Questions involving asymptotic analysis, including growth of functions, Big-O notation, Big-Omega and Big-Theta notations.

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Find the leading order uniform approximation to the boundary value problem $\epsilon y''+y'\sin x+y\sin 2x = 0$? [duplicate]

$$\epsilon y''+y'\sin x+y\sin 2x = 0$$ with boundary conditions $y(0)=\pi$ and $y(\pi)=0$ as $\epsilon \rightarrow 0$. I don't know how to find out where the boundary layer is? I thought initially it ...
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1answer
27 views

A probably simple big $\mathcal{O}$ question

I have a probably simple big $\mathcal{O}$ question. Is the following statement correct? $$\mathcal{O}(x \log x)=\mathcal{O}(\sqrt x \log x)$$ why?
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2answers
85 views

Reworking $\sum_{n \leq x} \frac{1}{n^s}$, where $n$ is relatively prime to some fixed $k$

For a fixed integer $k \geq 1$ and real $s>0$ I want to rework the partial sums $$\sum_{\substack{ n \leq x \\ \text{gcd}(k,n) = 1 }} \frac{1}{n^s}$$ in such a way that I can find an ...
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0answers
50 views

$\epsilon y''+\sqrt{x}y'+y=0$, show there is no boundary layer at $x=1$ and a boundary layer of $\epsilon^{\frac{2}{3}}$ at $x=0$?

I'm so lost. If I use quadratic formula I obtain that: $$y(x) = ae^{-2\epsilon\sqrt{x}}+be^{-2x\sqrt{x}+2\epsilon\sqrt{x}}$$ with the boundary conditions $y(0)=0$ and $y(1)=1$ but how does this lead ...
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1answer
45 views

Obtain the leading order uniform approximation of the solution to: $\epsilon y'' +(1+x)^2y'+y=0$?

Obtain the leading order uniform approximation of the solution to: $\epsilon y'' +(1+x)^2y'+y=0, y(0)=0 y(1)=1$ as $\epsilon \rightarrow 0$. I am completely lost. Am i right in doing this? Since ...
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0answers
20 views

Do we recognize higher degree asymptotes beyond Horizontal and Oblique?

I am reading a textbook, and it talks about doing synthetic division in order to rewrite a function into the quotient $$R(x)=\frac{p(x)}{q(x)}= f(x) + \frac{r(x)}{q(x)}$$ Since $\frac{r(x)}{q(x)}$ ...
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1answer
36 views

How can I write in Landau notation (or the like) that $2^x/x$ rises almost as fast as $2^x$?

Since $2^x \not\in O(2^x/x)$, we do not have $O(2^x/x)=O(2^x)$. But since $x$ rises linearly and $2^x$ exponentially, $2^x/x$ rises almost as fast as $2^x$. Can I somehow express this in Landau ...
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1answer
46 views

Strict upper and lower bounds of a sum (Big-Theta)

I am trying to find a function f(k) such that $S_k=\sum_{n=1}^{k^2-1}(\lfloor\sqrt{n}\rfloor)=\Theta(f(k))$. What I have done so far: Ignoring the floor asymptotically we get: ...
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1answer
54 views

Determining the asymptotics of the Summatory function of an Arithmetic Function

We define the arithmetic function: $\displaystyle f(n) = \max\limits_{p^{\alpha} || n} \alpha$, that is if $\displaystyle n = p_1^{\alpha_1}\cdots p_k^{\alpha_k}$ (prime factorization of $n$) then ...
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1answer
26 views

Subtraction of functions with BigO

When trying to assess the BigO of two functions that are added together, we take the max of the two. What happens if there is subtraction instead of addiiton? for instance: $$f(n) = bigO(n^3) $$ $$ ...
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2answers
21 views

Analytic Combinatorics to asymptotically estimate the number of objects of size at most n?

I have read some bits of Flajolet's and Sedgewick's book on Analytic Combinatorics. I am quiet curious as how to asymptotically estimate the number of objects of size at most n. Suppose for example ...
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1answer
103 views

Arrange in increasing order of asymptotic complexity

I have to arrange the above time complexity function in increasing order of asymptotic complexity and indicate if there exist functions that belong to the same order. So, my answer is $[lg(n)]^2$ ...
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0answers
24 views

Analytic function with inconsistent asymptotic behaviour on rays

Consider an function $f$, defined continuously on the closed upper half plane, and analytic on the upper half plane. Going along any ray from the origin that go strictly up (ie. not along the real ...
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0answers
22 views

Laplace's Method modifications

I was wondering if there is a "Laplace's Method" to estimate, as $n \to \infty$, integrals of type $$ I_n = \int_0^\infty e^{nh(x)}g(nx) \, dx $$ where $g$ is a smooth function, that converges to a ...
2
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0answers
38 views

Asymptotic of a real double serie on $\mathbb{Z}$

I am interested by a real sequence $\{a_n\}_{n\in\mathbb{Z}}$ as $\sum_{n\in\mathbb{N}}\left(\vert a_n\vert + \vert a_{-n}\vert\right)$ converges. I want to find the asymptotic behavior of this ...
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1answer
66 views

Why is $(\log n)^3\in O(\sqrt n)$?

Comparing the order of growth of the two functions by taking a limit and using l'hospitals rule, it seems that $\sqrt{n}$ should be O($log^3n$). Here are the steps I took: $$\lim_{n \to ∞} ...
3
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2answers
73 views

Can one apply a WKB method to an inhomogeneous first order differential equation in order to find the asymptotic expansion of the solution?

Consider \begin{equation} \varepsilon \frac{dy}{dx} = Q(x)y + R(x) \end{equation} where $\varepsilon$ is a small parameter. Can one apply a WKB method to find an asymptotic expansion for the ...
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0answers
13 views

Integral of product of Hermite functions with rescaled weights.

Let $$h_{k}(x)=c_{k}(-1)^k e^{\frac{x^2}{r^2}}\frac{d^k}{dx^k}e^{-\frac{x^2}{r^2}}$$ be the standard Hermite polynomials, rescaled with a given parameter $r>0$. The normalizing constant ...
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1answer
43 views

Growth function big theta

a) Show that $3x+7$ is $\Theta(x)$. b) Show that $2x^2 +x -7$ is $\Theta(x^2)$ $2x^2+x-7 \geq x^2$ for $x \geq 2$ if $x \gt 1$ $x^2 \gt x$ $2x^2 \gt 2x$ $x^2 \gt 1$ $x^2\geq x^2$ c) Show ...
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0answers
22 views

Proof that difference equations as asymptotic to their differential analog.

Given a difference equation $a_{n+k}=f(a_n,a_{n+1},\dots,a_{n+k-1})$, we can classify $n=\infty$ as an ordinary, regular singular, or irregular singular point by classifying $x= \infty$ in the ...
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1answer
41 views

Big O - arithmetic rules

I need to prove the following statement: $O(f(n)g(n))=f(n)O(g(n))$ At first I thought the statement is false but apparently it is true. How can I prove it?
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1answer
71 views

How to show $\sum_{i=1}^{n-1} \frac{i(n-2)!}{(n-1-i)!n^{i+1}} \sim 1/n$

How can one compute the large $n$ asymptotics of $$\sum_{i=1}^{n-1} \frac{i(n-2)!}{(n-1-i)!n^{i+1}}\;?$$ My guess is that it is $1/n$ but I don't know how to show that.
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2answers
76 views

How to show that $\sum_{x=1}^\infty \prod_{i=1}^{x-1} (1-i/n) \sim \sqrt{\frac{\pi n}{2}}$?

How can one show that asymptotically $$\sum_{x=1}^\infty \prod_{i=1}^{x-1} \left(1-\frac{i}{n}\right) \sim \sqrt{\frac{\pi n}{2}} \; ?$$ A non rigorous argument is to say that for large $n$, ...
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2answers
56 views

Finding an approximation for the difference of $a_n = \frac{1}{1+a_{n-1}}$ and it's limit.

I've got the recurrence $\displaystyle{a_{n} = {1 \over 1 + a_{n - {\tiny 1}}},\ }$ for $0 < a_{0} < 1 $ which has the solution $\displaystyle{\alpha = {\,\sqrt{\, 5\,}\, - 1 \over 2}}$ I am ...
5
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1answer
139 views

Good resource/exercises for learning asymptotic analysis?

I am studying asymptotic methods right now; things such as mellin transform, inverse mellin transform, saddle point method, laplaces method, etc... and I get very frustrated because I can't get very ...
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3answers
174 views

Asymptotic for sum

How can I find formula for $\displaystyle{\sqrt[3]1 + \sqrt[3]2 + \sqrt[3]3 + \cdots + \sqrt[3]n}$ with an accuracy ${\rm O}\left(\, 1 \over \vphantom{\LARGE A}n^{5}\,\right)$ Is here we should use ...
11
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1answer
260 views

Upper bound for the widest matrix with no two subsets of columns with the same vector sum

Over at PPCG there is an ongoing contest going on to find the largest matrix without a certain property, called property $X$. The description is as follows (copied from the question). A circulant ...
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0answers
13 views

Asymptotics and function composition

In the following question: Big O and function composition It is explained that if $a, b, c, d$ are functions and $a = O(c), b = O(d)$ it doesn't mean that $a ∘ b = O(c∘d)$. However, what if we allow ...
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1answer
29 views

Asymptotic relation between specific binomial coefficient and exponential function

I need to determine the asymptotic relationship between the functions: $$f_1(n)={n\choose{\lfloor{n\over{2}}\rfloor}}, f_2(n)=7^{\sqrt{n}}$$ (I'm going to just assume $n$ is always even.) I've ...
3
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1answer
63 views

Does $\theta(n)$ = $1/x$ make any sense?

So, I asked this question on a discrete structures exam today, which I apparently didn't give enough thought to: $f(x) = (5x^2 + 6x + 2)/(x^3 + 4x^2 +x)$ Find the correct theta notation for the ...
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0answers
12 views

GRAM series and Logarithmic integral

due to the prime number theorem wouldn't we expect that the prime number counting function admits the approxiamtion $$ \pi (x)= \gamma +loglog(x)+ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{log^{n}(x)}{n.n!.\zeta ...
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0answers
35 views

Order of magnitudes comparisons

I need your help with the following. I need to determine how to order (functions) the following : \begin{align} &f(x)=(x/2)^{(x/2)} \\ &g(x)=x! \end{align} Note: I got both of them are ...
4
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1answer
116 views

Growth of ratio based on sum of squared binomial identity

It is a well-known identity that $$\binom{n}{0}^2+\binom{n}{1}^2+\cdots+\binom{n}{n}^2=\binom{2n}{n}.$$ By symmetry of the binomial coefficients, this means the ratio ...
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0answers
45 views

Big-O Notation Division

There was a similar thread on this question, but I am still unsure about the answer. I am asked to show, $$ \frac{e^{(r-q)h}-e^{-\sigma\sqrt{h}}}{e^{\sigma\sqrt{h}}-e^{-\sigma\sqrt{h}}} = ...
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1answer
60 views

Number of words not having a subword of length k with only one letter

Let $f_k(n,t)$ be the number of words of length $t$ over the alphabet $\mathcal{A} = \{1,\ldots,n\}$ such that no word contains $i^k$ as a substring for $i \in \mathcal{A}.$ I am looking to find the ...
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1answer
92 views

Corollaries of Green-Tao Theorem?

there is already a good thread which discusses some corollaries of the Green-Tao Theorem, here: Constructing arithmetic progressions The question I was wondering about is of a similar flavor but ...
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1answer
23 views

big $\Theta$ question dealing with $\log_2{n}$ and $\log_{10}{n}$

Show that $\log_{10}{n} = \Theta(log_2{n})$. I know that I have to show that 1) $\log_{10}{n} = O(\log_2{n})$ show: $\log_{10}{n} \le C * \log_2{n}$ and 2) $\log_2{n} = O(\log_{10}{n})$ show: ...
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0answers
18 views

Big theta question

Find a number $a$ with $s(n) = \Theta(a^n)$ for $s(n) = 1^{(n^2+200n+5)}$. I worked out that $a = 1$ and that $1^{(n^2+200n+5)} \le C * 1^n, C = 1, n = 0.$ So long as n $\ge$ 0 the right-hand side ...
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1answer
21 views

Big oh / big theta proof for the following

Find a number $a$ with $s(n) = \Theta(a^n)$ for $s(n) = (\log_2{10})^{(n-3)}$. I'm not quite sure how to proceed. I was having problems with another problem trying to figure out what it means to ...
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2answers
44 views

Why is Wolfram missing so many oblique asymptotes? (Not only about Wolfram in thread)

Few days ago I made a post, and to be frank I'm not sure if I'm even having this question in the right forum. But I'm also looking for information on if my thoughts are correct. Observe this little ...
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1answer
29 views

Big oh proof for a(n) using big oh hierarcy

So I'm given the following big-oh hierarchy (each sequence is big-oh of any seqeuence to its right.) $1$, $\log_2{n}$, ... , $\sqrt[4]{n}$, $\sqrt[3]{n}$, $\sqrt{n}$, $n\log_2{n}$, $n\sqrt{n}$, ...
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1answer
35 views

Proving big oh for a function

Find a $C$ and $k$ such that $\sqrt{n^2 - 1}$ = $O(n^k)$. My professor has stated that there are two different $k$'s. One from the problem statement and one from the definition of big-oh. I know that ...
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3answers
62 views

Finding the limit of: $\lim_{x\rightarrow +\infty}\left(x\arctan x-x\dfrac{\pi}{2}\right)$

$\lim_{x\rightarrow +\infty}\left(x\arctan x-x\dfrac{\pi}{2}\right)$ I just removed a lot of unnecessary text from this post. If anyone could tell me how to find this limit, without L'Hôpital's rule, ...
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1answer
25 views

Oblique asymptote for: $f(t) = \frac{t^2\arctan t}{t-4}$?

Say a function $$f(t) = \frac{t^2\arctan t}{t-4}$$ Obviously, this has a vertical asymptote at $t = 4$. However, the oblique asymptote, if there is one, I can't seem to find. What I do is I put the ...
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2answers
89 views

Find the leading order asymptotic behaviour of the integral

$$I(x) = \int_0^{\infty}e^{-t-\frac{x}{t^2}}dt \mbox{ as } x \mbox{ tends to infinity} $$ I know this has a moveable maximum so you need to make a substitution which transforms it into the integral: ...
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1answer
43 views

Calculate the leading order asymptotic behaviour (with two maxima)

thanks in advance! Calculate the leading-order asymptotic behaviour of the integral $$I(x) = \int_{0}^{2\pi} (1+t^2) e^{x \cos t} dt \mbox{ as } x \mbox { tends to infinity}$$ So far I know there ...
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1answer
23 views

How to prove this asymptotic bound? [closed]

Given that $0<a<b$, $f(n) \in O(n^a)$, prove that $f(n) \in o(n^b)$ (note there is a difference between big o and little o)
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0answers
14 views

Determining if f(n) is Big-O of g(n)

I'm currently learning Big-O notation but I'm having a lot of trouble understanding it. I'm working through some true/false exercises: 1) $log(k)$ is $O(k)$ 2) $klog(k)$ is $O(k^2)$ 3) $k^2$ is ...
2
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0answers
27 views

Number of ways to visit each cell of $n\times n$ board once

A piece lies on the upper-left corner of an $n\times n$ board. Let $f(n)$ denote the number of ways to move the pieces one step horizontally/vertically at a time, so that it visits each field of the ...
2
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1answer
38 views

Asymptotics of $\frac{1}{n} \sum_{ d|n } \mu{\left(\frac{n}{d}\right)} 2^d $

Define $$a(n) = \frac{1}{n} \sum_{ d|n } \mu{\left(\frac{n}{d}\right)} 2^d $$ where $\mu()$ is the Möbius function. Is it possible to find easily computable $b, c$ such that $b(n) \leq a(n) \leq ...