For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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14 views

Upper bound for ratio of modified Bessel functions of second kind

I was wondering if someone has an idea if for $0 < x < y$, and $0< \nu \leq \frac{1}{2}$, one can obtain an upper bound for the ratio $$ \frac{K_{\nu}(x)}{K_{\nu}(y)} $$ Thanks.
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1answer
456 views

Need some help understanding notation for composite gauss quadrature formula

Reading through some notes on 2-point gauss quadrature, I came across the following general formula. I'm currently doing an assignment with 3-point quadrature, and have gotten to a similar formula, ...
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2answers
34 views

Binomial theorem estimate for very large samples

I have around $2^{105}$ balls, of which 1 in 20 is white. I expect that when I draw a random sampling of them, roughly 5% of all balls drawn would be white. What is the probability that, if I draw ...
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1answer
84 views

Alternate proof of the integral: $\int_0^1 x^x(1-x)^{2x}\,dx\neq3/8$

I am looking into the integral: $$I=\int_0^1 x^x(1-x)^{2x}\,dx\neq\frac{3}{8}$$ How might you prove this to be true? What's tough is that the integral $$3/8\lt I<0.37503$$ numerically. I managed ...
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1answer
47 views

Proof that Newton's Method gives better and better approximations with each iteration?

I've seen this question and answer: Why does Newton's method work? It gives some geometric intuition as to what is going on when applying Newton's method, but what I really need to know is why it ...
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4answers
1k views

Can I approximate sine and cosine without derivatives?

Assuming I don't know derivatives (and Taylor series) can I manage to approximate sine and cosine of a generic given (rational) angle in radians?
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1answer
47 views

How to prove that your approximation using Newton's Method is correct to $x$ decimal places?

I just watched a video about a problem stated as: "Find where $f(x)= x^7-1000$ intersects the $x$ axis. Find solution correct to 8 decimal places." The author uses Newton's Method, repeating the ...
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0answers
48 views

Ideas on how to simplify or approximate this nasty sum

I have a sum (let's call it $p$): $$p:= \frac{1}{n!}\sum_{i=2}^l (i-1)\frac{(n-k)!}{(n-k-i+2)!}(n-i)!$$ where $l, n, k$ are fixed positive integers, and $k \leq n$. I'd like to either simplify or ...
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1answer
16 views

Optimization algorithms for Distribution and Logistics scenario

I am looking for a way to express the following logistics/distribution problem as an equation that can be run thru a solver to find an approximate solution. The problems is described as follows: ...
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2answers
64 views

When is $\frac{dx}{dt}=\frac{\Delta x}{\Delta t}$ a valid approximation?

It is often said that when the change in e.g. $\Delta x$ is small than we can make the approximation: $$\frac{dx}{dt}=\frac{\Delta x}{\Delta t}$$ But it is not enough to say $\Delta x$ is small ...
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0answers
28 views

How to identify the closest values multiple of 96?

I've a list of 8820 values spreaded in the interval [0, 1[. Thus, 1/8820 * t, with t ...
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1answer
10 views

Approximately equal too symbol operations permitted

I have to doubt to clear if A is approximately to 2/3 B can I write it as A approximately equal to 4/6 B? Since it is approximate relation is it permitted to multiply both numerator and denominator as ...
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1answer
28 views

Solve using succesive approximation methods

Consider the equation $f(x) = xe^x-1=0$. We wanna solve it using successive approx method, solving the fix point problem $x=e^{-x}$ I don't understand Banach's theorem, how can I solve this? Any ...
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1answer
31 views

Why is $\prod_{i=1}^{k-1}\left(1-\frac{i}{2N}\right) \approx 1 - \frac{{k \choose 2}}{2N}$?

I came across this approximation in the book Principles of Population Genetics by Hartl and Clark (page 130). $$\prod_{i=1}^{k-1}\left(1-\frac{i}{2N}\right) \approx 1 - \frac{{k \choose 2}}{2N}$$ ...
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0answers
18 views

What is the name of this approximation?

I remember studying a while back about an approximation method where the error is calculated using $$ E_{n}=M_{n+1}-a_{n+1} \widetilde{T}_{n+1} $$ Where $\widetilde{T}_{n}=\frac{{T}_{n}}{2^{n-1}}$, ...
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3answers
111 views

Approximating the normal CDF for $0 \leq x \leq 7$

In answer http://stackoverflow.com/a/23119456/2421256, an approximation of the complementary normal CDF (ie $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi}} \int_x^{+\infty} e^{-\frac{t^2}{2}} dt$) was given for $0 \leq x ...
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1answer
33 views

Proportion in sets

We have $3$ sets of positive integers. $$A = \{x_1,y_2,z_3\},\quad{} B = \{x_2,y_2,z_2\}, \quad{} C= \{x,y,z\}$$ Which proportion do we use for adding $A$ and $B$ ($x_1+x_2$ and so on), so the ...
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2answers
39 views

Separation of integral by approximation

I'm working with the following integral $\displaystyle\int_0^y \frac{dx}{x \sqrt{1-ax-bx^2}}$ and would like to split it in something like $$\int_0^y\frac{dx}{x \sqrt{1-ax}}+\int_0^y\frac{dx}{x ...
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9answers
2k views

How is the derivative truly, literally the “best linear approximation” near a point?

I've read many times that the derivative of a function $f(x)$ for a certain $x$ is the best linear approximation of the function for values near $x$. I always thought it was meant in a hand-waving ...
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0answers
17 views

methods function approximation

My goal is to modelize the temperature of a motor: I want to be able to calculate the temperature of a motor at a given moment, with a given torque and a given speed, in a constant environment. For ...
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1answer
18 views

Inequality insde algorithm design (kleinberg), Disjoint Path

I am reading the "Algorithm Design" (Kleinberg et al). Inside this book, at the chapter 11.6 there is an inequality I have failed to resolve. Considering $\beta=m^{(1/3)}$ and $|I|>=1$ (it is a ...
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3answers
49 views

Why transform degrees into radians when computing linear approximation to find $\tan{44^\circ}$?

I am asked to find the linear approximation of $\tan{44^\circ}$. Why should I transform degrees into radians to do that? I understand that using degrees would give me a wrong solution (which would be ...
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1answer
32 views

Linear approximation to find $\frac{1}{4.002}$

I am asked to find $\frac{1}{4.002}$ using linear approximation. The way I proceeded was: $$ f(x) = \frac{1}{x} \quad a = 4 \quad f(a) = f(4) = 0.25\\ f'(x) = - \frac{1}{x^2} \quad f'(a) = f'(4) = - ...
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1answer
46 views

Is there a simple way of computing when $a^n=b^m$

I don't want exact equality just close enough to be useful in approximation. i.e. $2^{10 }= 10^3$ is very useful and used daily for an approximation. Is there a do this efficiently? Is there a way ...
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1answer
69 views

Approximation of a polynomial with fractional power

I have a polynomial I need to find the roots of, the major difficulty is that this polynomial has fractional exponents. I have made an approximation and I would like to have some idea of the error I ...
2
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3answers
54 views

Rational approximation of square roots

I'm trying to find the best way to solve for rational approximations of the square root of a number, given some pretty serious constraints on the operations I can use to calculate it. My criteria for ...
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5answers
135 views

Approximation of $\sqrt{2}$

I got the following problem in a chapter of approximations: If $\frac{m}{n}$ is an approximation to $\sqrt{2}$ then prove that $\frac{m}{2n}+\frac{n}{m}$ is a better approximation to ...
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0answers
20 views

Local quadratic approximation

I wanted to implement some penalized regression parameter estimation algorithm by Fan&Li (http://sites.stat.psu.edu/~rli/research/penlike.pdf, section 3.3), but cannot catch the idea of some ...
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3answers
693 views

Maximum of Polynomials in the Unit Circle

Let $z_{1},z_{2},\ldots,z_{n}$ be i.i.d random points in the unit circle ($|z_i|=1$) with uniform distribution of their angles. Consider the random polynomial $P(z)$ given by $$ ...
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0answers
13 views

How do I show I've rounded to a certain decimal?

I noticed that we could say $\sqrt{0.9}\approx0.9$ if we round to one decimal, or $\approx0.95$ if we round to two decimals. But what is the correct way to show how many decimals we rounded to? ...
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1answer
248 views

How to evaluate the integral $e^{-(c\ln(\frac{1}{x}))^s} dx$?

Can anyone help me evaluate $$\int_{\alpha}^1 \exp{\left\{-\left(c\ln\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)\right)^s\right\}} dx$$, Where $0 \leq \alpha \leq 1$ and $s \in \mathbb{R}$. I tried changing ...
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1answer
27 views

B-Spline approximation deviates a lot while increasing the number of control points???

I'm dealing with a problem to approximate some data points with B-Spline. I follow the method and implemented the algorithm from this site: Curve Global Approximation. 1) The first step is to ...
3
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1answer
29 views

How do I calculate this limit when two terms tend to infinity at similar rates

In a particular problem that I am currently trying to solve, I have the following expression (this is not the entire expression, I have included only the terms involving $a_1$ and $b_1$), ...
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0answers
16 views

Computing the partition-function of an exponential family member

I am working on an Monte Carlo Expectation Propagation problem. In that context I got the following property: $ I = \sum\limits_i w^{(i)} \log p_\eta(x^{(i)}) $ where $\{w^{(i)}\}_i$ are weights, ...
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1answer
85 views

Approximate roots of nonlinear equation (non-integer polynomial)

In case of pulsating bubble arising from underwater explosion, bubble radius satisfies the following equation. $x^3\dot{x}^{2} + x^3 + \frac{k}{x^{3(\gamma-1)}} = 1$ The minimum and maximum bubble ...
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0answers
51 views

What's about $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{e^{H_n}\log H_n}{n^3}$, where $H_n$ is the nth harmonic number?

I would like to do a toy verification of the Riemann hypothesis exploiting theLagarias theorem (see the section Applications in the following link) and the fact that we know a lot of decimals for ...
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1answer
55 views

Approximation of product of Bernoulli with different proportions

I want to update a variable $Y$ with Beta (uniform for simplicity, $Y \sim U(0, 1)$) distribution, with Bernoulli information each period... But each period the proportion parameter of the Bernoulli ...
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3answers
53 views

Question for the estimation of $\sum_{i=1}^x \frac{1}{w+i}$ as $x \to \infty$.

I have a question of the estimation of this summation: $$ \frac{1}{w+1}+\frac{1}{w+2}+\cdots+\frac{1}{w+x}$$ Which is: $$\sum_{i=1}^x \frac{1}{w+i}$$ What I have tried: applying limit to the ...
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2answers
76 views

Arriving at the asymptotic $\int \limits_\lambda^\infty e^{-t^2/2}dt \sim \frac{e^{-\lambda^2/2}}{\lambda}$

In the book "The Probabilistic Method", the integral $\int_\lambda^\infty e^{-t^2/2}dt$ is said to be "approximately equal" to $\frac{e^{-\lambda^2/2}}{\lambda}$ for large $\lambda$. I assume what is ...
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0answers
6 views

Other types of mean error

Let $\tilde f$ be an approximation of the function $f(x) = \arccos(x)$. I'm using MATLAB to figure out how good this approximation is by calculating a mean error. My first idea was to use this formula ...
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0answers
5 views

Equi-oscillation condition $EOC(n)$ for best polynomial approximations.

I'm given the funciton $f(x) = x^3$ on $[-1, 1]$ and am told to find the best order one polynomial approximation to this. The solution says that $p(x) = \frac 34 x$ is this polynomial (and I verified ...
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0answers
38 views

Upper-bounding $\sum_{i=1}^n \sum_{j = i}^{i+a_i} \frac{1}{\sqrt{j}}$?

Suppose $a_1, ..., a_n \in \mathbb{N}$ are arbitrary integers. Is it possible to bound $$ A =\sum_{i=1}^n \sum_{j = i}^{i+a_i} \frac{1}{\sqrt{j}} $$ with either of the following: $$ B = ...
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3answers
65 views

Probability of alternating sequence from uniform distribution

Say I sample a discrete uniform distribution $U$ (say $U$ has a support of $N$ elements, and there is a total order on the elements) a number $K$ times, resulting in a random sequence $A_{i}$. What ...
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2answers
32 views

Is it true that $ \sum_{i=1}^m \frac{1}{\sqrt{i}} = O \left( \sqrt{ m-1 } \right) $?

Is it true that?: $$ \sum_{i=n}^m \frac{1}{\sqrt{i}} = O \left( \sqrt{ \frac{m-n}{n}} \right) $$ In special case if we have $n = 1$, is it true that?: $$ \sum_{i=1}^m \frac{1}{\sqrt{i}} = O \left( ...
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0answers
22 views

Bernstein polynomial in Banach

For a continuous function $f : [0,1] \to R$, there exists a sequence of polynomial functions: $P_n(x)=\sum_{k=0}^n C^k_n x^k(1-x)^{n-k} f(\frac{k}{n})$ (Bernstein's polynomes) which converges ...
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0answers
51 views

Understanding a medieval approximation

A medieval text (Maimonides's commentary to chapter 2 of Eruvin in my retranslation from the Hebrew) discusses a rectangle whose area is $5000$ square cubits. It reads in relevant part: … that the ...
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1answer
622 views

Approximation of Semicontinuous Functions

Assume that $k \in \mathbb{N}$ and $f : \mathbb{R}^d \rightarrow [0,\infty)$ is lower semicontinuous, i.e. $f(x) \leq \liminf_{y \rightarrow x} f(y)$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}^d$. Does there exist a ...
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1answer
33 views

How can I express this in terms of Gauss-Hermite Quadrature?

I am having the following expression. This is the PDF of Nakagami-Lognormal Distribution. I want to express in terms of Gauss-Hermite abscissas and weights. How can I do it? ...
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0answers
137 views

Why is a Complementary Filter a Good Approximation?

Can someone help me understand what the full expression for the original complementary filter should be and why the one proposed by Colton is a good approximation? Context: Having found some ...
2
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0answers
42 views

Uniform approximation. Two boundary layers?

Find uniform approximation up to order $O(\epsilon)$: $$ \begin{cases} \epsilon y''+\epsilon y' - y^2=-1-x^2 \\ y(0)=2 \\ y(1)=2 \end{cases} $$ At $\epsilon=0$ solutions $\pm \sqrt{1+x^2}$ don't ...