For questions related to approximations

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2
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2answers
52 views

Solution to a system of nonlinear equations

Do you know any method to solve the following system of nonlinear equations ? $\begin{equation} 141,3829=A+\frac{B}{323}+5,78C+F323^{E}\\ 69,07645=A+\frac{B}{333}+5,81C+F333^{E}\\ ...
1
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1answer
8 views

Approximate solution to non-linear equation set

I have an equation set like this: $$ R_e(T_i)R_t(T_i) + R_e(T_i)R_p(T_i) = R_sR_t(T_i) + R_sR_p + R_pR_t(T_i) \\ R_e(T_f)R_t(T_f) + R_e(T_f)R_p(T_f) = R_sR_t(T_f) + R_sR_p + R_pR_t(T_f) $$ Where, ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Taylor's remainder in a compact

My impression is that each function enough regular ($C^\infty$ ) in a compact is equivalent to a polynomial. Is this true? Is there a way to prove it? The expression of the Taylor's remainder just ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Computer Algebra Systems for Experimental Mathematics (especially Integer Relations with PSLQ)

I would like to use a computer algebra system to do some experimental mathematics, particularly Integer Relation problems using the PSLQ algorithm. I know that Maple has a PSLQ implementation, but ...
0
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0answers
12 views

Is it correct approximation of Upper Incomplete gamma function?

I am trying to approximate the Upper incomplete regularized gamma function $P(s,t)$, at the constant value of $s=c$ by: $$Q(c,t) \approx 1-Q(t,c)$$ where: $c$ is some constant and $t$ is variable. ...
1
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3answers
1k views

efficient and accurate approximation of error function

I am looking for the numerical approximation of error function, which must be efficient and accurate. Thanks in advance $$\mathrm{erf}(z)=\frac2{\sqrt\pi}\int_0^z e^{-t^2} \,\mathrm dt$$
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1answer
18 views

Signifcant Figures — Why are rules for multiplying and adding true?

I found this other question that deals with this somewhat, but I am still unclear as to why the rules for adding/subtracting and multiplying/dividing significant figures are the way they are. In the ...
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0answers
4 views

Are there other names for multilayer perceptrons or multidimensional interpolants based on Kolmogorov's approximation work?

Are there other names for multilayer perceptrons that are used outside of the neural net community? At its core, multilayer perceptrons form a multidimensional interpolant of the form $$ ...
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0answers
19 views

Stirling like approximation for lower-incomplete gamma function?

May we have a similar approximation for lower incomplete gamma function $\gamma(s,x)$, as we have a Stirling's approximation for Gamma function $\Gamma(s)$.
0
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2answers
50 views

Continuous differentiable spline or function resembling floor

I'd need any (real-valued) function (whatever meets the following description at least approximately) continuous and thrice differentiable everywhere (or twice if 3 not possible), with the following ...
16
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3answers
247 views

Approximating $100!$

I participated in an Estimathon (a speed contest of Fermi problems) not long ago. It works as follows. Contestants are given questions and they must give a closed range $[a,b]$ which should contain ...
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0answers
54 views

Ramanujan's approximation for $\pi$

In 1910, Srinivasa Ramanujan found several rapidly converging infinite series of $\pi$, such as $$ \frac{1}{\pi} = \frac{2\sqrt{2}}{9801} \sum^\infty_{k=0} \frac{(4k)!(1103+26390k)}{(k!)^4 396^{4k}}. ...
0
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0answers
13 views

Mapping from $\left(-\infty,\infty\right)$ to $[a,b]$ to reduce numerical error

Suppose $A = \left[\begin{array}{cc} \exp\left(x_1\right)&\exp\left(x_2\right)\\ \exp\left(x_3\right)&\exp\left(x_4\right) \end{array} \right]$, where each of $x_i\in\left(-1000,1000\right),$ ...
0
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1answer
27 views

Finding an upper bound on the polynomial interpolation error for $\cos x$ [closed]

Hey guys I need to solve this problem can you help me please: Let $f(x)=\cos(x)$ on $[0,\pi]$ and $P_n(x)$ be an approximating polynomial with degree at most $n$ to $f(x)$. Assume ...
0
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0answers
15 views

Applications of low-rank matrix approximation

There was a similar question here Use of low rank approximation of a matrix that has unfortunately remained unanswered. Although being along the same lines, my question will be formulated in a little ...
0
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1answer
18 views

Approximate non-Lipschitz (but continuous) functions by Lipschitz functions

Is there any algorithm to approximate non-Lipschitz (but continuous) functions by Lipschitz functions ?
1
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1answer
40 views

Constrained Newton-Raphson method

Peace be upon you, I want to solve a system of two equations in which the existence of $ln\left(\frac{\alpha}{\alpha+\beta}\right)$ function makes some limitations in iterations of the Newton-Raphson ...
3
votes
2answers
178 views

Next term in $(1+a/n)^n \rightarrow \exp (a)$

Working on the generalized birthday problem, where you draw with replacement from $\{1,2,3, \ldots,d\}$ and look for the number of draws $n$ for which you have greater than $1/2$ chance of a match I ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Maximum likelihood estimators

I have $X_1,X_2,\dots,X_n$ as random samples from a binomial distribution, with probability function: $$p_X(x) = Pr(X=x) = {m \choose{n}}\alpha^x(1-\alpha)^{m-x},x=0,1,2,\dots,m$$ where $m$ is given ...
1
vote
3answers
132 views

Approximate summation of the given equation

I have been trying from an hour to approximate the value of $M$ in the equation given below. $$ M = \sum\limits_{i=1}^n\left(\sum\limits_{j=1}^n\left(\sqrt{ i^2 + j^2 }\right)\right) $$ One thing I ...
1
vote
2answers
148 views

Is there any reason why $4-\pi$ is quite close to $\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}$?

In this question obviously the error of our "approximation" is $4-\pi=0.858...$ . I tried to reconstruct the false argument with $\tau=2\pi$, and the error in that case would be $8-\tau=1.716...$, ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

How can missing data be organised or classified (Interpolation vs Approximation)?

I'm looking for a way to distinguish between the various types of missing data techniques? Can someone help to clarify or organize these categories in sub-sections or indicate similarities or ...
0
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0answers
31 views

Series representation for $L=\frac{3}{2} \sqrt{4 \pi ^2 A^2+W^2}-\frac{\sqrt{5 W \sqrt{4 \pi ^2 A^2+W^2}+6 \pi ^2 A^2+3 W^2}}{\sqrt{2}}$

My question is, is there a series representation or other function of $L$ and $A$ I can use when I solve the following equation for $W$? $L=\frac{3}{2} \sqrt{4 \pi ^2 A^2+W^2}-\frac{\sqrt{5 W \sqrt{4 ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Looking for a approximation/solution to my mortgage calculator function

I'm working on a little function, $t(A,y,r)$ that calculates the monthly payment of a fixed-rate mortgage, where $A$ is the amount borrowed, $y$ is the number of years over which the loan will be ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Curve approximation by some known points on the curve

I want to approximate a curve by some known points on the curve. I can choose these point. My curve is shown as below: I have to use such a equation: ...
16
votes
1answer
224 views

Approximate value of a slowly-converging sum of $\sum|\sin n|^n/n$

In this question on Math.SE there appears this sum: $$ S = \sum_{n\geq1}s_n, \qquad s_n = \frac{|\sin n|^n}{n}, $$ which converges very slowly. What methods would you suggest for evaluating it ...
0
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0answers
48 views

Determining when the approximation fails

Context Suppose we have a grid-based game where a unit has a range parameter that serves as the upperbound of the sum of the costs of his movements in a single turn. Moving orthogonally to an adjacent ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Closed-form term for this expression

I have a normal Distribution $X \sim N(\mu, \sigma)$. Is there an easy way to give an asymptotic estimate with small error (I would prefer with relative error $\rightarrow 0$) for $P[X \geq k]$? We ...
1
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1answer
11 views

Bound on the derivative of a cut-off function

Let $\rho$ be a smooth function in $\mathbb R^n$ such that $0 \leq \rho \leq 1$ and $\rho$ is supported in the unit disk and let $\rho_\epsilon(x) = \epsilon^{-n}\rho(\epsilon^{-1}\|x\|)$. If $f$ is ...
1
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2answers
41 views

When to Taylor expand in a differential equation

I've come across a differential equation: $\dfrac{d\theta}{dx} = f(\theta)$, whose analytic solution is very complicated, but in this situation it is valid to Taylor expand functions around $\theta ...
1
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1answer
44 views

Approximating a Continued Fraction

From a paper I was reading, If: $$w=\frac {1}{3}\left\{ \frac {-\dfrac {3}{16}\lambda^2}{1}+\frac {-\dfrac {3}{16}\lambda^2}{1}+\frac {-\dfrac {3}{16}\lambda^2}{1}+\frac {-\dfrac ...
0
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0answers
18 views

Represent this differential equation as a set of n+1 equations w n+1 unknowns

Given the following differential equation: $$s''w'' + 2s'w''' + sw'''' = q$$ We use these approximations: $$w''''(x_i) \approx \frac { { w }_{ i+2 }-4{ w }_{ i+1 }+6{ w }_{ i }-4{ w }_{ i-1 }+{ w ...
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0answers
6 views

Vertex Cover Approximation

Is there any Vertex Cover approximation algorithm that gives the optimal solution for some graphs but otherwise near-optimal solutions for other graphs? Would an algorithm like that be useful? From ...
2
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2answers
11 views

Vertex Cover - Understanding the bounds

I was reading on wikipedia about the approximations of the Vertex Cover problem and saw that an approximation algorithm with an approximation factor of $\displaystyle 2 - \Theta \left( ...
1
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1answer
40 views

Approximation for $\sin(\beta\sin(x))$

Can someone explain why, assuming $\beta\ll 1$, we have $$\cos(\beta \sin(2\pi f_mt))\approx 1$$ and $$\sin(\beta \sin(2\pi f_mt))\approx \beta \sin(2\pi f_mt) $$ the equations are part of a FM ...
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0answers
23 views

extrapolate boundary data of a 2d function

I have a function defined over a 2d domain. I want to keep all the internal data, but the information near the boundaries are less accurate and I want to extrapolate them from the inner points. Is ...
27
votes
4answers
3k views

How much gas does a car use to carry its own gas?

I have always been curious about this one. Since the gas has some weight, the car will have to burn some extra gas to carry it's own fuel around. How can I calculate how much that extra gas is? ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

How do you derive the secant method formula from the equation below?

The Secant Method forumula is; $$ x_{i+1}=x_i - \frac{f(x_i)(x_i-x_{i-1})}{f(x_i)-f(x_{i-1})}.$$ Derive the formula from the equation below; ...
0
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0answers
33 views

Archimedes' Apprxomation of Square Roots

Supposing a square root $\sqrt{X}$, let $x$ be the approximation of $\sqrt{X}$, then we get these 2 formulas to estimate $\sqrt{X}$: $x_{n+1}=\frac{x_n+\frac{X}{x_n}}{2}$ and ...
6
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1answer
359 views

Approximating the exponential function

I have found experimentally something that seems graphically like an approximation of the exponential function. However, it is totally experimental and I have no idea whether it really converges ...
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2answers
54 views

I do not quite understand what destructive cancellation is, can someone explain it please?

I have been given this example 2.0013−2.0005=0.0008. The destructive cancellation is the large common value, here the 2, that disappears.
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0answers
10 views

Firstly what does relative tolerance mean?

Apply the Jacobi iteration method to the system Ax=b with $$ A= \begin{pmatrix} 3 & -1 & 1 \\ 3 & 6 & 2 \\ 3 & 3 & 7 \\ ...
2
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1answer
129 views

Upper and lower bound of an approximate computation

I'm currently working on an exercise in The Art Of Computer Programming, Vol. 1 relating the algorithm for computing $\log_{10} x$ presented in the Mathematical Preliminaries. The algorithm is ...
0
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1answer
61 views

Is this possible or hopeless to try to prove?

If I have $x_1, ..., x_k=o(n)$ and $j=O(1)$. Is it possible to prove something like: $$\sum_{i=1}^k {n \choose j} \left(\frac{x_i}{n}\right)^j \left(1-\frac{x_i}{n}\right)^{k-j} \sim {n \choose j} ...
1
vote
2answers
270 views

Approximate a polynomial function using a sum of sine waves

I have a polynomial function which I need to approximate by a sum of sine waves with constant amplitude along a given domain. From what I hear, this might be a good time to make use of Fourier ...
1
vote
3answers
234 views

Damped oscillation fit

We have some measurement data like this: The expected behavior of the data is a damped oscillation: $$y=a e^{d*t} cos(\omega t+\phi) + k$$ Where: $t$ Current time $y$ Current deflection ...
1
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0answers
56 views

Rational numbers imply reals?

I was solving an inequality today and I proved it for rational numbers (it was easier because I was able to "strengthen" by doing things like "$\frac{p}{q}>\frac{r}{s}\implies ps\ge qr+1$ since ...
0
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1answer
28 views

Can someone explain what destructive cancellation is as well as how to answer the question?

Let $f(x)= \sqrt{x^2 + 1} - 1$ (taking the positive real square root, as usual). When $a = 10^{−3}$, compute $f(a)$, working to $5$ significant figures at every stage of the calculation. Also it can ...
2
votes
2answers
364 views

Numerical approximation of the modified Bessel function $I_0$ with radical argument for integration purposes

I have to numerically calculate the following definite integral $$\int_{\alpha}^{\beta}I_0(a\sqrt{1-x^2})dx$$ for different values of $\alpha$ and $\beta$, where $a$ has a value of, say, $30$. I'm ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

Why is $\tan 54^\circ\approx \frac{\sin24^\circ}{1-\sqrt{3}\sin24^\circ}$

This question was asked as an equality on MSE and I am quite surprised to find that its strictly false However I would like to see why is their difference of the order $10^{-15}$? $$\tan ...