Automata Theory, including abstract machines, grammars, parsing, grammatical inference, transducers, and finite-state techniques

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Prove that any finite set of words is regular. How many states is sufficient for a single word $w_1…w_m$?

DFA Prove that any finite set of words is regular. How many states is sufficient for a single word $w_1...w_m$? For part 2, wouldn't it require M states if the word length is M?
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1answer
375 views

Finite state machine to report when the last 4 inputs were 1011

Suppose you want to construct an FSM containing one input and one output. Consider the example: The machine should assert the input (set to 1) when the last four bits taken in as input match the ...
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suffix regular language

Can someone give me an idea how to prove this: suffix(L) = {y | xy $\in $ L for some x $\in$ $\Sigma$ *}. Or suffix is the set of all suffixes of its strings. Prove that if L is regular, then so is ...
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85 views

Proving this language is regular?

Is $$L =\big\{x^ny^m : |n-m| = 2\big\}$$ a regular language? I can't seem to figure this question out, and i've tried drawing a dfa but I still can't seem to find it. If there is a possible dfa, ...
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100 views

regular language?

I need help proving whether this language is regular or not. $$L = \big\{ w \mid w \in \{a,b\}^*, n_a(w)\text{ is even}, n_b(w)\text{ is even}\big\}$$ That is, the number of $a$'s is even and the ...
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1answer
722 views

How to construct a grammar $G$ such that $L(G) = \{ a^nb^m|n \neq 2m,m,n \ge 0\} $?

Construct a grammar $G$ such that $$L(G) = \{ a^nb^m|n \neq 2m,m,n \ge 0\}$$ My attempt: I first constructed a grammar for the langugage $L(G_1) = \{ a^nb^m|n = 2m,m,n \ge = 0\}$, $G_1 = (\{ S\}, ...
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90 views

What are the states of this NFA?

I have to realize an NFA that recognizes the language of strings on the alphabet {a, b} ending with: bb, ba, baa. I thought that there must be the following states: $q_0$: the string ends with bb. ...
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60 views

Büchi Pushdown System Accepting Run

From the following definitions: Definition (Büchi Pushdown System) A Buchi pushdown system (BPDS) is a tuple BP = (Q,S,→,Qf) with (Q,S,→) a PDS (where S is the stack content) and Qf ⊆ Q a set of fi ...
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1answer
479 views

Nondeterministic finite automaton proof

I am having a really hard time working the problem below out. I am not sure I am even on the right direction with this logic . Swapping the accept and reject states alone is not sufficient to accept ...
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1answer
1k views

Reachability graph for Petri net.

I am trying to draw a reachability graph for this Petri net. Could you please help me to understand how this works?
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714 views

Are these languages context free or not?

$L_1=\{a^nb^mc^nd^m \mid m,n >0\}$ $L_2=\{a^nb^mc^md^n \mid m,n >0 \}$ $L_3=\{a^mb^n \mid m+n\text{ is a prime number}\}$ $L_4=\{a^mb^n \mid n=m^2\}$ $L_5=\big\{ww^R\#ww^R \mid w \in \{a,b\}^* ...
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My Moore and Mealy machines look the same. Why?

For university I have to construct equivalent Mealy and Moore machines that solve certain problems. But I am confused, as my Moore and Mealy machines turn out to have exactly the same nodes, just with ...
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1answer
83 views

L is a context free language over {0, 1}, prove, disprove:

cont... L is a context free language over {0, 1}, prove, disprove: L1 is a CFL over {a, b}, where L1 is the language of all words from L, that 0 is converted to a and 1 is converted to bba. Thanks ...
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778 views

How to prove by pumping lemma these languages are not regular?

$L_1 = (a^k * b^r \mid k \neq r^2)$ $L_2 = (a ^{\sum_i ^n t} \mid n > 0 )$
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187 views

PDA state diagram with an inifinite languge but with no looping states

For class I'm supposed to create a PDA state diagram that is capable of generating an infinite language with no state q such that q is reachable from the start state, there is no cycle within the ...
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1answer
161 views

Number of states required for deterministic finite automata

Lemma in text: Let $c$ be a constant and $L = \{1^c\}$ (the singleton language containing the string of $c$ many 1's). Then no DFA with < $c$ states can accept $L$. The given proof assumes ...
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1answer
693 views

How to prove CYK algorithm has $O(n^3)$ running time

I have a final coming up in few days, and the professor mentioned the CYK algorithm. I want to be prepared for the final. I'm trying to find out how to prove the algorithm has worst case running time ...
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1answer
93 views

Prove min(L) = all words in L that they don't have any prefix of themselves in L

We define the minimal words language of $L, \min(L)$, to be the language of all words in $L$ that don't have any prefix in $L$. Assume $L$ is regular language. I need to prove by building an ...
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1answer
430 views

Show that every finite automaton is a one-state pushdown automaton

I'm reading a book that states: Every finite automaton is a one-state push-down automaton How can I go about proving it?
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766 views

Showing that a language is regular - Pushdown Automaton

So what I have to prove is that $L$ is regular given that the stack of PDA for $L$ never grows beyond $n$ entries on any input, and in this case $n=200$.
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157 views

showing that a regular language is regular after taking a letter off or after adding letters

I'll be happy to recieve help with this one: Given the regular language $L$ defined over alphabet $\{a,b\}$, show that the following languages are also regular: $\{xy\mid xay\in L\}$ ...
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1answer
1k views

Formal proof of the concatenation of two regular languages automaton

During an exercise for college, given two NFA's, $A_1\text{ and }A_2$ that accept the languages $L_1\text{ and }L_2$, I've built a NFA, $M$ that accepts the language $L_1*L_2$ (concatenation). The ...
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65 views

Is regularity is preserved under reversal?

When talking about languages and regular languages. Can I say that reversal preserved regularity since if the language L is regular, we can generate it by right linear grammar. Therefore, the ...
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135 views

Solve right linear set equations

Trying to solve this set of equations. I'm feeling like I'm making it so complicated. Of course + is union. Am I on the right track? A = 0B + 1D B = 0C + 1A C = 0A + 1B + λ D = OD + 1C + λ A ...
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521 views

Proof Two Grammars Generate the Same Language

I have two right linear grammars and I need to prove they both generate the same language. What is the right way to do it? L1: $S \rightarrow 0A$ $S \rightarrow 1B$ $A \rightarrow 0A$ $A ...
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1answer
86 views

Is this NFA correct?

For the language L = $\{\Sigma^*. 0 .\Sigma^5 . 1. \Sigma^*\}$ The NFA must have 8 states. Also, what would be the upper bound on the number of states of a DFA recognizing L.
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1answer
79 views

Is this NFA correct for the language {w | w ends with an a and no a occurs between any occurrences of b}?

Language: {w | w ends with an a and no a occurs between any occurrences of b} The NFA must have exactly 3 states.
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82 views

Is this DFA correct for the language $\{w \mid w \in \{ab\}^*\}$?

Language: $\{w \mid w \in \{ab\}^*\}$
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1answer
1k views

Language that is recursively enumerable, but not recursive

I have a problem with this task: Show that this language is recursive enumerable, but not recursive: $L = \{ w \in \{0,1\}^* | M_w(x)\; \text{converges for some input}\; x \}$ (where $M$ is turing ...
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1answer
47 views

Show Two f.s.a. machines accept different input

I'm trying to solve it for two hours already. I know it somehow related to the pumping lemma Let $M_1 = \langle Q_1,S,f_1,s_1,F_1\rangle$ and $M_2 = \langle Q_2,S,f_2,s_2,F_2\rangle$ be two machines, ...
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1answer
1k views

Show two finite state machines are equivalent

Suppose $M_1 = \langle Q_1,S,R,f_1,g_1\rangle$ and $M_2 = \langle Q_2,S,R,f_2,g_2\rangle$ are two strongly connected machines. I need to show that $M_1 \equiv M_2$ iff there exist a state $p \in Q_1$ ...
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2answers
913 views

Can _any_ NFA be converted to a DFA?

I was wondering if for every NFA there exists an equivalent DFA? I think the answer is yes. How would one prove it? Since I'm just starting up learning about Automata I'm not confused about this and ...
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1answer
527 views

Creating a minimal dfa from a regular expression

Having a bit of difficult with the following question: Create a minimal dfa for the language $L(r)$ where $r = a^*\bigl((ab+b)^*\bigr)$?
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595 views

For the regular expression, (a* + b*) . (a.b)* , does the following automaton recognise the language it describes?

I constructed the automaton below using the assumption that the language described by the regular expression above only accepted the following strings: Empty, aabab, babab, aaaabab, bbbabab etc ...
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85 views

What is the difference between the automatas for the regular expressions (a + b)* and (a* + b*)?

I know that the automaton for the regular expression (a + b)* will just have one state, where the initial state = the accepting state and there is one edge going into that state labelled a,b. Sorry, ...
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1answer
130 views

Proving what are the equivalence classes of the relation $R_{L}$

I tried writing a solution for a question that defined a language $L$ and asked to find the equivalence classes of the relation $R_{L}$ The TA wrote that "this is not what you should prove" (or "this ...
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0answers
130 views

Mathematical formulation of 'Indra's net' [closed]

Quoting Wikipedia: "Imagine a multidimensional spider's web in the early morning covered with dew drops. And every dew drop contains the reflection of all the other dew drops. And, in each ...
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1answer
124 views

Is the language $\{i|f(i)=1\}$ recursive, function $f$ is described further inside. [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Show $f$ is primitive recursive, where $f(n) = 1$ if the decimal expansion of $\pi$ contains $n$ consecutive $5$'s $$L = \{i\mid f(i)=1\}$$ $f(i)$ equals $1$ if ...
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1answer
74 views

Proving $\{ll^{R}l|l\in\{a,b\}^{*}\}$ is not context free using the pumping lemma

How can I prove, using the pumping lemma for context free languages, that $\{ll^{R}l|l\in\{a,b\}^{*}\}$is not a context free language ? I tried to put $n$ as the pumping lemma constant and chose ...
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1answer
54 views

Legal actions on a PDA and terminology

I am unsure about the following so I would like to verify if my statements are true: We can remove at most a single character ($Z\in\Gamma$) from the PDA (top ?) of the stack with one step of the ...
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1answer
158 views

Proving that for every context-free language there exist a pushdown automata $M$ s.t. $L=L_{e}(M)$

The book I am reading have proof for the statement Every context-free language there exist a pushdown automata $M$ s.t. $L=L_{e}(M)$ For the case $\epsilon\not\in L$. The proof uses greibach ...
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1answer
232 views

Proof related to a finite state machine

I have this confusion related to a finite state machine M such that if the number of states n>=2, then there exits i $ \overset{i}\equiv{}= {\overset{i+1}\equiv{}}$ I mean the $i^{th}$ equivalence ...
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1answer
110 views

Definition of a deterministic Pushdown automaton

According to my book the definition of a deterministic Pushdown automaton allows for $\delta(q,\epsilon,Z)$ to be non-empty if $$\forall\sigma\in\Sigma:\,\delta(q,\sigma,Z)\neq\emptyset$$ Can someone ...
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113 views

Pushdown automata - definition and definition of $\vdash$

I am reading about pushdown automata and I don't understand the definition of $\vdash$. My book writes that $$(q,aw,Z\alpha)\vdash(p,w,\beta\alpha)$$ if $$(p,\beta)\in\delta(q,a,Z)$$ Can someone ...
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1answer
128 views

Finding if two machines can be equivalent

I have this problem: Consider the following machines M1 and M2. M1 has initial state A and the initial state of M2 is unspecified. Can the machines be made equivalent by the correct choice of ...
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2answers
3k views

Pushdown automata for the language $\{ w001w^\text{R} : w = \{0,1\}^* \}$

I'm trying to make a PDA that accepts the language $\{ w001w^\text{R} : w = \{0,1\}^* \}$ by empty stack. (Here $w^\text{R}$ denotes the reverse of the string $w$.) Our stack symbol s $\#$. I've come ...
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2answers
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Existence of NFA of a reverse of a language

Hi, I'm really stuck on how to prove the following: Given that $L$ is a language and $L'$ is a set such that $L' = \{w \mid w' \in L\}$ where $w$ is the reverse of $w'$, e.g., if $w = a a b$ then $w' ...
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211 views

finite state machine is strongly connected

Let M be an n-state reduced strongly connected finite state machine. prove there exists an input string $w$, where $|w|\le n(n-1)/2$, s.t. M assumes each of its states at least once in response to ...
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Confusion related to state equivalence of finite state machines

I have this confusion if there are two states of a machine p and q. Let x be an input string such that length of x = k, g be the output function and let g(p,x) and g(q,x) be the output when the input ...
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1answer
47 views

Given two NFAs, is there a way to figure out if there exists a language that works for both of them?

Given two non-deterministic finite automaton, is there a way to determine if there exists a single language that satisfies them both?