For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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7 views

selecting points on a domain which represent the derivative of a function

I'm working on some algorithm part of which entails me to subdivide a domain based on the derivative of a function. Let's just consider the 1D case with a closed and bounded domain $[a,b]$ for a ...
1
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0answers
7 views

How do we derive efficiency from robustness in the virtual ant solution to the traveling salesman problem?

Using virtual ants/swarm intelligence to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem is an example of using a robust system to solve an efficiency problem. We normally think of robustness and efficiency as ...
3
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0answers
392 views

An Expression for $\log\zeta(ns)$ derived from the Limit of the truncated Prime $\zeta$ Function

I think, here, I found $$ P_\color{red}x(\color{blue}s)=\sum_{p<\color{red}x} \frac{1}{p^{\color{blue}s}} =\sum_{\color{green}n=1}^{\infty}\frac{ \mu (\color{green}n)}{\color{green}n} ...
4
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1answer
33 views

Is there an alternative to Taylor expansion of functions with more control over the error distribution?

As a physics student I see the Taylor series being (ab)used very often, mostly for the expansion of $\exp(x)$. The usual line of though is that the error (remainder) term of a high order is likely ...
3
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2answers
41 views

Asymmetric second difference quotient?

I need to find (approximate) the second derivative of a discrete function. Usually I would approximate the second derivative with $$f''(x)\approx\frac{f(x+h)-2f(x)+f(x-h)}{h^2}\tag{1}$$ In my case, ...
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0answers
31 views

What is your favorite approximation to the normal distribution? [closed]

I am asking this because my favorite is this one, which I independently discovered: $$N(x, 0, 1) =\frac1{\sqrt{2\pi}}\int_{-\infty}^x e^{-t^2/2} dt \approx \frac{1}{1+\exp(-ax)}, \text{ where } ...
4
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1answer
38 views

Order of Growth of a Sum

Let $n>k$ and $r$ be arbitrary positive integers. Define $q=k/n$. I want to show that $$ \sum_{i=0}^{rk} \binom{rn}{i}q^i(1-q)^{rn-i}(rk-i)=\Theta(\sqrt{r}) $$ as $r\rightarrow \infty$. I've ...
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3answers
89 views

Approximating $e^{x}/(e^{x} - 1)$

Is it correct to tell that we can approximate \begin{equation*} \frac{e^{x}}{(e^{x} - 1)} \end{equation*} by: \begin{equation*} \frac{1}{x} \end{equation*}
4
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3answers
82 views

Calculate fractional part of square root without taking square root

Let's say I have a number $x>0$ and I need to calculate the fractional part of its square root: $$f(x) = \sqrt x-\lfloor\sqrt x\rfloor$$ If I have $\lfloor\sqrt x\rfloor$ available, is there a ...
1
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1answer
366 views

Smooth approximation of maximum using softmax?

Look at the Wiki page for Softmax function (section "Smooth approximation of maximum"): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softmax_function It is saying that the following is a smooth approximation to the ...
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15 views

How to approximate (with minimal error) a 16-dimensional linear equation system with inaccurate solutions?

I have a system of linear equations with 16 coefficients that I'm trying to solve. I have an effectively unlimited number of equations using those coefficients (i.e., ax1+bx2+...+p*x16=y). I know how ...
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1answer
282 views

acoustics under water

I've got the following problem that is taken from the numerical analysis book by Kahaner-Moler-Nash (P8-15): The speed of sound in ocean water depends on pressure, temperature and salinity, all ...
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3answers
32 views

Maclurin Series. (Approximation)

Given that $y=\ln \cos x$, show that the first non-zero terms of Maclurin's series for $y=-\frac{x^2}{2}-\frac{x^4}{12}$. Use this series to find the approximation in terms of $\pi$ for $\ln 2$. My ...
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0answers
37 views

Sofic groups alternative definition

I am trying to solve exercise two from the following document : http://mtm.ufsc.br/~daemi/soficworkshop/Course%20notes/Lupini%20Lecture%202.pdf I suspect there is an error in the exercise, but I'm ...
0
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0answers
34 views

Why do I get a big error when I compute this integral with Gauss-Legendre Quadrature?

I'm using Gauss-Legendre Quadrature to solve the following integral: $\int_0^{1}x^xdx$ After I've compared the result with the MatLab vpa(int(...)) of the same integral I've noticed that the ...
7
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1answer
157 views

Accelerating approximations for arccos

I have recently built a method to accelerate drastically the accuracy of the following approximation of $\arccos(x)$ : $f_n(x)=2^n\sqrt{2-2g^{n-1}(x)}$ where $g(x)=\frac{1}2\sqrt{2+2x}$ and ...
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2answers
28 views

find which two points an arbitrary point is nearest to

I would like to solve for a point $P$ regarding its proximity to the line segment it resides within. I can make a guarantee that the point will be placed along a line. In the included example, we ...
3
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1answer
33 views

Alpha max plus beta min algorithm for three numbers

There exists fast algorithm to approximate length of 2D vector - Alpha max plus beta min algorithm. It says that $\alpha\cdot\max(x,y)+\beta\cdot\min(x,y)\approx\sqrt{x^2+y^2}$ for some constants ...
7
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0answers
426 views

Using Padé approximants for the quaternion exponential

On a lark, I wanted to know if one can use Padé approximants to compute the exponential $\exp(z)$ of a quaternion $z=a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{j}+d\mathbf{k}$. Since Mathematica has a package meant for ...
2
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2answers
36 views

$\int_2^x\frac{dt}{\log^kt}=O\left(\frac{x}{\log^kx}\right)$

I seek to prove the identity $$\int_2^x\frac{dt}{\log^kt}=O\left(\frac{x}{\log^kx}\right)$$ I was given the following hint: Split the integral into $\int_2^{f(x)}+\int_{f(x)}^x$ for a ...
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0answers
7 views

Approximating a grid-valued signed distance function with a continuous function

I want to solve a continous optimization problem using IPOPT. My optimization involves a signed distance function whose values are defined on a 2D grid. Since IPOPT can't handle piecewise functions, I ...
1
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1answer
25 views

Using SVD to approximate matrix-vector multiplication?

Given some matrix A, is it possible to use Singular Value Decomposition to approximate Ax for some vector x within some error bound? According to Efficient low rank matrix-vector multiplication, it ...
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1answer
13 views

Expectation of trigonometric functions involving random variables.

This is more a formulation question. I need help making a sales pitch (lol). I am working on an practical engineering problem where I encounter functions of the form: $\cos(\phi + d_\phi)$, $ ...
1
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2answers
209 views

How come $\pi$ is usually approximated as 3.14 or 22/7?

I've heard that $\pi$ is usually approximated as 3.14, but it can also be approximated as 22/7, which is equal to 3.142857142857142857.... Guess what? $\pi$ can also be approximated as 355/113, ...
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0answers
15 views

how to approximate compute p(a|b, c) , using p(b|c), p(a|*, c), p(a), p(b), p(c)

how to approximate compute p(a|b, c) , using p(b|c), p(a|*, c), p(a), p(b), p(c) p(a|*, c), * means anythins. p(a|*, c) = $\sum_i p(a|i, c) $ error = | p(a|b, c) - f(p(b|c), p(a|*, c), p(a), p(b), ...
3
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1answer
25 views

Trapezoidal Rule in Stirling's Approximation

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling's_approximation Here $$\sum \limits_{i=1}^n log(i) $$ is approximated as $$\int^n_1log(x) dx\ +\ 1/2\ log(n)$$ but I would approximate it as ...
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0answers
7 views

Mapping Function from Generated Data

Assuming solution space data is 1:1 mapped to domain space, is there a good/well known approach to flushing out a mapping function/approximation having access to lots of mapped data? I imagine I am ...
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1answer
423 views

Approximation of Semicontinuous Functions

Assume that $k \in \mathbb{N}$ and $f : \mathbb{R}^d \rightarrow [0,\infty)$ is lower semicontinuous, i.e. $f(x) \leq \liminf_{y \rightarrow x} f(y)$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}^d$. Does there exist a ...
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2answers
48 views

what is the best approximation for sine?

can you tell me which is the best approximation for cosine/sine functions. It should also reduce the computational complexity. I've already tried the Bhaskara-1 approximation. Can you suggest me ...
0
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1answer
31 views

Finding the integer parts of irrationals

When working with continued fraction expansions, I sometimes have to calculate the integer part of irrationals quickly without a calculator, what would be an effective way to do this? For example, ...
1
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1answer
18 views

Approximation Error of Stirlings Formula

Stirlings Approximation : $n! \approx \sqrt{2\pi}n^{n+\frac{1}{2}}e^{-n}$. So $100!$ has an approximate percentage error of about $\frac{100}{12n} = \frac{1}{12}$. Using this information, how does ...
2
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1answer
32 views

Approximating non-rational roots by a rational roots for a quadratic equation

Let $a,b,c$ be integers and suppose the equation $f(x)=ax^2+bx+c=0$ has an irrational root $r$. Let $u=\frac p q$ be any rational number such that $|u-r|<1$. Prove that $\frac 1 {q^2} \leq |f(u)| ...
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1answer
14 views

Linearization of an implicitly defined function

$f(x,y,z)=e^{xz}y^2+\sin(y)\cos(z)+x^2 z$ Find equation of tangent plane at $(0,\pi,0)$ and use it to approximate $f(0.1,\pi,0.1)$. Find equation of normal to tangent plane. My attempt: I found that ...
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3answers
35 views

Curve fitting as a linear least squares approximation problem?

So I have a problem from a textbook that will count for a bonus homework assignment, but I am having some trouble knowing where to start. Some more difficult curve fitting problems can be ...
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0answers
9 views

Is there a way to calculate expected entropy and confidence bounds in this unknown multinomial parameter problem?

Given low-count and fairly low dimensional count data (non-negative integers) $n_1,\ldots,n_d$ where say $d \leq 5$ and $n_i \leq 10$, the goal is to compute the posterior mean and posterior ...
2
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1answer
22 views

Assymptotically approximating a sum similar to binomial.

I am, through some combinatorial problems which I'm working on, trying to figure out what the following sum becomes as $n\rightarrow \infty$: \begin{equation*} \sum_{i=1}^{n-1} ...
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0answers
29 views

Boundary layer problem

This question is taken from Bender & Orszag "perturbation methods" $y' = (1 + X^{-2}/100)y^2 - 2y + 1$ ,$y(1)=1$ first we can see that if we set $\epsilon=100x^{2}$ we can translate the above to ...
0
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1answer
43 views

How to approximate Heaviside function by polynomial

I have a Heaviside smooth function that defined as $$H_{\epsilon}=\frac {1}{2} [1+\frac {2}{\pi} \arctan(\frac {x}{\epsilon})]$$ I want to use polynominal to approximate the Heaviside function. ...
4
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2answers
2k views

Is this a valid attempt at the Riemann Hypothesis? [closed]

From Marcus Du Sautoy's book “The music of the primes”, there is a method of finding a very long list of N consecutive numbers which are not primes. e.g $101!+2, 101!+3,...,101!+101$ all of which are ...
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1answer
24 views

Origin of divergence in a divergent field (2D)

I have a field of measured vectors, see example of four vectors in image below. If there was no noise they would all point outward exactly from one "central point". i.e. there would be a circle whose ...
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37 views

Two dimension Taylor approximation

Consider function $f:\mathbb{R}^2 \setminus \{(0,0)\}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ defined with $f(x,y)=\frac{y-x}{x+y}$. I'm trying to approximate this function on $(0, \epsilon)^{2}$ where $\epsilon ...
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0answers
23 views

Speed of the usual approximation of the exponential

Let's consider the usual approximation of the exponential function $f_n(x)=(1+\frac{x}n)^n$. What do we know about its speed of convergence to the exponential? That is to say, how can we characterize ...
2
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3answers
120 views

Approximation of a sum $\sum ^{\sqrt{n} }_{k=5}\frac{\log\log(k)}{k\log(k)} $

What method could I use to obtain an approximation of this sum $$\sum^{\sqrt{n}}_{k=5}\frac{\log\log(k)}{k\log(k)}$$ Should I proceed by an integral? How can I calculate its lower and upper bound?
2
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4answers
259 views

Explain this inequality, related to logarithms

I am trying to understand a proof of Stirling's formula. One part of the proof states that, 'Since the log function is increasing on the interval $(0,\infty)$, we get $$\int_{n-1}^{n} \log(x) dx ...
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1answer
35 views

Numerical Approximation of Differential Equations with Midpoint Method

I want to proof that the local truncation error of the Midpoint Method is $d_{k+1}=O\left(h^{3}\right)$ Approach The local truncation error is defined as: ...
4
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5answers
4k views

Software to find a function for data approximation

I've got some y(x) 2D data set. I would like to find a function fitting this data: Is there any open source or free software to find a function to approximate a data sequence like the above? Here ...
0
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1answer
30 views

approximation of $x^2$ in hilbert spaces

use the least squares to find the best linear approximation to $f(x)=x^2$ on [-1,1]. that is find the line $y=a_0+a_1x$ that minimizes $\int_{-1}^1|f(x)-y(x)|^2$ solution I used the theory of ...
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0answers
36 views

How to find the upper bound of a binomial coefficient by using binomial theorem?

I have a task to find a upper bound of the binomial coefficient for all $r \leq \frac{n}{2}$. I've already obtained by using such relation: $$\frac{\sum_{k=0}^{r}\binom{n}{k}}{\binom{n}{r}}$$ Which ...
4
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3answers
66 views

How can a binomial coefficient can be approximated by using Stirling's formula?

I've met some difficulties with such question: How can we approximate a binomial coefficient by using a Stirling's factorial approximation. I've evaluate a little bit and got this How can I ...
4
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2answers
194 views

solution to $\min \|A-BXC \|$

I have the following problem. Let $A$, $B$ $C$ be real-valued matrices of size $m \times q$, $m \times n$, $p\times q$ respectively. I would like to find matrix $X$ of size $n\times p$ and maximum ...