The axiom of choice is a common set-theoretic axiom with many equivalents and consequences. This tag is for questions on where we use it in certain proofs, and how things would work without the assumption of this axiom.

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Show that the sets of isolated point of $E$ is a countable set - Axiome of choice

Let $E \subset \mathbb{C}$. Show that the sets of isolated point of $E$ is a countable set. That question is related to this question. However, my question somewhat different. Define ...
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Does the following condition implies full outer measure?

Let $X \subseteq 2^{\omega}$ be a set of positive Lebesgue measure. Suppose that for every $\eta, \nu \in 2^{<\omega}$ of the same length, the measure of $X$ above $\eta$ is the same as the measure ...
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Hahn-Banach Theorem for separable spaces without Zorn's Lemma

I was reading about the Hahn-Banach Theorem, its many versions and their proofs. It's known that in the proofs we need Zorn's Lemma. But in the book that I'm reading, the author said if $X$ is a ...
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What does Axiom of Choice mean [duplicate]

So this a fundamental assumption in mathematics. Can someone explain informally what it actually is please. My guess is that its when we say in proofs that "Let $x \in X$". But I am not sure.
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Prob. 9, Sec. 19 in Munkres' TOPOLOGY, 2nd edition: Equivalence of the choice axiom and non-emptyness of Cartesian product

The Axiom of Choice is as follows: Given a collection $\mathcal{A}$ of disjoint non-empty sets, there exists a set $C$ consisting of exactly one element from each element of $\mathcal{A}$; that ...
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Well-foundedness of cardinals and the axiom of choice

Without axiom of choice it is not generally true that the class of all cardinal (in this question we consider Scott cardinal rather than cardinals as ordinals) is not well-founded under the ordinary ...
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Algebraic closure with no nontrival automorphism

In Milne's notes on Galois theory, Chapter 7, p.91 he remarked that it is consistent without the axiom of choice that there exists an algebraic closure $L$ of $\mathbb{Q}$ with no nontrivial ...
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Can you explain the “Axiom of choice” in simple terms?

As I'm sure many of you do, I read the XKCD webcomic regularly. The most recent one involves a joke about the Axiom of Choice, which I didn't get. I went to Wikipedia to see what the Axiom of ...
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Proof of the Axiom of Choice

This exercise is from Bloch's book and can be found here. Bloch introduces equivalent variations of the axiom of choice where the one that will be proven is stated in terms of functions: AC1 Let ...
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Is there a choice homomorphism?

Let $\pi : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}/ \mathbb{Q}$ be the canonical projection. With the axiom of choice we "know" that there are choice functions $\alpha : \mathbb{R}/ \mathbb{Q} \to \mathbb{R}$ with ...
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Prob. 9, Sec. 4.3 in Kreyszig's Functional Analysis Book: Proof of the Hahn Banach Theorem without Zorn's Lemma [duplicate]

Here's Theorem 4.3-2 (i.e. the Hahn Banach theorem for normed spaces): Let $f$ be a bounded linear functional defined on a subspace $Z$ of a normed space $X$. Then there exists a bounbed linear ...
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Different Zorn's lemma statements

Given a chain-complete poset $P$, every $x\in P$ lies below some maximal element. Every inductive poset has enough maximal elements a maximal element. Chain-complete means every chain has a least ...
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Surjective function from a countable set

In Lang "Real and Functional analysis" is demonstrated that given a countable set $A$ and a function $f: A \rightarrow B$ which is surjective on $B$, then $B$ is finite or countable. Proof: Consider ...
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How does any map have a “pseudosection” (assuming axiom of choice)?

In the Lawvere and Rosebrugh book, Sets for Mathematics, exercise 4.34 is to show that the following is equivalent to the axiom of choice (every epimap has a section aka right inverse): If $f:X\to ...
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Proof ultrafilter theorem without axiom of choice?

This is stated that: the ultrafilter theorem can't be proved without the axiom of choice in Zermelo-Fraenkel. Is this true? Axiom of choice implies ultrafilter theorem but why is it not possible ...
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Can a large $V_\alpha$ satisfy Comparability but not be well-orderable?

Say that a set satisfies Comparability if any two of its subsets are comparable: one is injectable into the other. Are there models of ZF containing ranks $V_\alpha$ which satisfy Comparability but ...
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A Hamel basis for $l^{\,p}$?

I am looking for an explicit example for a Hamel basis for $l^{\,p}$?. As we know that for a Banach space a Hamel basis has either finite or uncountably infinite cardinality and for such a basis one ...
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Is this Lindeloff theorem using AC? [duplicate]

Theorem: the following are equivalent: 1) The metric space $X$ is separable. 2) $X$ is second-countable (it has a countable basis) proof: $1 \Rightarrow 2: \lbrace B(d,r) : d\in D, r \in ...
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Lebesgue-measurable sets requiring the Axiom of Choice to construct

Every known construction of the Vitali set relies on the Axiom of Choice. It happens to not be Lebesgue-measurable. Must every set whose construction relies on the Axiom of Choice not be ...
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Under what choice assumptions is there a monoid structure on every set?

The question arose when discussing possible cardinalities of hom-sets of whether it's any weaker than the axiom of choice that there exists a monoid of every cardinality. It's well known, or at least ...
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Alternate definitions of width (of a partial order) without Choice?

Say an antichain of a poset $P$ is a set of pairwise incomparable elements of $P.$ Typically, the width of a partial order is defined to be the supremum of the cardinalities of antichains of $P.$ When ...
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How can one prove the axiom of collection in ZFC without using the axiom of foundation?

Say I want to prove the axiom(s) of collection from the axiom(s) of replacement. If you have the axiom of foundation, then you can use Scott's trick to do this. But suppose I'm working in a context ...
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The smallest infinity and the axiom of choice

The short version of this question is: which (natural) axiom should be added to ZF so that the statement "$\aleph_{0}$ is the smallest infinity" becomes true? A set $A$ is called infinite if it can ...
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Don't we need the axiom of choice to choose from a non-empty set?

I recently read a proof that had the following in it: "since $A$ is non-empty, we can find an element $x$ in $A$." This proof did not mention the axiom of choice, but it seems to me that it would be ...
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$|A^2|=|A|$ for every infinite $A$ iff Axiom of Choice holds. [duplicate]

I've seen this assertion in a few comments around the site, and I found the answer to the $\rightarrow$ implication here. Does anyone know a (hopefully simple) proof of the $\leftarrow$ implication?
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Countable cartesian product and Axiom of Choice

In the A taste of Topology book, when talking about Cartesian product $\prod\{S:S\in\mathcal{S}\}$, the author writes the following: It is straightforward that ...
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What is the first order formulation of Zorn's lemma in the language of set theory?

Very often in notes of courses in set theory you find the assertion that in ZF the Axiom of choice (AC) is equivalent to Zorn's Lemma (ZL) (which is equivalent to Well Ordering Principle which it ...
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Adjunctions via Reflections and the Axiom of Choice

I have met two ways of defining adjunctions: via the triangle identities, and via reflections. Proposition 3.1.2 Let $F:\mathsf A \rightarrow \mathsf B$ be a functor and $B$ an object of $\mathsf ...
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Choice in a Particular HOD Type Model

Let $V \models ZFC$. Let $P$ be a forcing and $G \subseteq P$ be generic over $V$. Let $x \in V[G]$. Let $M$ be the class of set that are hereditarily definable (in $V[G]$) using as parameters $x$ ...
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Proving implication on well ordered set implies AC

Consider the following statement: If $A$ is a well-ordered set such that every nonempty subset of $A$ has a maximal element, then $A$ is finite. I am trying to prove that this statement implies ...
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Ordinal with given cardinality (without AC)

Is it possible to show that every cardinality has an ordinal with this cardinality (without the axiom of choice)? If so, how?
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A way to well-order real line

How is well-ordering in real line possible? I know that the axiom of choice provides possible well-ordering, but intuitively, this does not seem to make sense. How can you compare 1.111111.... and ...
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Is there a group with countably many subgroups, but is not countable in ZF?

Inspired by this question, although I don't think it was the OP's intention, hence this separate question: Is there a group $G$ with countably many subgroups, but is a not a countable group itself ...
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Proof: Every lattice has a maximal filter iff AC

I'm working through a proof of Herrlich's book Axiom of Choice, p.58 (Google books): Equivalent are Every lattice has a maximal filter. Axiom of Choice. In this book, a lattice is ...
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Axiom of Choice needed to “categorify” the cardinals?

I was playing around in $\mathsf{Set},$ trying to reduce it modulo isomorphisms to make a category $\mathsf{Card},$ letting the objects of $\mathsf{Card}$ be the isomorphism classes of $\mathsf{Set}$ ...
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Existence of mathematical objets constructed using the axiom of choice

Let consider the Vitali set $V \subset \mathbb R$, which is constructed using the axiom of choice. (I could take any other mathematical "object" that can be constructed using the axiom of choice, but ...
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How Does the Following Definition of the Axiom of Choise Entail that Elements Are Simultaneously Chosen from an Infinite Collection of Nonempty Sets [duplicate]

The following excerpt is from Ethan Bloch, Proofs and Fundamentals: A First Course in Abstract Mathematics (2nd ed, 2011 : page 121) and concerns one of the motivations for introducing the axiom of ...
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Does the law of the excluded middle imply the existence of “intangibles”?

First off, I'm not sure if "intangible" is standard terminology, Wikipedia defines an intangible object to be: "objects that are proved to exist, but which cannot be explicitly constructed". So if ...
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Can a $\mathbf{Q}$-basis of $\mathbf{R}$ be explicitly defined?

Could someone give me an explicit basis of $\mathbf{R}$ as a vector space over $\mathbf{Q}$? I know some linearly independent subset, namely $1,e,e^2,\dots$ but this seems to be a deep result ...
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Axiom Of Choice to create a sequence of right inverses

I want to construct a sort of sequence of right inverses. My question is whether the construction uses the Axiom Of Choice correctly. Suppose I have a sequence of surjective functions $$ ...
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Why can countable recursive constructions not be done using countable choice?

Why can countable recursive constructions not be done using countable choice? For example, replace $Z$ by $\omega$ in the following theorem Why can't one prove it using countable choice? (The proof ...
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What's an example of a vector space that doesn't have a basis if we don't accept Choice?

I've read that the fact that all vector spaces have a basis is dependent on the axiom of choice, I'd like to see an example of a vector space that doesn't have a basis if we don't accept AoC. I'm ...
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Prob 2(d) Sec 9 in Munkres' TOPOLOGY 2nd edition: Is it possible to construct a choice function? [duplicate]

Here's Lemma 9.2 in Topology by James R. Munkres, 2nd edition: Given a collection $\mathscr{B}$ of non-empty sets (not necessarily disjoint), there exists a function $$c \colon \mathscr{B} \to ...
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What are 'weak' forms of Urysohn's lemma, which do not require choice?

Reference: http://web.mat.bham.ac.uk/C.Good/research/pdfs/horror.pdf It is well known that the original proof of Urysohn's lemma uses a choice principle. (DC) What are weak forms of the Urysohn's ...
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Is it consistent that every set is the countable union of sets with smaller cardinality, or is it just alephs?

(note: in what follows by "consistent" I mean "consistent relative to large cardinals") My question regards the exact statement of result which Gitik has proven in his paper "All Uncountable ...
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Why in Teichmüller-Tukey lemma finiteness is essential?

First we will state a Teichmüller-Tukey Lemma: Let $A$ be a set and $\phi$ be a property defined on all finite subset of $A$. Assume that $B$ is a subset of $A$ such that each finite subset of $B$ ...
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Equivalence of two order-theoretic notions without Choice?

A question occurred to me as I was considering an earlier question of mine, and wasn't closely enough related for me to feel I could to include it. Let's say that a partial order $\langle ...
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Existence of Hamel basis, choice and regularity

Blass (1984) shows that the existence of Hamel basis for arbitrary vector space over any field implies the axiom of choice. However such implication needs the axiom of regularity. As in Blass' ...
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In $ZF+ \neg C$ can we always find a bijection from a given set $A$ to a transitive set?

Let us write $|A| = |B|$ iff there is a bijection $f \colon A \rightarrow B$. Working in $\operatorname{ZF + \neg C}$, can we prove that for any $A$ there is a transitive $B$ with $|A| = |B|$? This ...
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What is some simple to prove very counter-intuitive result obtained by Choice?

I'm aware of some theorems like the Banach-Tarski's which yield very counter-intuitive results, however, it's proof is far beyond my knowledge, so I'm looking for some result that is easy to prove ...