A Banach algebra is an algebra over the real or complex numbers which is equipped with a complete norm such that |xy| ≤ |x||y|. The study of Banach algebras is a major topic in functional analysis. If you are about to ask a question on C*-algebras or von Neumann algebras please use (c-star-algebras) ...

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A Linear map $‎u : X ‎\longrightarrow ‎Y‎‎$ ‎ ‎is ‎not ‎bounded ‎below ‎‎iff ‎there ‎is …

Do you help me to: c‎hecking ‎that a‎‎ ‎linear ‎map ‎‎$‎u : X ‎\longrightarrow ‎Y‎‎$ ‎between ‎Banach ‎spaces ‎is ‎not ‎bounded ‎below ‎if ‎and ‎only ‎if ‎there ‎is a‎ ‎sequence ‎of ‎unit ‎vector ...
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‎‎If $A$ contains ‎an ‎idempotent $e‎$ (‎‎$‎e‎\neq ‎‎0,1‎‎$‎) , then $‎\Omega(A)‎$ ‎is ‎disconnected

If $A$‎ ‎be a‎ ‎unital ‎abelian ‎Banach ‎algebra ‎and ‎contains ‎an ‎idempotent $e$‎ ‎(that ‎is ‎‎$‎e=‎e‎^{‎2‎}‎‎$‎) ‎other ‎than $0$‎ ‎and $1$‎ ,‎ ‎then help me to show that ‎‎$‎\Omega(A)‎$ ‎is ...
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If a,b ‎are ‎unitary ‎equivalent,‎Dose ‎ ‎‎$‎\sigma(a)=‎\sigma(b)‎$‎ is true?

‎‎Let A‎ ‎is ‎an ‎unital‎‎ ‎algebra ‎and ‎‎$ ‎Ad‎~u:‎‎‎A\rightarrow ‎A~,~a‎\mapsto~‎uau‎^{*}‎‎$ ‎and u‎ ‎is ‎unitary ‎element ‎of A‎(‎$‎uu‎^{‎*‎}=‎u‎‎^{*}‎u=1‎$‎), ‎if ‎‎$‎b=‎uau‎^{‎*‎}‎‎$ ‎(a,b ‎are ...
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invariant subspace of a Hardy space

Let $T$ be the unit circle and $H^1=\{f\in L^1(T): \int_0^{2\pi} f(e^{it})\chi_n(e^{it})dt=0 \text{ for } n>0\}$ where $\chi_n(e^{it})=e^{int}$. Let $M$ be a closed subspace of $H^1$. Then ...
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Fourier transform as a Gelfand transform

One question came to my mind while looking at the proof of Gelfand-Naimark theorem. Is Fourier transform a kind of Gelfand transform? Are there any other well-known transforms which are so?
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Show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence

This example is the book Functional Analysis by Walter Rudin in page 288 Exercise 3. If $X$ is a compact Hausdorff space, show that there is a natural one-to-one correspondence between closed ...
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Let $K$ be a circle. Describe the spectra of two subalgebras of $C(K)$

Suppose $K=\{\lambda\in\mathbb{C}: 1<\vert\lambda\vert<2\};$ put $f(\lambda)=\lambda$. Let $A$ be the smallest closed subalgebra of $C(K$) that contains $1$ and $f$. Let $B$ be the smallest ...
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Stone-Čech via $C_b(X)\cong C(\beta X)$

I am having some trouble constructing the Stone-Čech compactification of a locally compact Hausdorff space $X$ using theory of $C^*$-algebras. I did some search but could not find a good answer on ...
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Characterization of small Banach subalgebras

Let $A$ be a unital Banach algebra and $x \in A$ nonzero. We can consider the subalgebra $B$ of $A$ generated by $\{1,x\}$. This is the norm closure of the subspace of polynomials in $x$. So for any ...
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$(\lambda-a)^{-1}$ as limits of 'polynomials'

For a unital $C^*$-algebra $\mathcal{A}$ the spectral permanence gives \begin{equation} \sigma_{\mathcal{B}}(a)=\sigma_{\mathcal{A}}(a) \end{equation} for any unital $C^*$-subalgebra $\mathcal{B}$. ...
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Spectrum of elements in $C^*$-subalgebras

Assume $\mathcal{A}$ is a $C^*$-algebra with unit $1$ and $\mathcal{B}\subset\mathcal{A}$ is a $C^*$-subalgebra (i.e. a closed $*$-subalgebra) such that $1\in\mathcal{B}$. It is said that under these ...
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$\sigma(x)$ has no hole in the algebra of polynomials

Let $A$ be a unital banach algebra generated by two elements $1$ and $x$. Then it seems $\sigma(x)$ cannot have holes. At least this is true in the case for disk algebras. This amounts to prove that ...
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What is the generator of the disc algebra

The disc algebra, as a set, consists of the functions on the unit disc $D$, which are analytic on the interior of the disc and continuous on its boundary. Its addition and multiplication is obvious. ...
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$Conv(Ex((C(X))_1))$ is dense in $(C(X))_1$?

Let $X$ be compact Hausdorff, and $C(X)$ the space of continuous functions over $X$. Denote the closed unit ball in $C(X)$ by $(C(X))_1$, then it can be shown $f$ is an extreme point of $(C(X))_1$ if ...
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Functional Interpretation of Variety?

I am simultaneously taking courses in functional analysis and commutative algebra. In doing so, I found that there is, at least heuristically, some similarity between the notion of an algebraic ...
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Density of operators

I am interested in operators on non-reflexive Banach space. Let $X$ be a Banach space and let $L(X)$ be the algebra of operators acting on $X$. We may embed $L(X)$ into $L(X^{**})$ by ...
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Does the non-emptiness of the spectrum of an element of a Banach algebra depend on the Axiom of Choice?

One of the most basic results in functional analysis states that the spectrum of any element of a Banach algebra is non-empty. The proof, as most people might have seen, makes use of Liouville's ...
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Initial topology of the spectrum mapping $\sigma$

Let $\mathcal{A}$ be a Banach algebra, the map $\sigma$ maps each element $a\in\mathcal{A}$ to its spectrum $\sigma(a)$, which is a compact subset of $\mathbb{C}$. The collection of compact subsets ...
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Amenability of finite dimensional norm algebras

Let $(\cal A,\|\cdot\|)$ be a finite dimensional norm algebra (Banach Algebra). Can we say any thing about the amenability of $\cal A$. What if we impose some extra conditions on $\cal A$, say ...
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Multiplication operators

Consider a commutative Banach algebra $A$ and the Banach algebra of bounded operators $B(A)$ on $A$. Associate to each $a\in A$ the multiplication operator $T_ax =ax$ ($x\in A$). Is always the mapping ...
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Decomposing $\mathcal{B}(H)$

Let $H$ be an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space and let $\mathcal{B}(H)$ be the (C*/W*-)algebra of bounded operators on it. Actually, you may forget about the involution in $\mathcal{B}(H)$ because I ...
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1answer
295 views

spectral radius.

I am stuck in a problem of Conway's A course in a Functional Analysis. Can anyone give me a hint to solve the problem? The question is "If $A$ is a Banach Algebra, then show that the function $r:A\to ...
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Some examples in C* algebras and Banach * algebras

I would like an example of the following things. A Banach * algebra that is not a C* algebra for which there exists a positive linear functional (it takes $x^*x$ to numbers $ \geq 0$) that is not ...
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Universal separable Banach algebras

The well-known Banach-Mazur theorem says that $C([0, 1])$ is a universal separable Banach space, in the sense that if $X$ is any separable Banach space then there is a map $f : X \to C([0, 1])$ which ...
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Given a Banach Algebra $A$ and elements $x,y \in A$. If $x$ and $xy$ are invertible, then so is $y$.

A silly question, but I don't see the answer. This question is from Rudin's Functional Analysis, Chapter 10, Exercise 1a). It's obvious that $y$ has a left inverse as $((xy)^{-1}x)y=e$, where $e$ is ...
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When is a Banach Algebra stellar?

I know that if there are enough Hermitian elements in a Banach algebra, then the Banach algebra is stellar. In particular, I'm interested in the two spaces $B(L^1(S^1,\Sigma,\mu))$ the space of ...
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Continuity of Translation of the Trigonometric Polynomials

Had a question from Katznelson recorded in my journal which is still bugging me; I believe I have solved the following exercise subject to a minor point: Let $B$ be a Banach spach on $\mathbb{T}$ with ...
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Schwarz inequality for unital completely positive maps

I came across the following form of Schwarz inequality for completely positive maps in Arveson's paper: Let $\delta:\mathcal{A}\to\mathcal{B}$ be a unital completely positive linear map between ...
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Why are compact operators 'small'?

I have been hearing different people saying this in different contexts for quite some time but I still don't quite get it. I know that compact operators map bounded sets to totally bounded ones, that ...
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Topology of $(\mathcal{A},*)$ determined by $\mathcal{A}_{sa}$?

Let $(\mathcal{A},*)$ be a $*$-algebra, we have the following observation: Let $\|\cdot\|_1$ and $\|\cdot\|_2$ be two norms on $\mathcal{A}$ such that the involution is an isometry with respect to ...
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What does $(B+I)/I\sim B/(B\cap I)$ tell us?

Let $A$ be a $C^*$-algebra in which $B$ is a $C^*$-subalgebra and $I$ is a closed ideal. In several books on $C^*$-algebras I have encountered the following: $(B+I)/I$ is $*$-isomorphic to ...
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1answer
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Every ideal has an approximate identity?

Averson's 1970 paper on extensions of $C^*$-algebras seems to assume that every ideal has an approximate identity. However, I am a little bit suspicious here, since he does not assume the closeness ...
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Linear functionals can be decomposed as linear combinations of positive ones?

I am reading Arveson's Notes on Extensions of $C^*$-algebras. In proving theorem 1, he needs to establish some results concerning bounded linear functionals. However, he said it suffices to prove for ...
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If $a\ge 0$ and $b\ge 0$, then $\sigma(ab)\subset\mathbb{R}^+$.

This is an exercise in Murphy's book: Let $A$ be a unital $C^*$-algebra and $a,b$ are positive elements in $A$. Then $\sigma(ab)\subset\mathbb{R}^+$. The problem would be trivial if the algebra ...
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Maximal ideal space of a quotient or Banach subalgebra

Let $\mathcal{A}$ be a commutative unital Banach algebra, $\mathcal{B} \subset \mathcal{A}$ a closed unital subalgebra, $\mathcal{I} \subset \mathcal{B}$ a closed ideal. Is there in general a way to ...
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References on Algebraic Operators

Let $\mathcal{H}$ be a Hilbert space and $d$ is an inner derivation on $\mathcal{L}(\mathcal{H})$. An operator $T\in\mathcal{L}(\mathcal{H})$ is algebraic if $p(T)=0$ for some polynomial $p$. In ...
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Non-$C^{*}$ Banach algebras?

It suddenly occurred to me almost every Banach algebra I know is actually a $C^{*}$ algebra. Several kinds of function algebras are definitely $C^{*}$ algebras. So is the matrix algebra. Although one ...
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Unital nonabelian banach algebra where the only closed ideals are $\{0\}$ and $A$

This is a problem in exercise one of Murphy's book Find an example of a nonabelian unital Banach algebra $A$, where the only closed ideals are $\{0\}$ and $A$. But does such an algebra exist at ...
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Criterion for a limit of invertible operators on a Banach space to be invertible

Let $A_n$ linear operators in a Banach space $B$ that have inverses. $||A_n-A|| \to 0$ for some operator $A$. I need to prove that $A$ has an inverse operator iff the sequence $\{||A_n^{-1}||\}$ is ...
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Nonhermitian elements whose spectra are real?

Let $\mathcal{A}$ be a complex C* algebra. It is well-known that $\sigma(a)\subset\mathbb{R}$ if $a$ is a hermitian. I wonder whether the converse is true. That is, if $\sigma(a)\subset\mathbb{R}$, ...
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Liouville's theorem for Banach spaces without the Hahn-Banach theorem?

Let $B$ be a (complex) Banach space. A function $f : \mathbb{C} \to B$ is holomorphic if $\lim_{w \to z} \frac{f(w) - f(z)}{w - z}$ exists for all $z$, just as in the ordinary case where $B = ...
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When is the orbit of a vector a minimal sequence? When does an operator have a minimal orbit vector?

Let $X$ be a banach space. We say a sequence $(x_n)$ is minimal if for each $k$, $x_k\notin [x_n]_{n\neq k}$, where $[x,y,z,\cdots]$ is the closed linear span of the vectors. For ...
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How to Prove ($\mathbb{C}\langle x, y \rangle$, $\|\cdot\|$) is a Banach Space

Let $\mathbb{C}\langle x,y\rangle$ be the group ring of the complex numbers over the free group in $x,y$. Let $len : \langle x,y \rangle \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ denote the standard word norm and let ...
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The spectra of weighted shifts

Since weighted shifts are like the model-operators in operator theory and people have been studying them for so long, I think there should be quite a large literature on the spectra of such operators. ...
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A subset of $\bar{S}\backslash S$ contains an open ball in $\bar{S}$? (operator theory)

E and S are subsets of a metric space. $E$ is a subset of $\bar{S}\backslash S$. Then $\overline{E}\subset(\overline{S}\backslash S^{o})$, but I wonder whether there is some condition that guarantees ...
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Is the Sobolev space $W^{k ,\infty}$ a Banach algebra?

Some Sobolev spaces are closed under multiplication, making them Banach algebras. My question is whether $W^{k ,\infty}$ is a Banach algebra? Since $L^\infty$ is closed under multiplication, I ...
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Prove that if $A$ is algebra generated by $\sin(x)$ and $\cos(x)$ then $A = \{ f\in C_b(\mathbb R ) : f(t) = f(t + 2\pi )$ for all $t \in \mathbb R\}$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Finding a closed subalgebra generated by functions. Let $A$ be the uniformly closed subalgebra of $C_b(\mathbb{R} )$ generated by $\sin(x)$ and $\cos(x)$. Prove: $A = ...
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Subadditive, submultiplicative and scalar-multiplication-invariant functions

Let $\mathcal{A}$ be an algebra. $d: \mathcal{A}\to \mathbb{N}$ is a function satisfying 1) $d(S+T)\le d(S)+d(T)$, 2)$d(ST)\le d(S)+d(T)$ and 3) $d(aS)=d(S)$ for all $a\in \mathbb{C}, ...
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Boolean algebras of projections

Suppose $X$ is a Banach space with an unconditional basis $(e_n)$. Then, one may easily define a Boolean algebra of projections in $\mathcal{L}(E)$ which is isomorphic to the power-set of $\mathbb{N}$ ...
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Ideals in Commutative Banach Algebras

Suppose that $A$ is a natural Banach function algebra on $K$, a compact Hausdorff space. So $A$ is realised as an algebra of continuous functions on $K$, is a Banach algebra for some norm ...