A Banach algebra is an algebra over the real or complex numbers which is equipped with a complete norm such that |xy| ≤ |x||y|. The study of Banach algebras is a major topic in functional analysis. If you are about to ask a question on C*-algebras or von Neumann algebras please use (c-star-algebras) ...

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34 views

Is the hermitian condition a must?

For a hermitian element $a$ in a $C^*$-algebra, show that $\|a^{2n}\| = \|a\|^{2n}$ In this post, I saw a comment stating that "More generally, if $a$ is normal then $∥a^n∥=∥a∥^n$ for each positive ...
3
votes
2answers
43 views

Are there finite dimensional $\mathbb{R}$-algebras which are not Banach algebras?

It is known that not every algebra (over a ground field $\mathbb{R}$ or $\mathbb{C}$) is a Banach algebra. It might be a silly question, but are there examples of finite dimensional ($\mathbb{R}$- or $...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

Every Jordan function $\phi$ on $A$ is multiplicative.

I am reading the following proposition by : FF. Bonsall and J. Duncan, Complete Normed Algebras, pg. 79 Definition: A Jordan function on $A$ is a nonzero linear functional $\phi$ on $A$ such that ...
2
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0answers
17 views

Question on maximal left ideals.

Suppose I have a unital Banach algebra $A$ and a maximal left ideal $L$ and an element $a$ such that $La\subset{}L$. I want to show that there exists (uniqueness is easy) some complex $\lambda$ such ...
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17 views

calculating the abstract index of $C(T)$

Consider the following definition in operator theory: I'm reading an example of the abstract index of $\mathcal{A}$ in Zhu's An Introduction to Operator Albebras: Here $G_0(\mathcal{A})$ is the ...
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27 views

When is the set $\{ x^* x : x \in A\} $ a cone in a *-algebra?

So in a $C^*$-algebra, every positive element can be written as $x^*x$, and the set of positive elements form a cone. What if we remove all information about the norm? Say $A$ is an algebra, with $*:...
4
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0answers
57 views

Submultiplicative Hilbert space norm on $B(H)$

Let $H$ be a complex Hilbert space and let $B(H)$ denote the space of bounded linear operators $H \to H$ equipped with operator norm: $$ \lVert T \rVert = \sup\big\{ \lVert Tx \rVert \: : \: \lVert x \...
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votes
2answers
63 views

Show that $\exp(-\lambda x) \cdot\exp(\lambda x)=1$ using the power series

Let $A$ be a commutative Banach algebra. Consider the exponential function $$\exp(\lambda x) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{(\lambda x)^n}{n!},$$ where $x \in A$ and $\lambda \in \mathbb C$. We can easily ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Why if $X \subset A$ has codimension $1$, the only subspace properly containing $X$ is $A$?

I saw the following question a while ago on Math.SE This question. The answer provided seems to give a satisfactory result, but one thing in the answer I can not quite see. The author of the answer ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Why is the canonical approximate identity positive?

Let $\{u_n\}$ be an approximative identity for C*-algebra A. Why the element $1-u_n$ is also positive? I'm asking about it because in some theorem we use something like this: $\mid \mid a-u_n a \mid \...
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14 views

Matrices over tensor product of Banach algebras

Suppose that $A$ is a Banach algebra, or even a $C^*$-algebra, and $B$ is a closed subalgebra of $B(L^p)$ for some $L^p$ space. In particular, $M_n(B)$ has a canonical matrix norm. Is there some ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Algebra of compact operators on $\ell_p$

Are the algebras of compact operators $K(\ell_p)$ and $K(\ell_q)$ isomorphic as Banach algebras for $1\leq p<q<\infty$?
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Explicit example of Gel'fand transform

I would like to determine explicitly the Gel'fand transform for the (commutative unital) Banach algebra of $2 \times 2$ matrices of the form $$\pmatrix{ a && b \\ 0 && a}, \quad a,b \...
1
vote
2answers
36 views

Why the set of all bounded operators on Hilbert space is a prime?

In abstract algebra, a nonzero ring $R$ is a prime ring if for any two elements $a$ and $b$ of $R$, $arb=0$ for all $r$ in $R$ implies that either $a=0$ or $b=0$. Or for any two ideals $A$ and $B$ of $...
3
votes
1answer
41 views

Norm of a character in a non-unital Banach algebra without approximate identity

As is shown here, the norm of a character in a non-unital Banach algebra with an approximate identity is $1$. I wonder if this result still holds for general non-unital Banach algebras. Let $A$ be ...
4
votes
0answers
32 views

Tensor product of $L^1([0,1],\omega)$ with some Banach space

We know that for any Banach space $E$ if $\hat{\otimes}$ denotes projective tensor product then $L^1([0,1])\hat{\otimes} E$ is isomorphism isometric with $$L^1([0,1],E)=\{f:[0,1]\to E:\ \ \int_0^1\|f(...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Applying Complex Stone-Weierstrass Theorem for Compact Subsets

The complex Stone-Weierstrauss theorem can be applied to compact spaces. However, say I have an open set $D\subset \mathbb{C}$, and I want to approximate a holomorphic function $f$ on $D$ via ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

Functional calculus for unitization of an algebra?

I have been stuck on this problem for a week now: "Let $A$ be a Banach algebra without identity, let $a\in A$, and let $f$ be holomorphic on a neighborhood of $\sigma(a)$, so that $f(a)\in A^\# $ is ...
3
votes
1answer
32 views

One-sided identities in Banach algebras

What is an example of a Banach algebra with a left identity but with no right identities? Is there an example of an operator algebra with this property?
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15 views

Norms on matrices over Banach algebras

Let $A$ be a unital Banach algebra. Is there a sequence of norms $||\cdot||_n$ such that $(M_n(A),||\cdot||_n)$ is a Banach algebra for each $n$, identity matrices of all sizes have norm 1, the ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Why is $f(e)=1$?

Let $A$ be a commutative complex Banach Algebra with unit element $e$. Now, let $f \in A^*$ be a non-zero multiplicative linear functional. Why does it follow, directly from the above, that $f(e)=1$?...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

Why are matrix norms defined the way they are?

Given $A$ a square matrix Define: $\|A\|_1$ as the max absolute column sum $\|A\|_2$ as the sum of the squares of each element $\|A\|_\infty$ as the max absolute row sum Pray tell, why are ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Is the algebra of adjointable operators on a Hilbert module prime?

In abstract algebra, a nonzero ring $R$ is a prime ring if for any two elements $a$ and $b$ of R, $arb = 0$ for all $r$ in $R$ implies that either $a = 0$ or $b = 0.$ Or for any two ideals $A$ and $B$...
2
votes
2answers
118 views

How does the general spectral theorem generalize the simpler versions?

I read the following version of the spectral theorem in Banach Algebra Techniques in Operator Theory by Douglas: I'm trying to understand why this is a generalization of the following version, ...
2
votes
2answers
71 views

Why can entire function be written as exponential, and why is it bounded in this way?

Let $A$ be a commutative complex Banach algebra with unit element $e$. Suppose now that $f(x) \in \sigma(x)$ for every $x \in A$ where $\sigma(x)$ denotes the spectrum of $x$. Now, let $x\in A$ and ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Why is $f$ continuous if its kernel is not dense in $A$?

Let $A$ be a commutative complex Banach algebra with unit element $e$. Suppose $X \subset A$ has codimension $1$ and consists out of non-invertible elements. Clearly $X$ is the kernel for some ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Idempotents with arbitrarily large norms in Banach algebras

While nonzero projections in $C^*$-algebras have norm 1, there is no such restriction for idempotents in Banach algebras. What is an example of a Banach algebra that has idempotents of arbitrarily ...
4
votes
1answer
25 views

States in a $C^*$-algebra bounded?

A functional $\phi$ on a $C^*$-algebra $A$ with unit element, i.e. $\phi: A \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ is called a state if $\phi(T^*T) \ge 0$ for all $T \in A$ and $\phi( \operatorname{id}) = 1.$ Now, I ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

A condition on quotient norms on quotient Banach algebras

Let $A$ be a non-unital Banach algebra, and let $A^+$ be the unitization of $A$ consisting of elements of the form $(a,z)$ where $a\in A$ and $z\in\mathbb{C}$ with multiplication $(a,z)(b,w)=(ab+zb+wa,...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

‎‎‎$‎‎C^*$-algebra generated by ‎$‎‎a$‎

Let ‎$‎‎A$ ‎be a unital ‎‎‎$‎‎C^*$-algebra. ‎‎ Assume that ‎$‎‎a\in A$ ‎is a ‎‎normal ‎and ‎invertible element ‎i.e ‎‎$‎‎aa^*=a^*a$ ‎and ‎‎$‎‎aa^{-1}=a^{-1}a=1$‎.‎ ‎let $‎‎C^*({a}) $ be the ‎‎‎$‎‎C^*...
4
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45 views

Finite dimensional Banach algebras whose $K_{0}$ group is a non trivial finite group

Motivated by this question we ask Is there a finite dimensional Banach algebra $A$ such that $K_{0}(A)$ is a nontrivial finite group? I understand from the above link and this post that any ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Why the set of pure state ‎is ‎weak* ‎compact?

Let ‎$‎‎A$ ‎be a‎ ‎C*-algebra‎. ‎ ‎$‎S(A)‎$ ‎is ‎the ‎set ‎of ‎state ‎on ‎‎$‎‎A$ and $‎‎PS(A)$ ‎is ‎the ‎set ‎of ‎pure ‎state ‎on ‎‎$‎‎A$. ‎ ‎ I ‎know ‎that ‎if ‎‎$‎‎A$ ‎is ‎unital ‎then ‎‎$‎‎S(A)$ ‎...
0
votes
2answers
59 views

If $X$ is maximal ideal then it consists of non-invertible elements?

I'm reading through a paper where I came across the following theorem Let $A$ be a commutative complex Banach algebra with unit element $e$. Theorem: A subspace $X\subset A$ of codimension $1$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Pythagorean theorem does require the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality?

In Wikipedia I found a proof of Schwarz inequality making use of the Pythagorean Theorem. Anyway I'm wondering... isn't that a petitio principii? Isn't the Pythagorean Theorem in Hilbert spaces proved ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Local banach algebra without zero divisors

I need to construct example of banach algebra with unique nontrivial maximal ideal and without zero divisors. I think it is must be a subalgebra of $\mathbb{C}[[z]]$, but I could not build anything.
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29 views

postliminal $C^*$-algebra

A ‎$‎‎C^*$-algebra ‎‎$‎‎A$ ‎is ‎said ‎to ‎be ‎postliminal ‎if ‎for ‎every ‎non-zero ‎irreducible ‎representation ‎‎$‎(H,‎\varphi‎)‎$ ‎we ‎have ‎‎$‎‎K(H)‎\subseteq‎ ‎‎\varphi‎(A)‎$‎ ‎ In ‎Murrphy's ‎...
3
votes
1answer
35 views

property of the Gelfand transform: why does an isometry map closed sets to closed sets?

The following is a theorem about self-adjoint subalgebra of $C(X)$ where $X$ is compact Hausdorff and the first half of its proof: Here are my questions: Why $\Gamma:\mathfrak{U}\to C(M_{\...
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22 views

Normal positive functional on Von Neumann algebras

Let $A$ be Von Neumann algebra. A positive linear functional ‎$‎‎‎\varphi‎$ on $A$ ‎is ‎said ‎to ‎be ‎normal ‎if ‎for ‎any ‎self‎adjoint and increasing nets such that ‎$‎‎u_{\alpha‎}\longrightarrow u‎...
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0answers
20 views

Homotopy of bounded homomorphisms between Banach algebras

Let $A$ and $B$ be Banach algebras. Say that two bounded homomorphisms $\phi_0$ and $\phi_1$ from $A$ to $B$ are homotopic if there is a path $(\phi_t)_{t\in[0,1]}$ of bounded homomorphisms from $A$ ...
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0answers
28 views

The image of a continuous derivation on a Banach algebra is contained in the kernel of a character.

It is known that if $D$ is a continuous derivation on a commutative Banach algebra $\mathcal{A}$, then for any nonzero character $\theta$ on $\mathcal{A}$ we have $D(\mathcal{A})\subseteq ker \theta$. ...
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votes
0answers
16 views

multiplication on the second dual of a Banach *-algebra

I am looking for an Arense regular Banach *-algebra $A$, whose multiplication on $A^{**}$ is not $w^*$-separately continuous.
6
votes
1answer
117 views

K theory of finite dimenional Banach algebras

Is there a reference which studied the K theory of finite dimensional Banach algebras? In particular is there a finite dimensional Banach algebra whose $K_{0}$-group is a non trivial finite group?(I ...
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0answers
39 views

Well-definedness of the logarithm in a Banach-algebra

Let $x \in \mathcal{A}$ be an element of a unital Banach-algebra $\mathcal{A}$ and assume $\sigma(x) \subset \{ z \in \mathbf{C} : \vert 1 - z \vert < 1 \}$, where $\sigma(x)$ denotes the spectrum ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

closed convex hull of projection

$1$:I know that if ‎$‎‎F$ is a ‎locally convex ‎compact ‎space ‎then ‎‎$‎‎‎\overline{co}(‎Ext (F))=F$‎ ($Ext$: means extreme point) $2$:I ‎know ‎that ‎if ‎‎$‎‎M$ ‎is a ‎Von ‎Neumann ‎algebra ‎then ‎‎...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

projecton and positive element in $C^*$algebras

Let ‎$‎‎A$ ‎be ‎a‎ ‎$‎‎C^*$-algebra.‎$‎‎p\in A$ ‎is a ‎‎projections. ‎‎‎ Assume ‎that ‎‎$‎‎a$ ‎is a element in‎$‎‎ Ball(A_+)$ ‎such ‎that ‎‎$‎‎a‎\leq p‎$‎ Q:May I‎ ‎say ‎‎$‎‎ap=pa$?why?‎ ‎
1
vote
1answer
67 views

If an operator have only Real eigenvalues + symmetric then it's self-adjoint?

I know that if an operator is self-adjoint then has Real eigenvalues but I'm not sure about the converse i.e. if it has only Real eigenvalues and is symmetric then the operator is selfadjoint. Is that ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

*-isomorphism and spectrum

‎‎‎$A$ is a ‎‎‎‎$‎‎C^∗$-algebra and $P(A)$ is a set of projection of it. Assume that $A$ ‎admits a‎ ‎strictly ‎positive ‎element ‎‎‎‎‎$a$ ‎such ‎that ‎‎‎‎‎$‎‎‎‎σ(a)‎-\{‎0\}$ ‎is ‎discrete‎. I want to ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

strictly positive elments $a$ when $‎‎‎\sigma(a) ‎\backslash‎ {0}‎$ ‎is ‎discrete

If ‎$‎‎A$ is a ‎‎$‎‎C^*$-algebra ‎and it ‎admits a‎ ‎strictly ‎positive ‎element ‎‎$‎‎a$ ‎such ‎that ‎‎$‎‎‎\sigma(a) ‎\backslash‎ {0}‎$ ‎is ‎discrete‎ then‎ Q1:‎$‎‎A$ admits ‎an ‎approximate ‎unit ‎‎$...
2
votes
2answers
52 views

‎strictly ‎positive elements

Let ‎$‎‎A$ ‎be a ‎‎‎‎$‎‎C^*$-algebra‎. ‎$‎‎a\in A^+$ ‎is ‎strictly ‎positive in ‎$‎‎A$‎ ‎if ‎‎$‎‎‎\overline{aAa}=A‎$‎‎ *I know that if $A$ is unital, $a\in A^+$ is strictly positive iff $a\in Inv(A)$...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

Path of completely bounded maps has uniformly bounded cb norm?

If $\phi_t:A\rightarrow B$ is completely bounded for $t\in[0,1]$, and $t\mapsto\phi_t(a)$ is continuous for each $a\in A$, is $\sup_{t\in[0,1]}||\phi_t||_{cb}$ finite? Here, $A$ and $B$ are operator ...