For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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1answer
28 views

How to approximate the bounding region of a 2d differentiable mapping locally?

I have got a differentiable mapping $f:\Bbb R^2 \to \Bbb R^2$, Is the image of $f$ of a very small convex subset (e.g., a unit square) around any point, a bounded region? If it is bounded, can I ...
4
votes
1answer
90 views

Computer Algebra Systems for Experimental Mathematics (especially Integer Relations with PSLQ)

I would like to use a computer algebra system to do some experimental mathematics, particularly Integer Relation problems using the PSLQ algorithm. I know that Maple has a PSLQ implementation, but ...
0
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0answers
13 views

spatial-partitioning based physical simulation

I've learnt that spatial-partitioning based physical simulation is kind of "approximate" computation. Is it because: since the whole space is partitioned into cells, and only the interactions of ...
1
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1answer
47 views

Approximation for $\sin(\beta\sin(x))$

Can someone explain why, assuming $\beta\ll 1$, we have $$\cos(\beta \sin(2\pi f_mt))\approx 1$$ and $$\sin(\beta \sin(2\pi f_mt))\approx \beta \sin(2\pi f_mt) $$ the equations are part of a FM ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Approximating error using Taylors theorem

I have used a Maclaurin series for the function $f(x) = \cos(2x)$ and have successfully produced: $\dfrac{2^n cos(\frac{n\pi}2)x^n}{n!}$ Now I want to estimate the error in approximating $\cos(2x)$ ...
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2answers
111 views

Using series find $\int_0^1 \sqrt{1+x^4}\hspace{1mm} dx$ up to $2$ decimal places

I cannot figure out an aesthetic way to do this. Can someone give a beautiful solution to this ugly question? This is what I have tried yet. I used the fact that $$x = ...
0
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1answer
21 views

Is it possible to approximate or bound this nonlinear mapping L h(x)?

I wanted to make sure whether the following approximation is possible. I have a vector ${\bf{x}} \in \mathbb{R}^N$ where the elements of the vector $\bf{x}$ are random variables. There is a matrix ...
23
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1answer
429 views

Approximate value of a slowly-converging sum of $\sum|\sin n|^n/n$

In this question on Math.SE there appears this sum: $$ S = \sum_{n\geq1}s_n, \qquad s_n = \frac{|\sin n|^n}{n}, $$ which converges very slowly. What methods would you suggest for evaluating it ...
0
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1answer
25 views

Approximate $d\sqrt{x}$ or $d\log(x)$ by a function of the form $a/(1 + bx^c)$

I have some functions of $x$, in the form of $d\sqrt{x}$ or $d\log(x)$ where d is known. I would like to rewrite (approximate is fine) them in the form $\dfrac{a}{1 + bx^c}$, where a, b and c are ...
2
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0answers
50 views

Application of Weierstrass approximation theorem

How to approximate a continuous function to a desired accuracy using a polynomial? Theorem: For any $\varepsilon > 0$ and $f \in C([a,b])$, there exists a polynomial $p$ such that $\sup_{x \in ...
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0answers
32 views

Help understanding this approximation

In a paper that I'm reading, the authors write:- $$N_e \approx \frac{3}{4} (e^{-y}+y)-1.04. \tag{4.31}$$ Now, an analytic approximation can be obtained by using the expansion with respect ...
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6answers
197 views

When the approximation $\pi\simeq 3.14$ is NOT sufficent

It's common at schools to use $3.14$ as an appropriate approximation of $\pi$. However, here it's stated that for some purposes, $\pi$ should be approximated to $32$ decimal places. I need an example ...
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vote
2answers
45 views

Poisson approximation to binomial distribution: $f(x)\geq g(x)$ or $f(x) \leq g(x)$

We have a random variable $X$ which has a Binomial Distribution Bin(n,p) and a random variable $Y$ which has a Poisson Distribution Poisson(np). We are interested in $$f(x):=Pr[X \geq x].$$ For ...
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1answer
91 views

Double Integrals & Expected Value Monte Carlo Method

Tell me if I'm wrong Let $\Omega = [a,b]\times[c,d]\subseteq\mathbb{R}^2$, then $$ \iint_\Omega ...
1
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1answer
46 views

integral approximation (law of large numbers)

I am totally at a loss with this question and don't even know where to begin. Let $g:[0, 1]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a measurable and Lebesgue-integrable function. $U_1, U_2, \dots$ be a series of ...
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0answers
24 views

2-approximation for TSP-metric

I got stuck with the following question: Consider the following heuristic: Start with a tour containing only one vertex. At each step, find the vertex outside the tour with the lesser distance to ...
0
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1answer
63 views

A good function to fit this data

I'm computing the angle of intersection between to curves (the invariant manifolds of a dynamical system). I do this with a numerical algorithm, but I would like to fit a function with this data. ...
8
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0answers
271 views

$\pi^4 + \pi^5 \approx e^6$ is anything special going on here?

Saw it in the news: $$(\pi^4 + \pi^5)^{\Large\frac16} \approx 2.71828180861$$ Is this just pigeon-hole? DISCUSSION: counterfeit $e$ using $\pi$'s Given enough integers and $\pi$'s we can ...
0
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0answers
42 views

Is the following statement on the stability of the forward Euler method true or false?

My text asks whether the following statement is true or false: The forward Euler method for approximating the solution of $x'=\lambda x$ is stable for all $\lambda \in \mathbb R$ and all step ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Can we approximate $f(x) = \chi_{(0,\infty)}(x)$ by smooth monotone functions?

Given $f(x) = \text{sign}^+(x) = \chi_{(0,\infty)}(x)$, is it possible to a sequence $f_n$ such that $f_n$ is smooth, $f_n' \geq 0$ and $$f_n \to f?$$ In some sense of convergence? Preferably ...
2
votes
2answers
72 views

$(1-x)^y ≈ e^{-xy}$

Here is an approximation I often see in biology articles but don't really understand: $$(1-x)^y ≈ e^{-xy}$$ I think this $e^{-xy}$ closely approximates $(1-x)^y$ whenever $x$ is small. Can you help ...
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0answers
43 views

Approximation of measurable function by simple function

So a measurable function can be approximated by a series of simple function converging pointwise. The demonstration is easily understandable by taking a series of simple function where the value of ...
1
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0answers
29 views

Rational approximation or series expansion of $K_0$ and $K_1$ for small z

I'm looking for a series expansion of the modified Bessel functions of second kind $K_0(z)$ and $K_1(z)$ for $$|z|<5, ~~|phase(z)| < \pi$$ My $z$ can be described as $z = a\cdot \sqrt{ix}$, ...
4
votes
1answer
124 views

Lower bound for $(x^c-1)^{1/c}$

I have been trying to find a lower bound for $x>1$, $c>0$: $$ \Large(x^c-1)^{1/c} $$ My strategy is to find a lower bound for $(x^c-1)^{1/c}$ which can hopefully get rid of some of the $c$ ...
3
votes
1answer
123 views

Approximate Periodic Function by shifting Basis Functions

Given a periodic "Target Function" $F(t)$ a set of $N$ periodic "Basis Functions" $B_i(t)$ of arbitrary shape All functions are defined on the same interval $T$. I am allowed to shift ...
1
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3answers
62 views

Simplify function with polynomial via least-squares

I want to "adjust" (simplify) $f(x)$, a function, by $g(x)$, a polynomial, via least-squares. I want to write code for that. Apperently my code is issuing wrong results, so I was wondering if my ...
3
votes
1answer
25 views

Show that a subset $V \subseteq C[a,b]$ is a Haar subspace

Let $C[a,b]$ be the set of continuous functions on $[a,b]$, then a linear subspace $V \subseteq C[a,b]$ of finite dimension $n+1$ is called an Haar subspace iff one of the following equivalent ...
1
vote
2answers
151 views

Product of Gamma functions II

What is the value of the product of Gamma functions \begin{align} \prod_{k=1}^{10} \Gamma\left(\frac{k}{10}\right) \end{align} and can it be shown that \begin{align} \prod_{k=1}^{20} ...
1
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2answers
52 views

Cebysev (Tschebyscheff-) Approximation

I have to find the best Tschebyscheff-Approximation of $x(t) = \sin(t)$ on the Interval $[0,d]$ by a line where $0 < d < 2\pi$. But I have no idea how to perform such an approximation, do you ...
3
votes
1answer
64 views

Moving average as ODE

Is it possible to represent or approximate the moving average $m(t) = \frac{1}{w}\int_{t-w}^t x(\tau) d\tau$ of a function $x(t)$ as a set of ordinary differential equations $\dot{y} = \ldots$? I am ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

How is this method for computing square roots a manifestation of Newton's method?

I discovered that we can use Newton's method to conveniently compute the square root of a positive integer. Newton's method stipulates that we keep iterating as such: $$ x_{n + 1} = x_n - ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Approximation of $C^\alpha(T^2)$ in $L^1$ by a $C^k$ function

Consider a Holder function $f \in C^\alpha(\mathbb{T}^2, \mathbb{R})$, $\alpha \in (0,1)$. I would like to approximate $f$ with $f_\epsilon \in C^k(\mathbb{T}^2, \mathbb{R})$, $k \in \mathbb{N}$, in ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Complete orthonormal system

Let $H$ a linear space with inner product. An orthonormal system $\{e_1, e_2, \dots \}$ is called complete in $H$ if $x=0$ is the only element that satisfies the relations: $$(x, e_n)=0, \ \ \ ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Explanation of a passage about a smooth approximation to $L^p$ function

I'm reading J.L Vazquez "Porous Medium Equation" book. In it, he says the following: We are given a function $a:\Omega \times (0,T) \to \mathbb{R}$ such that $a \geq 0$. We find a smooth ...
1
vote
1answer
426 views

Solve non-linear equations of 3 variables using Newton-Raphson Method iterms of c,s and q.

The three non-linear equations are given by \begin{equation} c[(6.7 * 10^8) + (1.2 * 10^8)s+(1-q)(2.6*10^8)]-0.00114532=0 \end{equation} \begin{equation} s[2.001 *c + 835(1-q)]-2.001*c =0 ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Confidence intervals for bernoulli trials over a cyclic time series

I have a time series with observations of 0 or 1 observed yearly for approx. 20 years. The time series is cyclic and I want to find a CI for the probability p over the cycle (mean). Unfortunately I ...
1
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0answers
29 views

Solve Van der Pol equation by Padé approximation

I want to solve the Van der Pol equation: $$f''+ \mu \, (f^2-1)f'+f=0, \quad f = f(t),$$ by Padé approximation. I know the solution should be the combination of $\sin{t}$ and multiplied by $\mu$, ...
0
votes
2answers
36 views

Evaluating a taylor series around a given point

So I'm having some trouble with the problem: Given that $\ln(x+1)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty } \frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n}x^{n}, -1<x\leq 1$, find the Taylor series of ln(x) around 3. For which x is this series ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Variational Methods, why KL divergence is the difference between true distribution and approximating distribution.

Likelihood = $L(\textbf{w}) = P(V\mid \textbf{w})$. $$\ln P(V\mid \textbf{w}) = \ln \sum_H P(H,V\mid \textbf{w})$$ $$= \ln \sum_H Q(H\mid V)\frac{P(H,V\mid \textbf{w})}{Q(H\mid V)}$$ $$\geq ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Exact calulation of trigonometric functions

My question is a bit related to computer science and I am not quit sure if this place is a good one for it. Let me know if I should move it. So as you know values of functions like sin or cosine can ...
3
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1answer
53 views

Asymptotic approximation to find the Barnes integral

In the following paper and in order to prove the Barnes integral $$\frac{1}{2\pi ...
2
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1answer
61 views

Change of variable

I have to approximate the following integral, using Simpson's Composite $1/3$ Rule: $\displaystyle \int\limits_{0}^1 \mathrm{\frac{e^{2x}}{\sqrt[5]{x^2}}}\,\mathrm{d}x$. The only problem is that ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Question about the Weierstrass approximation theorem

By the Weierstrass approximation theorem for $f\in C[a,b]$ there exists a sequence ($Q_n$) of polynomials such that $Q_n(x) \rightrightarrows f(x)$ on $[a,b]$ or equivalently for each $\varepsilon ...
2
votes
2answers
131 views

How can I get a good estimation of the following function

The function is $$ f(n) = \sum_{i=1}^{n} \frac{1}{2i-1}$$ How can I compute for example $f(20)$ or $f(50)$ without using a calculator. I want to have an approximation
0
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0answers
67 views

Comparison of trapezoidal , Simpson's 1/3 ,Simpson's 3/8 and Boole's rules.

These rules are often used in numerical integration. How do we analyze the given support points or function and select the most suitable one for best approximation?
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Approximate an $L^2$ function from “inside”

Consider a bounded domain $\Omega \subset \mathbb R^d$ and a function $f \in L^2(\Omega)$. Now $f$ can be approximated through a sequence of functions $f_n \in H^1(\Omega)$ (or even ...
2
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1answer
67 views

Help needed - Approximating functions with geometric integration and derivation

I've somehow managed to approximate some functions using cheap tricks as geometrically derivating the function and then geometrically integrating an easier equivalent of the derivative (see here for ...
0
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1answer
33 views

Discrete Function Approximation Error - Which type? (Applied math, signals)

I have two functions, one derived via software, and we can call it the exact function, $f_{exact}$. The other is a result I got through hardware, and we can call it the approximation, $f_{approx}$. ...
0
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0answers
33 views

Show the linear span of the given collection is dense in the space

Show that space generated by $\{1, \sin x, \sin 2x, \ldots \sin nx,\ldots\}$ is dense in $C([0,\pi])$. I am having trouble to show it algebra and get explicit function that separates end points. ...
1
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0answers
103 views

Numerical solution of non-linear differential equation with MATLAB

I need some information to know if I can solve a nonlinear integral equation with terms $ u_{x} $ , $ u_{x}.u_{y} $ , $ u_{xx} $ , $ u_{xy} $ $u_{yy} $ $ u_{x}^{2} $ $ u_{y} ^{2} $ By numerical ...