A Banach algebra is an algebra over the real or complex numbers which is equipped with a complete norm such that |xy| ≤ |x||y|. The study of Banach algebras is a major topic in functional analysis. If you are about to ask a question on C*-algebras or von Neumann algebras please use (c-star-algebras) ...

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Why is the kernel a maximal ideal

Assume $A$ is a commutative unital Banach algebra and $\tau : A \to \mathbb C$ is a character. I can prove that $I = \mathrm{ker}(\tau)$ is a maximal ideal using some basic abstract aglebra. The ...
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Need help understanding this proof

I need help understanding the following: If $A$ is a (complex) banach algebra and $I$ is a proper modular ideal then $\overline{I}$ is also proper. Proof. Let $u\in A$ be such that $a-ua, a-au \in ...
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121 views

Why characters are continuous

According to Wikipedia: ''Every character is automatically continuous from $A$  to $\mathbb C$, since the kernel of a character is a maximal ideal, which is closed. '' where $A$ is a Banach algebra. ...
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Need some help finishing this proof about characters in Banach algebras

I tried to prove: Let $A$ be a commutative unital complex Banach algebra. Then there is a bijection between the maximal ideals in $A$ and the set of non-zero homomorphisms $A \to \mathbb C$. But I ...
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49 views

Number of isomorphisms between two fields

Let $F,F'$ be two fields. Is there anything that can be said about the number of isomorphisms that can exist? In particular can there be more than one? What if $F$ is the complex numbers $\mathbb C$? ...
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69 views

Characters in Banach algebras

I am reading Wikipedia and there is something I don't understand: ''Let $A $ be a unital commutative Banach algebra over $\mathbb C$. Since $A $ is then a commutative ring with unit, every ...
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56 views

Is it a typo in the statement of this theorem

Consider the following theorem: If $I$ is a modular maximal ideal of a unital abelian algebra $A$, then $A/I$ is a field. It is a basic fact of algebra that if $R$ is a commutative unital ring then ...
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87 views

Unitization of Banach algebras

Is every theorem about unital Banach algebra also true for non-unital Banach algebras because of unitization?
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51 views

The space of all bounded sequences over a Banach Algebra.

If $A$ is a commutative Banach algebra, can we identify $l^\infty(A)$ as the dual of $ l_1\hat\otimes A$ (the projective tensor product of $l_1$ with $A$? Also, what do we know about the quotient ...
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38 views

What are these spectra (part 2)

I needed some insight into spectra in Banach algebras. To this end I tried to calculate a few examples. I will post them not all in one post. Could somebody please tell me if they are correct? Here ...
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51 views

What are these spectra (part 1)

I needed some insight into spectra in Banach algebras. To this end I tried to calculate a few examples. I will post them not all in one post. Could somebody please tell me if they are correct? Here ...
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148 views

On the mean value theorem in $\mathbb R^2$

Consider the following claim: If $A$ is a (complex) unital Banach algebra and $f: \mathbb R \to A$ is differentiable with $f' = 0$ then $f$ is constant. The proof uses that for $\tau \in A^\ast$: ...
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49 views

How are these subalgbras

This question was prompted by the following example: If $X$ is compact then $C(X)$ is a Banach algebra and if $U$ is an open subset of $X$ then $C_0(U)$ is a subalgebra of $C(X)$. Here $C(X)$ is ...
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40 views

Where is $b-\lambda \notin \mathrm{Inv}(A)$ used in this proof

If $A$ is a unital Banach algebra and $B$ is a closed subalgebra and $\sigma$ denotes the spectra then the following inclusion holds: $$ \partial \sigma_B (b) \subseteq \partial \sigma_A (b)$$ for ...
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182 views

Definition of subalgebra

Is it generally implicitly assumed that if $B$ is a subalgebra of a unital Banach algebra $A$ then $1 \in B$? I tried to find a definition of subalgebra but the only definition I found was in Murphy ...
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75 views

Biprojective $C^*$-algebra

Let $A$ be a Banach algebra. Define $\Delta:A\hat{\otimes}A\to A$ with $\Delta(\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n\otimes b_n)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_nb_n$. Now $A$ is called biprojective if there exists a bounded ...
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47 views

What about $\ell^1$ with pointwise multiplication

This question occurred to me after reading this thread. I was working on finding an example of a Banach algebra. The example I came up with was $\ell^1 (\mathbb N)$ with pointwise multiplication. I ...
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110 views

Spectrum of idempotent element

Let $A$ be some unitary algebra over $\mathbb{C}$. If $a^2=a$ and $0\ne a\ne 1$ then $\{0,1\}\subset \sigma_A(a)$ ($\sigma_A(a)$ is the spectrum if $a$). I believe that also $\sigma_A(a)\subset ...
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95 views

Two dimensional Banach algebras

I have this one to solve: Let $A_1$ be an matrix algebra of matrices in form $ \pmatrix{ \alpha & 0 \\ 0 & \beta\\ }$ and $A_2$ be an matrix algebra of matrices in form $ \pmatrix{ \alpha ...
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27 views

Can we expect, $\left\|f|f|- g|g|\right\|\leq C \left \|f-g\right \|$ in the Banach algebra $A(\mathbb R)$?

Let $f\in L^{1}(\mathbb R)$ and it Fourier transform, $\hat{f} (y) : = \int _ {\mathbb R} f(x) e^{-2\pi i x\cdot y} dx ; y \in \mathbb R ;$ and consider Fourier algebra $$A(\mathbb R):= \{f\in ...
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38 views

Classification of Banach Algebras?

Is there a classification theorem for Banach algebras, or even for Banach *algebras, similar to the GNS representation theorem for $C^*$-algebras? If yes, please provide a reference where I can read ...
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38 views

Quotients of Banach algebras by ideals

I am currently working through Banach Algebra Techniques in Operator Theory and am hung up on a detail on 2.32. When trying to show that the quotient of a Banach space $\mathcal{B}$ by a closed ideal ...
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34 views

Why is $F_\phi$ defined on the whole disk

This is a question about a proof on page 97 in these lecture notes. In exercise 13, I don't understand On the hand, $F_\phi$ is defined on the whole open disk $D$ Why is $F_\phi$ defined on ...
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20 views

Set difference of spectra

Let $A$ be a $B^{*}$ algebra and let $B$ be a sub $B^{*}$ algebra.From the fact that $d({\sigma}_{B}(x))$ is a subset of $d({\sigma}_{A}(x))$ where $d$ is the boundary., deduce that ...
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37 views

On the spectral radius $r(ab) $

Let $A$ be a unital complex Banach algebra and $a,b\in A$. Define $r(a) = \sup_{\lambda \in \sigma(a)} |\lambda|$ where $\sigma(a)$ denotes the spectrum of $a$. Note that $\sigma (ab) \setminus ...
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Find an example of product of operators not Jointly Continuous in strong topology.

I'm trying to find an example of the fact that the product of operators is not jointly continuous in the strong topology. I know the example of the unilateral shift (that is on wikipedia), but I ...
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26 views

SOT Convergence and Compact Convergence

Let $E$ be a Banach space, and let $A(E)$ denote the closure of the finite rank opertors on $E$. Let $(S_\alpha)$ be a bounded net of operators on $E$ such that $S_\alpha T\to T$ for all $T\in A(E)$. ...
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77 views

boundary of a spectrum proof

Let $A$ be a closed unital subalgebra of banach algebra $B$. Prove that ${\delta}{\sigma}_{B}(x)$ is contained in ${\delta}{\sigma}_{A}(x)$ for every $x$ in $B$.
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159 views

A closed ideal in a commutative Banach algebra $C(X)$

Suppose that $A$ is a natural Banach function algebra on $K$, a compact Hausdorff space. So $A$ is realised as an algebra of continuous functions on $K$, is a Banach algebra for some norm (necessarily ...
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72 views

homomorphism or not

Let $T$ be a bounded operator on $H$ and fix a vector $x\in H$. Define $f$ on the space of polynomials in $T$ by $f(p(T))=p(x)$. Is $f$ a homomorphism? Initally I thought it obvious but the subtelty ...
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Are these two steps in this proof necessary?

Theorem: Let $A$ be a unital Banach algebra. Then for $a \in A$ the spectrum $\sigma (a) \neq \varnothing$. Consider the following proof: The first step that seems unnecessary to me: Let's say we ...
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75 views

Is taking limits in this proof really necessary?

Consider the following proof: Theorem. Let $A$ be a unital Banach algebra and $a$ an element of $A$ such that $\Vert a \Vert < 1$. Then $1 - a \in \operatorname{Inv}(A)$ and $$(1-a)^{-1} = ...
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36 views

Gelfand Transform in a specific case

What is the gelfand transform of an operator in the algebra generated by a bounded normal operator and it's adjoint? Thanks
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67 views

How to prove $\widehat{(fg)}(n) = \hat{f} (n) \ast \hat{g} (n); (n \in \mathbb Z)$?

Let $f, g \in L^{1}(\mathbb T)= L^{1} ([-\pi, \pi))$. We define, the Fourier transform of $f$ as follows: $$\hat{f}(n)=\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_{-\pi}^{\pi} f(t) e^{-int} dt, \ (n\in \mathbb Z).$$ It is ...
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How to interpret Fourier-Stieltjes transform on $\mathbb T$ (one dimesional torus)?

Let $\mu$ be a regular Borel measure on $\mathbb Z$ and we put, $$\|\mu\|:= |\mu| (\mathbb Z)= \text {total variation of} \ \mu . $$ and define $$M(\mathbb Z):= \{\mu: P(\mathbb Z)\to \mathbb C : ...
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Does there exists $f\in A(\mathbb T)$ such that $||f||=r$ and $||\mathrm{e}^{if}||= \mathrm{e}^{r}$?

Let $f\in L^{1}(\mathbb T)$ and define the Fourier coefficient of $f$ : $\hat{f}(n)=\frac{1}{2\pi} \int _{-\pi}^{\pi} f(t)\, \mathrm{e}^{-int} dt; (n\in \mathbb Z)$.Consider the space, $$A(\mathbb ...
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30 views

Continuity of additive maps

I studied all of previous posts about "when an additive map is continuous?" but I did not get my answer! My question is the following: Let $f:A\longrightarrow B$, be an bijective map from a Banach ...
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1answer
74 views

How to inter change of norm and limit in the Banach algebra?

Let $f\in L^{1}(\mathbb T)$ and define the Fourier coefficient of $f$ : $\hat{f}(n)=\frac{1}{2\pi} \int _{-\pi}^{\pi} f(t) e^{-int} dt; (n\in \mathbb Z)$.Consider the space, $$A(\mathbb T):= \{f\in ...
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85 views

Invertible elements in a Banach algebra connected to identity

I'm currently working on a problem for homework in my Banach algebras course and I've run into a bit of an issue with terminology. Let $\mathcal{A}$ be a Banach algebra, then $\mathcal{A}^{-1}_0$ ...
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69 views

Do the homomorphisms really have to be continuous?

I read that If $\varphi, \psi$ are continuous homomorphisms from a normed algebra $A$ to a normed algebra $B$ then $\varphi = \psi$ if $\varphi$ and $\psi$ are equal on a set $S$ that generates the ...
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32 views

Show that a subalgebra is commutative.

If $B$ is an unital algebra (even not commutative), how do I show that the subalgebra spanned by the elements $1$, $f$ and $(f - \lambda1)^{-1}$ is commutative? Thank you.
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Why the space of Fourier-Stieltjes transforms on a compact groups is same as the space of FT on compact groups?

Let $G$ be a locally compact group and we put $L^{1}(G)= \ \text {The space of all complex functions which are integrable with respect to the Haar measure of } \ G.$ Let $\Gamma$ is the dual group ...
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141 views

Disk algebra norm clousre

I have a trouble with a question and i need help to solve it. Define $A_1$={$f$ $\in C(\overline{\mathbb{D}})$ | f is analytic in $\mathbb{D}\}$ $A_2$=the norm closure of polynomials in ...
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43 views

Coset of the Abstract index group of a Banach Algebra?

I'm studying on the book of Douglas: "Banach algebra techniques in operator theory" and there is a passage I don't understand, and I hope you can give me a hand. "A continuous function $f$ from $X$ ...
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55 views

Injective norm on tensor algebra of a finite-dimensional Banach space

Suppose that $V$ is a finite n-dimensional Banach space, and suppose that $T(V)$ is the tensor algebra on it. Furthermore, suppose that $T^{(n)}(V)$ is the "abridged" tensor algebra obtained by taking ...
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126 views

Is the product rule true in a Banach algebra?

Let $X$ be a Banach space and $\mathcal{L}(X)$ the Banach algebra of all bounded linear operators $L:X\to X$, where the norm is given by $$\|L\|_\mathcal{L}=\sup\{\|L(x)\|_X;\;\|x\|_X=1\}$$ and the ...
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94 views

Why is the character space of a Banach algebra weak $\ast$ closed?

Let $A$ denote a unital commutative Banach algebra and let $\Sigma(A)$ denote its character space. Why is $\Sigma(A) \cup \{0\}$ weak $\ast$ closed in the closed unit ball of $A^\ast$? Is $\Sigma(A) ...
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106 views

Concatenation with continuous function is entire

Apologies. I have to ask two questions in one and I will give you the reason below. The questions are: If $f$ is entire and $g$ is continuous does it follow that $g\circ f$ is entire? If ...
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Limit of the spectrum in Banach algebra

Let $A$ an unital complex Banach algebra, $a_{n} $ is a sequence such that $\lim_{n\to \infty}a_{n}=a$. What is the relation between $\lim_{n\to \infty}\sigma(a_{n})$ and $\sigma(a)$. I think that it ...
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77 views

How to prove this map is differentiable

Let $A$ be a unital Banach algebra and $f: Inv(A) \to A$ be the map $a \mapsto a^{-1}$. I'm trying to show that $f$ is differentiable. My idea is to show that the limit of $\delta \to 0$ of $$ {\|(a ...