For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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18 views

multivariate quadrature

Assume that $f:\mathbb{R}^n\ \to \mathbb{R} $. We want to approximate the integral, $\int_{I_d} f \, d\mu$. Let $U^{m_i}$ be a quadrature rule in $x_i$ in direction of $x = (x_1 , \dots , x_n)$, with ...
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1answer
64 views

Approximating a line segment with orthogonal components

I was thinking about this problem yesterday and was wondering if someone can provide some insight into it. Let's say we have two points in Euclidean space: $p_1$ at $\left(0, 0\right)$ and $p_2$ at ...
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1answer
35 views

Trapezoidal rule over interpolation of higher dimensional vectors

According to a wikipedia and mathworld, the trapezoidal rule is: $$ \int_a^b f(x)\,dx \approx h\left[\frac{f(a) + f(b)}{2} \right], $$ where $h = (b-a)$. If you apply this rule to a function ...
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1answer
21 views

Rounding with significant digits

I'm dealing with significant digits right now, and recently I've been having a nagging question in my mind. When we have digits past the last significant digit in a quantity, do we round the last SD ...
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2answers
28 views

Approximation involving Gamma function: $\frac{\Gamma(j+d)}{\Gamma(j+1)\Gamma(d)}\approx(j-1)^{d-1}$

With $d\leq 1$ and $$ a_j=\frac{\Gamma(j+d)}{\Gamma(j+1)\Gamma(d)}=\frac{d(d+1)\ldots(d+j-1)}{j!},\quad j=0,1,2,\ldots $$ my professor wrote in class that $$ \sum_{j=N}^\infty ...
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3answers
33 views

Asymptotic behavior of $-gTt-gT^2e^{\frac{-t}{T}}$ for small $t$

I want to solve this using Taylor series expansion of $e^{f(x)}$ $$\begin{align}x=-gTt-gT^2e^{\frac{-t}{T}}+gT^2+x_0\end{align}$$ Show that for small values of t $(t\ll T)$, the equation for ...
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1answer
75 views

Subalgebra generated by selfadjoint operator $A_0\in\mathscr{L}(H,H)$

Let $\mathscr{L}(H,H)$ be the Banach algebra of bounded operators defined on a complex Hilbert space $H$ and let $B(A_0)$ be the subalgebra generated by the selfadjoint operator $A_0$, i.e. ...
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0answers
19 views

Approximating the max value of a function containing the half-sum of binomial series

I recently met a problem and I have been finding related materials about it. However it is still hard to handle. Precisely, I want to maximize a function related to $$S_n = \sum_{i=0}^{\lfloor ...
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2answers
137 views

Wikipedia wrong? Convergence of finite difference

Update: I have edited the Wikipedia page, so that the mistake no longer appears. On the Wikipedia article for "Finite difference" there is the claim Assuming that $f$ is continuously ...
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6 views

Has the degree to which a partial eigensystem of a large sparse matrix approximates the complete eigensystem been determined?

Does anyone know of any studies or results regarding the degree of approximation or the error in estimating the complete spectrum of a large sparse matrix by means of its first $n$ eigenvalues and ...
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1answer
45 views

Sufficient conditions for the convergence of Newton's Method

Suppose we are employing Newton's method: $$ x_{k+1}=x_k - \frac{f(x_k)}{f'(x_k)}. $$ Suppose $f$ is twice differentiable, $f(c)=0$, $f'(x) \neq 0$ on $(c-h, c+h)$, and $x_1 \in (c-h, c+h)$. Let ...
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29 views

$f'>0$, $f''>0$ is sufficient for Newton's Method

I'm doing problem 22-14 in Spivak's Calculus, 4th edition. Here they outline Newton's method. They assume for convenience that $f'>0$ and $f''>0$, and that $f(x_1)>0$. They note that in this ...
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1answer
102 views

Hardy's approximation for the cosine

I was reading about the Hardy's approximation for the cosine function (here and also in Mathworld): for 0<x<1 What I would like to know is, how was this approximation derived? What other uses ...
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1answer
57 views

Approximating $\frac{t^2}{3-\frac{t^2}{5-\frac{t^2}{7-\frac{t^2}{9-\cdots}}}}$

What is a good approximation for $$\omega=\frac{t^2}{3-\frac{t^2}{5-\frac{t^2}{7-\frac{t^2}{9-\cdots}}}}$$ This will be used to find $$T=\frac{t}{1-\omega}$$ Without using Lambert's continued fraction ...
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2answers
51 views

Calculators using Taylor polynomials?

I've always heard that calculators (TI-84's and the like) use Taylor polynomials to approximate trigonometric/exponential/etc functions. Do any of you know this for a fact?
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1answer
70 views

Second difference $ \to 0$ everywhere $ \implies f $ linear

Exercise 20-27 in Spivak's Calculus, 4th ed., asks us to show that if $f$ is a continuous function on $[a,b]$ that has $$ \lim_{h\to 0}\frac{f(x+h)+f(x-h)-2f(x)}{h^2}=0\,\,\,\text{for all }x, $$ then ...
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0answers
50 views

Convergence of series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty}\dfrac{(-1)^{n+1}}{\sqrt{n}}$ and approximation with maximum error

I'm starting a class on Advanced Mathematics I next semester and I found a sheet of the class'es 2012 final exams, so I'm slowly trying to solve the exercises in it or find the general layout. I will ...
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1answer
36 views

approximation of x=sin(x) error

The larger $x$ becomes, the worst the approximation of $x=\sin(x)$ becomes. How large can $x$ get before the error is no longer less than $1/(2\times10^{14})$? What I have tried: I know that the ...
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0answers
18 views

cos(x) approximation with taylor of second degree

there is an approximation to find cos(x) is 1 - (x^2)/2, until n = 2 degree of taylor, but I'm confuse how to find how good is its approximation, the one thing I know only I get its error is (sin(c) ...
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1answer
43 views

Uniform convergence and relative error?

I never took a class where uniform convergence was introduced, so I only know the Definition and not much more about it. I have an Approximation of some sequence of functions $f_n$ by some function ...
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0answers
11 views

approximation of a complex valued real rational function

all. I am now struggling with a approximation problem. Suppose we have a matrix-valued measure $\mathrm{d}\Lambda(\omega)$, with compact support $[a,b]$, then its Cauchy transform is a well-defined ...
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1answer
33 views

Approximation rules?

Let's say I need to approximate the expression $$\frac{1}{2}mv^2\left(\frac{M}{M+m}+1\right)$$ when $m<<M$. Here is what I would do: $$\frac{1}{2M}mv^2\left(\frac{M}{1+\frac{m}{M}}+M\right) ...
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2answers
124 views

Method of dominant balance and perturbation

Approximate the solutions of $$\epsilon x^4 + (x-1)^3=0$$ I can't perform a singular perturbation because if I let $\epsilon=0$ then I lose a root. My professor suggests The Method of Dominant ...
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27 views

Iterative algorithm for finding approximation functions for N-dimensional space

Say, I have billions of integral-valued vectors of the form $(0, 1, 3, 0, 0, 0, 3)$. My goal is to efficiently compute approximate distribution of values of each component of these vectors for each ...
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1answer
53 views

Find a polynomial using minimax approximation

Find a polynomial with the maximum 1. degree which best approximates the $f(x)=e^x$ function in terms of minimax approximation in $[0,1]$.
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194 views

How to evaluate the integral $e^{-(c\ln(\frac{1}{x}))^s} dx$?

Can anyone help me evaluate $$\int_{\alpha}^1 \exp{\left\{-\left(c\ln\left(\frac{1}{x}\right)\right)^s\right\}} dx$$, Where $0 \leq \alpha \leq 1$ and $s \in \mathbb{R}$. I tried changing ...
3
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0answers
41 views

Approximating this definite integral

I ran into the following integral in my research that I believe has no closed-form solution: $$ I = \int_{s_0}^{s_1} \frac{(\alpha_x s + \beta_x)^{\lambda_x}}{(\alpha_y s + \beta_y)^{\lambda_y}} ds ...
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3answers
50 views

How was this approximation of transcendent equation solution found?

I have an equation for $\xi$: $$\xi\gamma=\cos\xi,$$ where $\gamma\gg1$. I've tried solving it assuming that $\xi\approx0$ and approximating $\cos$ by Taylor's second order formula: ...
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23 views

Multivariate Appoximation

I have a mathematical model for a complex system which I would like to approximate it. My idea is to run this complex model once and produce some outputs, and then fit a polynomial for these outputs. ...
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2answers
58 views

Upper approximation of $\mathrm{atanh}(x)$?

Is there are nice upper approximation of $\mathrm{atanh(x)}$? For example, $\ln(x)$ is nicely approximated by $x-1$ for $x$ around $1$.
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27 views

Calculation rules for quadratic approximations

In this link ...
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0answers
42 views

How good an approximation to the derivative is an arc-length based approximation?

Note - my original definition below was wrong. I hope this replacement is better. The usual approximation to $f'(x)$ with step size $h$ is $D_h(f, x) = \frac{f(x+h)-f(x)}{h} $. This has so many nice ...
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2answers
34 views

Quadratic approximation of $tan(x)$ at 0.

I have tried this: http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/mathematics/18-01sc-single-variable-calculus-fall-2010/unit-2-applications-of-differentiation/part-a-approximation-and-curve-sketching/problem-set-3/ and ...
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1answer
91 views

Approximate the largest and the smallest values of the integral

How do I solve this:approximate the largest and the smallest values of the integral for
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0answers
78 views

How to find the approximate basic frequency or GCD of a list of numbers?

I could't actually summarize the question in the title, so I'll explain my situation. I want to tell the integer numbers which act as the best approximate basic frequencies of a list of real numbers: ...
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0answers
23 views

Taylor's remainder in a compact

My impression is that each function enough regular ($C^\infty$ ) in a compact is equivalent to a polynomial. Is this true? Is there a way to prove it? The expression of the Taylor's remainder just ...
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1answer
12 views

Approximate solution to non-linear equation set

I have an equation set like this: $$ R_e(T_i)R_t(T_i) + R_e(T_i)R_p(T_i) = R_sR_t(T_i) + R_sR_p + R_pR_t(T_i) \\ R_e(T_f)R_t(T_f) + R_e(T_f)R_p(T_f) = R_sR_t(T_f) + R_sR_p + R_pR_t(T_f) $$ Where, ...
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4answers
97 views

Solution to a system of nonlinear equations

Do you know any method to solve the following system of nonlinear equations ? $\begin{equation} 141,3829=A+\frac{B}{323}+5,78C+F323^{E}\\ 69,07645=A+\frac{B}{333}+5,81C+F333^{E}\\ ...
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0answers
21 views

Is it correct approximation of Upper Incomplete gamma function?

I am trying to approximate the Upper incomplete regularized gamma function $P(s,t)$, at the constant value of $s=c$ by: $$Q(c,t) \approx 1-Q(t,c)$$ where: $c$ is some constant and $t$ is variable. ...
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1answer
25 views

Signifcant Figures — Why are rules for multiplying and adding true?

I found this other question that deals with this somewhat, but I am still unclear as to why the rules for adding/subtracting and multiplying/dividing significant figures are the way they are. In the ...
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6 views

Are there other names for multilayer perceptrons or multidimensional interpolants based on Kolmogorov's approximation work?

Are there other names for multilayer perceptrons that are used outside of the neural net community? At its core, multilayer perceptrons form a multidimensional interpolant of the form $$ ...
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30 views

Stirling like approximation for lower-incomplete gamma function?

May we have a similar approximation for lower incomplete gamma function $\gamma(s,x)$, as we have a Stirling's approximation for Gamma function $\Gamma(s)$.
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2answers
65 views

Continuous differentiable spline or function resembling floor

I'd need any (real-valued) function (whatever meets the following description at least approximately) continuous and thrice differentiable everywhere (or twice if 3 not possible), with the following ...
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2answers
406 views

Ramanujan's approximation for $\pi$

In 1910, Srinivasa Ramanujan found several rapidly converging infinite series of $\pi$, such as $$ \frac{1}{\pi} = \frac{2\sqrt{2}}{9801} \sum^\infty_{k=0} \frac{(4k)!(1103+26390k)}{(k!)^4 396^{4k}}. ...
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0answers
14 views

Mapping from $\left(-\infty,\infty\right)$ to $[a,b]$ to reduce numerical error

Suppose $A = \left[\begin{array}{cc} \exp\left(x_1\right)&\exp\left(x_2\right)\\ \exp\left(x_3\right)&\exp\left(x_4\right) \end{array} \right]$, where each of $x_i\in\left(-1000,1000\right),$ ...
16
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3answers
305 views

Approximating $100!$

I participated in an Estimathon (a speed contest of Fermi problems) not long ago. It works as follows. Contestants are given questions and they must give a closed range $[a,b]$ which should contain ...
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24 views

Applications of low-rank matrix approximation

There was a similar question here Use of low rank approximation of a matrix that has unfortunately remained unanswered. Although being along the same lines, my question will be formulated in a little ...
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2answers
131 views

Constrained Newton-Raphson method

Peace be upon you, I want to solve a system of two equations in which the existence of $ln\left(\frac{\alpha}{\alpha+\beta}\right)$ function makes some limitations in iterations of the Newton-Raphson ...
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3answers
138 views

Approximate summation of the given equation

I have been trying from an hour to approximate the value of $M$ in the equation given below. $$ M = \sum\limits_{i=1}^n\left(\sum\limits_{j=1}^n\left(\sqrt{ i^2 + j^2 }\right)\right) $$ One thing I ...
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1answer
65 views

Maximum likelihood estimators

I have $X_1,X_2,\dots,X_n$ as random samples from a binomial distribution, with probability function: $$p_X(x) = Pr(X=x) = {m \choose{n}}\alpha^x(1-\alpha)^{m-x},x=0,1,2,\dots,m$$ where $m$ is given ...