem. If $X$ is a normed space (not necessarily complete), then prove that $X'$ is a Banach space. Definition: When the ...
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Strong and weak convergence in $\ell^1$

Let $\ell^1$ be the space of absolutely summable real or complex sequences. Let us say that a sequence $(x_1, x_2, \ldots)$ of vectors in $\ell^1$ converges weakly to $x \in \ell^1$ if for every ...
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3answers
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Is it possible for a function to be in $L^p$ for only one $p$?

I'm wondering if it's possible for a function to be an $L^p$ space for only one value of $p \in [1,\infty)$ (on either a bounded domain or an unbounded domain). One can use interpolation to show that ...
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Space of bounded continuous functions is complete

I have lecture notes with the claim $(C_b(X), \|\cdot\|_\infty)$, the space of bounded continuous functions with the sup norm is complete. The lecturer then proved two things, (i) that $f(x) = \lim ...
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5answers
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How to show that this set is compact in $\ell^2$

Let $(a_n)_{n}\in\ell^2:=\ell^2(\mathbb{R})$ be a fixed sequence. Consider the subspace $$C=\{(x_n)_{n}\in\ell^2 : |x_n|\le a_n\text{ for all }n\in\mathbb{N}\}.$$ According to the book [Dunford and ...
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743 views

Cardinality of a Hamel basis

What is the cardinality of a Hamel basis of $\ell_1(\mathbb{R})$? Is it deducible in ZFC that it is seemingly continuum? Does it follow from this that each Banach space of density $\leqslant ...
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1answer
804 views

Nonnegative linear functionals over $l^\infty$

My purpose is a clarification of the role of the axiom of choice in constructing limits for bounded sequences. Namely, we want a linear functional of norm 1 defined on the space of all bounded complex ...
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2answers
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Connections between metrics, norms and scalar products (for understanding e.g. Banach and Hilbert spaces)

I am trying to understand the differences between $$ \begin{array}{|l|l|l|} \textbf{vector space} & \textbf{general} & \textbf{+ completeness}\\\hline \text{metric}& \text{metric ...
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The Duals of $l^\infty$ and $L^{\infty}$

Can we identify the dual space of $l^\infty$ with another "natural space"?. If the answer yes what about $L^\infty$. By the dual space I mean the space of all continuous linear functionals.
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Are these two Banach spaces isometrically isomorphic?

Let $c$ denote the space of convergent sequences in $\mathbb C$, $c_0\subset c$ be the space of all sequences that converge to $0$. Given the uniform metric, both of them can be made into Banach ...
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1answer
674 views

If $1\leq p < \infty$ then show that $L^p([0,1])$ and $\ell_p$ are not topologically isomorphic

If $1\leq p < \infty$ then show that $L^p([0,1])$ and $\ell_p$ are not topologically isomorphic Maybe I would have to use the Rademachers.
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Norm for pointwise convergence

Does there exist a norm on the space of all real-valued functions on the real line (or on an open set? a compact set?) such that convergence in this norm is equivalent to pointwise convergence?
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Inequality between $\ell^p$-norms

Suppose that a sequence $x=(x_n)$ belongs both to $\ell^p$ and $\ell^q$ ($p,q>1$, $p\neq q$). Is there any inequality between $\|x\|_p$ and $\|x\|_q$. Can one $\ell^p$ be continuously embedded into ...
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3answers
853 views

Gâteaux derivative

Let $X$ be a Banach space and $\Omega \subset X$ be open. The functional $f$ has a Gâteaux derivative $g \in X'$ at $u \in \Omega$ if, $\forall h\in X,$ $$\lim_{t \rightarrow 0}[f(u+th)-f(u)- \langle ...
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Proof: $X^\ast$ separable $\implies X$ separable

Can someone tell me if I got the following right: Assume $X$ to be a normed vector space over $\mathbb{R}$. Prove that if the dual space $X^\ast$ is separable then $X$ is separable as well. I'm ...
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Is there an explicit isomorphism between $L^\infty[0,1]$ and $\ell^\infty$?

Is there an explicit isomorphism between $L^\infty[0,1]$ and $\ell^\infty$? In some sense, this is a follow-up to my answer to this question where the non-isomorphism between the spaces $L^r$ ...
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1answer
692 views

Question about Fredholm operator

$X,Y$ are Banach spaces and $A\in B(X,Y)$ is a Fredholm operator (that is, the dimensions of ker($A$) and coker($A$) are both finite), then are closed linear subspaces ker($A$) and Im($A$) ...
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531 views

How do you prove that $\ell_p$ is not isomorphic to $\ell_q$?

I guess that for all $1\le p,q<\infty $, such that $p\ne q$ , the spaces $\ell_p$ and $\ell_q$ are not isomorphic, but how do you prove this?
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Compactness of a bounded operator $T\colon c_0 \to \ell^1$

Pitt Theorem says that any bounded linear operator $T\colon \ell^r \to \ell^p$, $1 \leq p < r < \infty$, or $T\colon c_0 \to \ell^p$ is compact. I know how to prove this in case $\ell^r \to ...
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1answer
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A vector without minimum norm in a Banach space

Question: Let $E = C[0, 1]$, with sup norm. Let $K$ consist of all $f$ in $E$ such that $$\int_{0}^{\frac{1}{2}}f(s)ds-\int_{\frac{1}{2}}^{1}f(s)ds=1$$ Prove that $K$ is a closed convex subset of ...
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1answer
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Example of a compact set that isn't the spectrum of an operator

This question is a follow-up to this recent question and related to that one. Is there an easy example of an (infinite-dimensional) Banach space $X$ and a non-empty compact set $K \subset ...
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1answer
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Was Grothendieck familiar with Stone's work on Boolean algebras?

In short, my question is: Was Grothendieck familiar with Stone's work on Boolean algebras? Background: In an answer to Pierre-Yves Gaillard's question Did Zariski really define the Zariski ...
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$\ell_1$ and unconditional convergence

Thanks to the Riemann theorem we know that absolute convergence and unconditional convergence are the same for $\mathbb{R}$. In all the Frechet spaces absolute convergence implies unconditional ...
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550 views

The group of invertible linear operators on a Banach space

Let $X$ be a Banach space. Let $G$ be the group of invertible linear operators from $X$ to itself. Now my questions are: If $G$ is equipped with the operator norm topology, how do you show that it ...
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Why is $\ell^1(\mathbb{Z})$ not a $C^{*}$-algebra?

When $\ell^1(\mathbb Z)$ is equipped with the convolution as multiplication and $a^{*}_{n}=\bar{a}_{-n}$, I can prove it satisfies all conditions except $\|a^{*}a\|=\|a\|^2$, which I cannot prove nor ...
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Complement of $c_{0}$ in $\ell^{\infty}$

How can I show that $c_{0}$ cannot be complemented in $\ell^{\infty}$? Complement in the following sense $$c_{0}+V = \ell^{\infty}$$ And the projections are continuous.
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Prove that $\sigma(AB) \backslash \{0\} = \sigma(BA)\backslash \{0\} $

Prove that $\sigma(AB) \backslash \{0\} = \sigma(BA)\backslash \{0\} $. Where $A,\ B$ are bounded operators in Banach space and $\sigma$ denotes spectrum.
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An explicit functional in $(l^\infty)^*$ not induced by an element of $l^1$? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Nonnegative linear functionals over $l^\infty$ Setup: Let $l^\infty$ be the set of bounded sequences (with terms in $\mathbb{R}$), and let $l^1$ be the set of sequences ...
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Frechet derivative of shift operator in $l_2$?

Let $x \in l_2$ and $J(x) = \sum_{k = 1}^{+\infty} x_k x_{k + 1}$. Find $DJ(u)$ and $D(DJ(u))$. Attempted solution Since $x \in l_2$, then $\sum_{k = 1}^{+\infty}x_k < \infty$. Another fact: ...
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An application of Riesz' Lemma

How does one prove using Riesz' Lemma that an infinite dimensional subspace $Y$ of a Banach space $X$ contains a sequence $\{x_n:n\in \mathbb{N}\}$ in the unit ball of $Y$ such that $n \neq m$ implies ...
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Is there an easy example of a vector space which can not be endowed with the structure of a Banach space

Let $V$ be a real vector space. Is there always a norm on $V$ such that $V$ is complete with respect to this norm? If not, is there an easy counterexample?
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continuous linear functional on a reflexive Banach space attains its norm

How does one prove that if a $X$ is a Banach space and $x^*$, a continuous linear functional from $X$ to the underlying field, then $x^*$ attains its norm for some $x$ in $X$ and $\Vert x\Vert = 1$? ...
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Completeness proof of $\ell^p$

Say $\{x_n\}$ is Cauchy in $\ell^p$ and $x$ is its pointwise limit. To argue that $x \in \ell^p$ would the following be correct: Let $\varepsilon > 0$ and let $N$ be s.t. $n,m > N$ ...
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1answer
566 views

Nested sequences of balls in a Banach space

This seems to be a fairly easy question but I'm looking for new points of view on it and was wondering if anyone might be able to help (by the way- this question does come from home-work, but I've ...
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1answer
909 views

Space of Complex Measures is Banach (proof?)

How can we prove that the space of Complex Measures is Complete? with the norm of Total Variation. I have stuck on the last part of the proof where I have to prove that the limit function of a Cauchy ...
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1answer
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$C_0(X)$ is not the dual of a complete normed space

Let $X$ be any locally compact Hausdorff space and assume that it is not compact. I've heard that the Banach space $(C_0(X),\|\!\cdot\!\|_\infty)$ is not isometrically isomorphic to the (norm) dual of ...
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Properties of dual spaces of sequence spaces

Can you tell me if I got the following homework right? Nitpicking is welcome. a) Recall that $$ c_0 (\mathbb{N}) = \{ f: \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{C} \mid \lim_{n \rightarrow \infty } f(n) ...
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1answer
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Closure of the invertible operators on a Banach space

Let $E$ be a Banach space, $\mathcal B(E)$ the Banach space of linear bounded operators and $\mathcal I$ the set of all invertible linear bounded operators from $E$ to $E$. We know that $\mathcal I$ ...
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Do continuous linear functions between Banach spaces extend?

Just wondering... Let $E$, $G$ be Banach spaces, let $U\subset E$ be a subset of $E$, and let $f:U\rightarrow G$ be a continuous linear function. Can $f$ be extended to a continuous linear function on ...
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1answer
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Show that $\liminf_{n\to \infty}x_{n}\le\alpha(x)\le\limsup_{n\to\infty}x_{n}$ for $x=(x_{n})$ in $\ell^{\infty}$

Question: Show that $\liminf_{n\to \infty}x_{n}\le\alpha(x)\le\limsup_{n\to\infty}x_{n}$ for $x=(x_{n})$ in $\ell^{\infty}$, where $\alpha$ is a bounded linear functional on $\ell^{\infty}$. I ...
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Different versions of Riesz Theorems

In Wikipedia, there are three versions of Riesz theorems: 1 The Hilbert space representation theorem for the (continuous) dual space of a Hilbert space; 2 The representation theorem for ...
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Weak-to-weak continuous operator which is not norm-continuous

Can one give a "relatively easy" example of a linear mapping $T\colon X\to X$ ($X$ a Banach space) which is a) weak-to-weak continuous b) weak*-to-weak* continuous ($X=Y^*$) but not norm-to-norm ...
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Do there exist closed subspaces $X$, $Y$ of Banach space, such that $X+Y$ is not closed?

I am looking for an example of two closed subspaces of a Banach space, such that their sum is not closed.
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Why $L^{r}(X)\cap L^{t}(X)\subset L^{s}(X)$ for $1<r<s<t$?

I am working on this homework problem, and I am totally stuck: Let $(X,\mu)$ be a measure space, and let $1 \leq r < s < t < \infty$. Prove that there exist constants $\alpha,\beta>0$ so ...
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On the weak closure

Let $\lbrace e_n \rbrace$ for the standard unit vectors in $l_2$. I want to show that $0$ is in weak closure of $\lbrace\sqrt{n}e_n\rbrace$ but no subsequence of $\lbrace \sqrt{n}e_n\rbrace$ weakly ...
4
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1answer
140 views

Map bounded if composition is bounded

Let $X,Y,Z$ Banach spaces and $A:X\rightarrow Y$ and $B:Y\rightarrow Z$ linear maps with $B$ bounded and injective and $BA$ bounded. Prove that $A$ is bounded as well. If I knew that $B(Y)$ is ...
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Why is $GL(B)$ a Banach Lie Group?

Banach Lie Groups are what you'd expect: http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php/Lie_group,_Banach If $B$ is a Banach algebra then why is $GL(B)$, the set of invertible elements of $B$, a ...
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Converging series in Banach space

Does someone know if the following is true: Let $\mathbb{X}$ be some arbitrary Banach space. $\{x_k \}_{k=1}^{\infty} \in \mathbb{X}$ is a sequence chosen from $\mathbb{X}$. Now, if the series ...
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136 views

Banach Space continuous function

On the Banach space $(C([-1,1]), ||\cdot||_\infty ) $ consider the operator given by $(Tf)(x)= \dfrac{1}{3} \displaystyle\int^1_0txf(t)\ dt + e^x - \dfrac{\pi}{3} $ 1) prove that the mapping is a ...
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How slow/fast can $L^p$ norm grow?

This is actually an exercise in Rudin's Real and Complex Analysis, $L^p$ spaces chapter. Could anyone help me out? Thanks in advance. Motivation: It's well known that if we have a function $f$ which ...