For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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0
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2answers
12 views

Proving Lower bounds on an Approximately Linear Function

We are looking for a lower bound on the function, $\frac{1.31}{e^{\frac{1.31}{x+1}} - 1}$ for $x \geq 2$. This function seems to behave linearly. We believe that the following statement holds: ...
0
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1answer
11 views

How to computer the proximal operator of a indicator function?

For $G_{1}(x) = I_{c}(x), c =\{x|Ax=b\}$, the Proximal operator is: $Prox_{\gamma G_{1}}(x) = Proj_{c}(x) = x + A^{T}(AA^{T})^{-1}(y-Ax)$ I hope to know, how to derivative this result. And, for ...
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3answers
463 views

Pythagorean theorem without roots! Old Tamilian (Indian) Statement

Please explain this! There's an old Tamil statement that predicts the hypotenuse of a right angle triangle to a reasonable level of accuracy considering it doesn't involve roots! This is how it goes: ...
6
votes
1answer
57 views
+50

For any smooth n-manifold $M$, construct a smooth map $f:M\to S^n$ which is not null-homotopic

PROBLEM: For any smooth n-manifold $M$, construct a smooth map $f:M\to S^n$ which is not null-homotopic ,or even of degree 1 The following is my idea: First, choosing an arbitrary open coordinate ...
0
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1answer
22 views

Approximate fraction of two integrals

could you propose a way to simplify or approximate (under some assumptions) $\bar{\eta}$ defined as below? $$ \bar{\eta} = \frac{\int f(t)dt}{\int\frac{f(t)}{\eta{(t)}}dt} $$ The $f(x)$ and ...
0
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0answers
25 views

approximate function with step functions

I have a function $f:[a,b]\to \mathbb{R}$. I need to approximate it by a step function (as an histogram). I would like to minimize the $L^2$ distance between the two functions: $\int_a^b [f(x) - ...
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3answers
20k views

Approximation symbol: Is π ≈ 3.14.. equal to π ≒ 3.14..?

This could be a trivial question, but what is exactly the difference of between these two expressions? Am I correct to state the both interchangeably whenever I need to express the approximation of ...
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4answers
92 views
1
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1answer
28 views

Integral approximation for alternating series

I can approximate the sum of $\frac 1 {n^2}$ using its integral. But what about $(-1)^n\frac 1 {n^2}$? Is it possible to approximate this using integrals? I want to know if there are other ways than ...
12
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1answer
436 views

Approximation of Semicontinuous Functions

Assume that $k \in \mathbb{N}$ and $f : \mathbb{R}^d \rightarrow [0,\infty)$ is lower semicontinuous, i.e. $f(x) \leq \liminf_{y \rightarrow x} f(y)$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}^d$. Does there exist a ...
3
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1answer
47 views

Inverse of prime counting function

The prime counting function $ \pi (x) \approx \dfrac {x} {\ln(x-1)} $. This function returns the number of primes less than $x$. Note: $x-1$ gives a better estimate than $x$. How to find $x$ given $ ...
3
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2answers
52 views

How to choose a left-add$(X)$-approximation with a certain property

Let $A$ be an artin algebra and $X,Y$ in mod-$A$. Suppose $0\rightarrow Y \stackrel{\alpha}{\rightarrow} X^n\stackrel{\beta}{\rightarrow} X^m$ is exact. Set $C:=Coker(\alpha)$ (as module) and ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Minimizing Area by Approximation

Suppose I have an increasing step function $E_c$ given by $$E_c(\phi) = \sum_{i=1}^n E_i \theta(\phi - \phi_i),$$ where $\theta$ is the Heaviside step function and $E_i$, $\phi$, and $\phi_i$ are all ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Which polynomial has similar properties with Legendre?

I am looking for an kind of polynomial such as Legendre properties that polynomial sequence of orthogonal polynomials such as bellow image. Could you suggest to me one polynomial? Is B-spline correct? ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Ruling span derivation?

I have recently read a paper about the ruling span for electrical wires and they have an approximation that looks like it can be derived with mathematical intuition only. I'd like to find a derivation ...
2
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2answers
685 views

Approximate a polynomial function using a sum of sine waves

I have a polynomial function which I need to approximate by a sum of sine waves with constant amplitude along a given domain. From what I hear, this might be a good time to make use of Fourier ...
0
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1answer
314 views

Need some help understanding notation for composite gauss quadrature formula

Reading through some notes on 2-point gauss quadrature, I came across the following general formula. I'm currently doing an assignment with 3-point quadrature, and have gotten to a similar formula, ...
0
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2answers
46 views

How can I approximate a decimal with two fractions where denominator is less or equal to $d$

I was looking for a way to approximate a decimal number with a fraction, whose denominator is less or equal to $d$. Basically, having a decimal $X$, I want to find two fractions such that ...
0
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1answer
23 views

Why is this true - easy question concerning asymptotics of exponential

Suppose $\lambda > 0$ is constant as $t \searrow 0$. In my lecture notes it is written that $\left(1+\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-\lambda t)^k}{k!}\right) \lambda t = \lambda t + o(t)$ and ...
1
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1answer
51 views

Approximating $\frac{(kn)!}{(n!)^k}$

Is there any approximations for the form $$\frac{(kn)!}{(n!)^k},$$ where $n$ and $k$ are positive integers? $n$ is not necessary much larger than $k$?
0
votes
1answer
12 views

Eliminating order notation in upper bound

I have that some value $E_i=\alpha^2\varepsilon_i^3+O(\varepsilon_i^4)$, where $\alpha>0$ is a fixed constant and for every $i$, $0<\varepsilon_i\ll1$. I would like to place an upper bound on ...
4
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0answers
33 views

Asymptotic behavior of many derivatives

To compute the residue of a pole of very high order $M$ at $z=0$, one needs to compute $\frac{d^M}{dz^M} g(z)$ Suppose that $g(z)$ is a reasonable but not trivial function, that itself may depend on ...
6
votes
0answers
74 views

Could this approximation be made simpler ? Solve $n!=a^n 10^k$

I need to find the smallest value of $n$ such that $$\frac{a^n}{n!}\leq 10^{-k}$$ in which $a$ and $k$ are given (these can be large numbers). I set the problem as : solve for $n$ the equation ...
1
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0answers
12 views

Iterative algorithms to approximate unknown multivariate convex real-valued functions by a set of linear upper/lower bounds

I am looking for iterative algorithms that can approximate a multivariate convex real-valued function $f(\vec{x})=y,\, \Bbb{R}^n\rightarrow \Bbb{R}$. The function is not known beforehand, but it is ...
4
votes
3answers
110 views

Calculate fractional part of square root without taking square root

Let's say I have a number $x>0$ and I need to calculate the fractional part of its square root: $$f(x) = \sqrt x-\lfloor\sqrt x\rfloor$$ If I have $\lfloor\sqrt x\rfloor$ available, is there a ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Ratio of step sizes in Richardson extrapolation for numerical integration

When using Richardson extrapolation for numerical integration, are there any criteria whether ratio between the steps should be or does it not matter what step size I use? For an integral I can write ...
0
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0answers
14 views

How should i apply Richardson Extrapolation?

I trying to understand how the Richardson Extrapolation works, and what it is good for. The internet has lots articles about the this, but they all seem to lack in what it is useful for. I wanted ...
1
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0answers
13 views

Signs and value of higher order terms in the Taylor expansion of a strongly convex function

Say that I have a function $f: S \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^+$ such that: $S \subset \mathbb{R}^n$ is a closed convex set such as $S=[-10,10]^n$ $f$ is continuous and infinitely differentiable at all ...
28
votes
2answers
669 views

On Shanks' quartic approximation $\pi \approx \frac{6}{\sqrt{3502}}\ln(2u)$

In Mathworld's "Pi Approximations", (line 58), Weisstein mentions one by the mathematician Daniel Shanks that differs by a mere $10^{-82}$, $$\pi \approx ...
0
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0answers
19 views

approximation of function by polynomials

Given a function $f \in L^2[a,b]$, it can be written as $f(x)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty c_nL_n(x)$. where $L_n(x)$ is shifted Legendre polynomial. I am taking the finite sum to approximate. If I take some ...
0
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2answers
19 views

Approximation Reasoning

I can't understand one step in the following problem. We start with a function $f(x)=x^\alpha$ on the interval $(0,1)$ where $\alpha>0$ is a constant. We pick two points $x_1<x_2$ from this ...
2
votes
0answers
15 views

Rate of convergence of a Weyl-Heisenberg (Gabor) frame expansion

If $\{g_{m,n}\}$ is a Gabor frame for $L^2(R)$, with window function $g$, and $f \in L^2(R)$, is there a bound on the approximation error of $f$ using a finite subset of the frame? That is, is ...
22
votes
5answers
507 views

Why is it that this gives a good approximation of $\pi$?

At the end of a Physics examination, I decided to play around with my calculator, as I always do when I have time left over, and found that: $$\frac{1}{100} \cdot 11^{\ln(11)} \approx ...
1
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1answer
50 views

Prove that $y-x < \delta$

In Hardy's Pure Mathematics it says if $x^2<2, y^2>2, 2-x^2 < \delta,$ and $y^2 - 2 < \delta$, then $y-x<\delta$. I added the last two inequalities to get $(y+x)(y-x)<2\delta$. How ...
1
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1answer
33 views

error bound in function approximation algorithm

Suppose we have the set of floating point number with "m" bit mantissa and "e" bits for exponent. Suppose more over we want to approximate a function "f". From the theory we know that usually a ...
1
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1answer
34 views

approximation of $\pi$ by $\arctan$

Determinate the order n of the Maclaurin polynomial for $f(x)=4tan^{-1}x$ so that the remainader term $|R_{n}(1)|<0.000005$. Here $R_{n}(1)=\frac{f^{(n+1)}(c)}{(n+1)!}$ for some c between 0 and 1 ...
1
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0answers
58 views

Interesting approximation of distribution of numbers in a Farey sequence

I was investigating the distribution of the numbers in a Farey sequence and found some pattern. It is known that the number of elements in Farey sequence can be found using Euler totient function. So ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Help me approximate this sum: $S = \sum_{j=2}^{N}{\frac{\ln \ln \ln \ j}{( \ln \ln \ j)^2}}$

I would like to figure out the asymptotic rate of growth for the sum $S = \sum_{j=2}^{N}{\frac{\ln \ln \ln j}{( \ln \ln j)^2}}$ in the limit of large $N$. Ultimately, I want to know if $S(N)$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Approximation for probability of at least $t$ events

I'm reading through a paper, and they are discussing the approximate probability that $t+1$ out of $t^b$ events occur, where $b$ is a constant, and the probability of each event occurring is ...
56
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4answers
6k views

Motivation for Ramanujan's mysterious $\pi$ formula

The following formula for $\pi$ was discovered by Ramanujan: $$\frac1{\pi} = \frac{2\sqrt{2}}{9801} \sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{(4k)!(1103+26390k)}{(k!)^4 396^{4k}}\!$$ Does anyone know how it works, or ...
1
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1answer
21 views

Singular Value Decomposition for an image understanding

I'm trying to get an intuitive understanding of what an SVD decomposition does to an image. From my understanding, for an image $A \in \Bbb R^{m \times n}$, the singular values are the roots of the ...
0
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0answers
21 views

intersection of 2 paths

Could somebody please advise me on the best approach to take to find the intersection points of 2 paths. Each path is a data set of distance against time (I want to avoid curve fitting) and each path ...
0
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1answer
23 views

Approximating the circumference of given ellipse

Say we got the ellipse $\frac{x^{2}}{25}+\frac{y^{2}}{24}=1$, and the goal is to find the circumference using line integrals. So I parametrized the curve by $x=5\cos(t)$, $y=\sqrt{24}\sin(t)$. By ...
0
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2answers
60 views

find which two points an arbitrary point is nearest to

I have a line segment of connected points (a path in 2D), and a point $P$ that is not calculated based on this segment, although I can guarantee that the point will be placed along the path. Based on ...
1
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1answer
19 views

How is optimal coordinates change chosen for Chebyshev expansion?

I'm looking into SLATEC implementation of Bessel function $J_0$ computation (readable in C in GSL), namely at its part for arguments in interval $(0,4)$. There a Chebyshev expansion is used, but the ...
1
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2answers
36 views

inverse complementary error function values near 0

$\newcommand{\erf}{\operatorname{erf}}\newcommand{\erfc}{\operatorname{erfc}}$Let's define for each $x>0$ $$\erf(x)=\frac {2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\int_0^xe^{-t^2} dt$$ and $$\erfc(x)=\frac ...
0
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0answers
29 views

Amenable groups are sofic

I am trying to understand proposition II.3.1 of http://arxiv.org/pdf/1309.2034v6.pdf, but I have some difficulties. I get the construction of the permutations $\sigma_{\gamma}$ for each $\gamma\in ...
1
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1answer
47 views

Sofic groups alternative definition

I am trying to solve exercise two from the following document : http://mtm.ufsc.br/~daemi/soficworkshop/Course%20notes/Lupini%20Lecture%202.pdf I suspect there is an error in the exercise, but I'm ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Higher Order PDE using Finite Difference

How to approximate higher-order partial differential equation using finite difference method? $$\frac{\partial^{2} y}{\partial t^{2}}+\frac{\partial^{4} y}{\partial x^{4}}=0$$
1
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1answer
38 views

Under which condition is $\hat\Sigma\approx\frac{1}{T-1}(X'X)$

Let $X$ be $T\times N$ random matrix. We are interested in the sample variance covariance matrix of $X$. It holds that \begin{align} ...