Questions involving asymptotic analysis, including growth of functions, Big-O notation, Big-Omega and Big-Theta notations.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (1)

1
vote
1answer
110 views

Growth faster than polynomial, slower than exponential.

Assume $F(n)$ is a positive function. If $F$ is growing faster than a polynomial then is it growing exponentially fast? Is this statement true? Can we find a function $F(n)$ such that $$\frac{n^k}{F(...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Limit of shifted ratios

Let $f$ a be a strictly positive function defined in the positive reals. Additionally suppose that for any $\delta > 0$ we have, as $t \to \infty$, $$ e^{-t^{1+\delta}} \ll f(t) \ll e^{t^{1+\delta}}...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Show the correctness: $\log^3( n)\in o(n^{0.5})$

show the correctness: $\log^3 (n)\in o(n^{0.5})$? I started from this way $$\log \log \log( n) = n^{0.5}$$ then I take $\log$ for two parties $$\log\log\log\log( n) = 0.5 \log( n)$$ ...
3
votes
0answers
47 views

Algorithms - Solving the recurrence $T(n) = \sqrt{n} T \left(\sqrt n \right) + n$ [duplicate]

I have been trying to solve the recurrence $T(n) = \sqrt{n} T \left(\sqrt n \right) + n$ for some time now. I only know substitution, recursion trees, and the master method (though it doesn't apply ...
1
vote
1answer
181 views

Proving that one function is big o of another?

I'm working through a big-O problem and have the intuition to know the answer, but don't feel comfortable in my proof. I need to prove from definitions (i.e. proving that there exists two constants $c$...
3
votes
2answers
164 views

Higher Order Terms in Stirling's Approximation

Some websites and books give stirling approximation as $$n! = \sqrt{2 \pi n} \left( \frac{n}{e} \right)^n \left( 1 + O \left(\frac{1}{n} \right)\right)$$ However when I check their derivations most ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

Solving recurrence relations using master's theorem

Can we solve following recurrence relation using Master's theorem- $T(n)=T(n/2)+\log n$ The thing to notice here is that, do $n (n^{\log b} a)$ and $\log n (f(n))$ have an exponential difference?...
0
votes
0answers
262 views

Implicit function where the Jacobian determinant is zero

When we have an implicit function defined by $f(x,y)=0$ where Jacobian determinant of $\frac{\partial f}{\partial x}$ is zero Let $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$, $p \in \mathbb{R}$ and $\phi:\mathbb{R}^n \to \...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

How to solve this triple summation problem?

For a computer science class we were asked to analyze the run time of an algorithm. The answer was posted. I am not sure the proof is correct. I believe the answer should be kc(n^2) (where k is a ...
2
votes
2answers
98 views

Proof $10n = O(n^2)$

As it says in the question name. I want to proof this big-o notation: 10n = O(n^2) Is this way here the correct an proper way to do so? ...
1
vote
2answers
203 views

$Θ(n) + O(n) = ?$ (recurrence equation)

If I have a recurrence equation like $$T(n) \leq T(n/2) + Θ(n) + O(n),$$ then is this expression equal to $T(n) \leq T(n/2) + Θ(n)$? Or is that expression equal to: $T(n) \leq T(n/2) + O(n)$?
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Showing $\limsup_{h \to {0}}\frac{O(h^2)}{h^2}<\infty$

Let $$y(h)=1-2\sin^{2}(2\pi h) , f(y)=\frac{2}{1+\sqrt(1-y^2)} $$ Justify the statement $$f(y(h))=2-4\sqrt{2}\pi+O(h^2)$$ where $$\limsup_{h \to {0}}\frac{O(h^2)}{h^2}<\infty$$
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Big-O of a Function

Given $F(N) = 55N(600 + 50N \log N + 20N) + 20N(30N + 20\sqrt N)(50 + \log N)$. How can one combine multiplication with addition for a Big-O estimate by algebraic means? I'm used to simply taking the ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Density of primes in a polynomial

Consider that $p(x)$ is an irreducible polynomial with integer coeficients, that $\mathrm{gcd}$ of its coefficients is $1$. What is the natural density of the below set? $$A = \{n\ |\ p(n)\ \text{is ...
3
votes
1answer
68 views

Sum of squares of Binom(n,p) values

Let $x_{n,p}(j)$ be the probability that a random variable distributed according to a binomial distribution with parameters $n \in \mathbf{N}_+$ and $p \in (0,1)$ takes the value $j \in \{0,1,\ldots,n\...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

Relationship between asymptotic distribution and logarithmic sums of elements of subset of the natural numbers

Consider a subset $A$ of the natural numbers analogous to the primes (but rarer). Let $a_n$ denote the $n$th element of $A$, and $a(n)$ denote the number of elements of $A$ less than or equal to $n$ (...
1
vote
2answers
60 views

Big $O$ — $3^n$ vs $n2^n$

I'm trying to compare $f(n) = 3^n$ and $g(n) = n2^n$ to determine whether $f \in O(g)$, $f \in \Omega(g)$, or $f \in \Theta(g)$. My gut is telling me that $g(n) = n2^n$ grows faster, and so $f \in O(...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Proof $(\log(n))^{\log(\log(n))} = O(n)$

Can someone provide a proof that $(\log(n))^{\log(\log(n))} = O(n)$? Preferably without calculus, but I'll take what I can get. Just ran into this problem, and I have no way of moving forward, ...
3
votes
0answers
304 views

Big-O Notation for remainder terms in Taylor expansion

The Big-O notation is commonly used in Taylor expansions of the form $$f(x+\epsilon)=f(x)+\epsilon f'(x)+O(\epsilon^2)$$ to say that the remainder term grows at least quadratic around $\epsilon=0$. ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

What is the point of big Oh notation when it is used for estimation?

I'm reading a book on number theory at the moment that assumes familiarity with big Oh notation...and while I think I do understand the notation I cannot understand the point of it. For instance let $...
3
votes
2answers
636 views

Determining order class of $T(n) = nT(n-1) + n$ with $T(1) = 1$

I'm trying to solve the following problem: Define $T(n) = n\cdot T(n-1) + n$ with $T(1) = 1$. Is $T(n) \in \mathcal O(2^n)$? I started by finding the time complexity of $T(n) = n\cdot T(n-1) + ...
1
vote
2answers
58 views

Is $\lceil{\lg n}\rceil!$ polynomially bounded?

Is $\lceil{\lg n}\rceil!$ polynomially bounded? I've tried using Stirlings Approximation, and I get that $\lceil{\lg n}\rceil! \approx \sqrt{2\pi}\lceil{\lg n}\rceil^{1/2}\lceil{\lg n}\rceil^{\lceil ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Asymptotic formula for sums related to primes

Suppose $0 < \alpha < 1$. What is the asymptotic formula for the sum $$\displaystyle \sum_{p \leq x} \frac{\log p}{p^\alpha}?$$ Thanks for any insights.
2
votes
2answers
677 views

Question about the “master theorem” of recurrences - no “$b$” term

I'm using the master theorem to find the asymptotic run time of recurrences. For example, for a $T(n) = 4 T(n/5) + n^1$ I find that $T(n)$ is $\Theta(n^1)$, or, simply, constant time, via the set of ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Is master theorem applicable to the recurrence relation $T(n) = T(n/2)$?

Is master theorem applicable to the recurrence relation $T(n) = T(n/2)$? I do not think it applies because there no $n$ term and there is no $n^k$ for a $k$ which would equal $0$.
2
votes
0answers
102 views

Method of stationary phase for double integrals

I am looking for a reference for the leading term in the asymptotics of a double integral over a finite rectangle R of $K(x,y)\exp(i \,t\, h(x,y))$ as $t \to \infty$ in the following situation: the ...
3
votes
2answers
68 views

Can we give a bound on any associative function?

We say that $f:[1,\infty)^2\to[1,\infty)$ is associative if $$f(f(a,b),c)=f(a,f(b,c))$$ And symmetric if $$f(a,b)=f(b,a)$$ e.g. the arithmetic operations '+' and '$\cdot$' are associative and ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Big Omega problem : is $n^2\in\Omega (2n^2)$?

Is $n^2\in\Omega (2n^2)$? If we find the limit we can see $\frac{1}{2}>0$, which means it is true, but I haven't learned the limit method. I need to figure out using this definition $\exists c>0,...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

summation inequality with logarithms

show: $$\sum_{i=1}^n \log_{2}\,i = O(n\log n)$$ Proof by induction: $$\sum_{i=1}^n \log\,i \le n\log n$$ $$\text{Test for n=1: }\sum_{i=1}^1 \log_{2}\,i \le 1\log 1$$ $$0 \le 0\text{ true for }n=1$...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

Determine whether each pair is $f(n) = O(g(n), f(n) = \Omega(g(n)), or f(n) = \Theta(g(n)).$

For the pair of functions, find whether it's $f(n) = O(g(n), f(n) = \Omega(g(n)), or f(n) = \Theta(g(n)):$ $a) f(n) = 12^n , g(n) = 7^n$ $b) f(n) = log_9(n^4), g(n) = log_9(n^5)$ I understand that: ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Need explanation on asymptotic running time results for various functions

I did not understand few results from the book problem. Here is the problem: Indicate, for each pair of expressions (A, B) in the table below, whether A is O, o, Ω, ω, Θ of B. Assume that k ≥ 1,  > ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Weyl's law, meaning of the asymptotic formula, does it imply a bound?

Weyl's law states the eigenvalues of the Laplacian behave as $$\lambda_j \sim f(n)j^{\frac 2n}\quad\text{as $j \to \infty$}$$ where $n$ is the dimension. Does this literally mean that, $$\lim_{j \to \...
-3
votes
1answer
61 views

If $f(n)$ is not $\Theta (g(n))$ does it follow that $\log f(n)$ is not $\Theta(\log g(n))$?

If $f(n)$ is not $\Theta (g(n))$ does it follow that $\log f(n)$ is not $\Theta(\log g(n))$? We say that $f(n)= \Theta (g(n))$ if there exist some constants $c_1$ and $c_2>0$ and $n_0$, such ...
1
vote
0answers
120 views

Compute the asymptotic expansion of the integral by Watson's Lemma

Use Watson's Lemma to find the asymptotic expansion of the following integral as $\lambda \to \infty$ with $\lambda>0.$ Assuming that $\phi (t)$ is infinitely differentiable on $[0,1].$ $$F(\lambda)...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Calculating Upper bound of a function [duplicate]

If T(N) = T(sqrt(N)) + 1 and T(1) = 1 then what is the upper bound i.e O(N) for this function? sqrt(N) => square root of N
3
votes
1answer
70 views

What proportion of the positive integers satisfy this number-theoretic inequality?

Let $\sigma(x)$ be the sum of the divisors of the positive integer $x$, and let the abundancy index of $x$ be defined as $$I(x) = \frac{\sigma(x)}{x}.$$ My question is this: What proportion of the ...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

Asymptotics of $\sum_{n\leq x}\tau_{k}\left(n\right)$

We define $\tau_{k}\left(n\right)$ to be the number of ordered $k$-tuples of positive integers with product equal to $n$. It is easily shown that this satisfies the recurrence relation $\tau_{1}\left(...
3
votes
2answers
99 views

Prove that $7n^2 + 2n + 3 = O(n^2)$ using the definition of O notation.

Prove that $7n^2 + 2n + 3 = O(n^2)$ using the definition of O notation. I need to use two constants and prove that they satisfy the O definition. I'm new to big O and want to know whether I am ...
1
vote
2answers
219 views

Efficiently calculating the 'prime-power sum' of a number.

Let $n$ be a positive integer with prime factorization $p_1^{e_1}p_2^{e_2}\cdots p_m^{e_m}$. Is there an 'efficient' way to calculate the sum $e_1+e_2+\cdots +e_m$? I could always run a brute force ...
0
votes
2answers
89 views

Big-O math Question

I'm having trouble with this question: Suppose that $f(x), g(x)$ and $h(x)$ are functions such that $f(x)$ is $O(g(x))$ and $g(x)$ is $O(h(x))$. Prove that $f(x)$ is $O(h(x))$. I have tried ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Series involving primes

Trying to find an asymptotic bound for the series $$ S(x) =\sum_{p\leq x}\frac{\varphi(p-1)}{(p-1)p} $$ as $x \rightarrow \infty$. Of course $$ \frac{\varphi(p-1)}{p-1} =\prod_{q\mid p-1}\left(1-\...
2
votes
3answers
124 views

Proving with Big O Notations

Is there a way I can prove that $O(3^{2n})$ does NOT equal $10^n$? How would that be done? Also, is it okay to simplify $O(3^{2n})$ to $O(9^n)$ to do so?
0
votes
1answer
389 views

Big O Proof by Contradiction

Question: Use a proof by contradiction to show that $5^n$ is not $O(3^n)$ NOTE: This is homework, please don't provide an answer, just want to know if I am on the right track. My Attempt: ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Recursion and Time Complexity Concept

The question prompt is as follows: Consider the function $f(n)$ defined as: $$f(n) = \begin{cases}n(n-1)f(n-2) & n > 1\\1 & n=0,\; n=1\end{cases}$$ How may be $g(n)$ be defined ...
1
vote
2answers
48 views

Understanding the logic behind this summation

The following is an excerpt from a proof that $\sum_1^n {i^k} = \theta(n^{k+1})$: $$\sum_1^n{i^k} \ge \sum_{\lceil n/2 \rceil}^n{i^k} \ge \sum_{\lceil n/2 \rceil}^n{\lceil n/2\rceil^k}$$ The first ...
4
votes
2answers
144 views

Closed form for $ \prod_{k=1}^n (a+k^2) $

I have come across the following product: $$ \prod_{k=1}^n (a+k^2) $$ where $a$ is a positive constant. Could anyone suggest a closed form for this product? I need to approximate this for large $n$, ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Showing $n^{\log{n}} = o(2^n)$

I would like to show that $n^{log n} = o(2^n)$. Here is my attempt: I see that $\log{(n^{\log{n}})} = (\log{n})^2,$ and $\log{2^n} = n\log{2}$. I also know that $(\log{n})^2=o(n)$, so that for ...
0
votes
1answer
11 views

Orders of Asymptotes

We know that $\log(X)^n = o(X^\epsilon)$ for all $n,\epsilon>0$. My questions is, is $\log(X)$ the largest function that is smaller than all (small) powers of $X$. That is, can we find a (non-...
1
vote
2answers
46 views

On finding the order of an infinitely small quantity

Given an infinitely small quantity: $$\alpha \left ( x \right )= \tan \left ( x \right )-\sin \left( x \right)$$ as x aproaches $0$, and computing the corresponding asymptotic relationship. What does ...
0
votes
1answer
76 views

Prove $\lim_{n \to \infty}$ $(1+\frac xn-o(\frac 1n))^n=e^x$ [duplicate]

We know that $\lim_{n \to \infty}$ $(1+\frac xn)^n=e^x$. How to prove that $\lim_{n \to \infty}$ $(1+\frac xn-o(\frac 1n))^n=e^x$? Attempt of the proof: Let $\epsilon>0$ $\exists n_0$ such that $...