For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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286 views

Differences among Cauchy, Lagrange, and Schlömilch remainder in Taylor's formula: why is generalization useful?

I would like to know what really are the main differences (in terms of "usefulness") among Cauchy, Lagrange, and Schlömilch's forms of the remainder in Taylor's formula. Could you provide examples ...
5
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1answer
259 views

Computer Algebra Systems for Experimental Mathematics (especially Integer Relations with PSLQ)

I would like to use a computer algebra system to do some experimental mathematics, particularly Integer Relation problems using the PSLQ algorithm. I know that Maple has a PSLQ implementation, but I'...
5
votes
3answers
958 views

How to find an approximation to $1 - \left( \frac{13999}{14000}\right )^{14000}$?

I want to find an approximation to the expression $$ 1 - \left( \frac{13999}{14000}\right )^{14000} $$ I tried by taking logarithm $$ \ln P = \ln\left(1 - \left(\frac{13999}{14000}\right)^{...
4
votes
4answers
211 views

How to compute a lot of digits of $\sqrt{2}$ manually and quickly?

After having read the answers to calculating $\pi$ manually, I realised that the two fast methods (Ramanujan and Gauss–Legendre) used $\sqrt{2}$. So, I wondered how to calculate $\sqrt{2}$ manually in ...
4
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1answer
97 views

Is there a section of mathematics that studies near-integer equations.

When I saw: $$e^\pi-\pi \approx 20$$ I thought it was pretty cool. And : $$\pi^3 \approx 31$$ So now the thought comes to me is what positive integer value of $n$ will make the expression: $$\pi^...
4
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2answers
184 views

Evaluate $\sum_0^\infty \frac{1}{n^n}$

Courtesy of this xkcd comic I now know that $$ \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^n} \approx \ln^e(3) $$ Echoing the views of the comic itself, if I ever find myself taking $\ln^e(x)$ then something has ...
4
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3answers
130 views

Symmetry Of Differentiation Matrix

I have a problem computing numerically the eigenvalues of Laplace-Beltrami operator. I use meshfree Radial Basis Functions (RBF) approach to construct differentiation matrix $D$. Testing my code on ...
4
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2answers
2k views

Approximations for the partial sums of exponential series

Though the question here (Partial sums of exponential series - Stack Exchange) is similar, it is more specialized and I rather need a general approximation for an arbitrary partial sum. Essentially, ...
3
votes
1answer
249 views

Asymptotic approximation of sum $\sum_{k=0}^{n}\frac{{n\choose k}}{2^{2^k}}$

I need to find the asymptotic approximation of this sum $$\sum_{k=0}^{n}\frac{{n\choose k}}{2^{2^k}}$$ Can you please share a link to theory or hint how it can be solved? Here is my attempt $n \...
2
votes
1answer
190 views

Existence of a simultaneous rational approximation of real numbers in (0,1)

I have a simple question the rational approximation of real vectors. Dirichlet's simultaneous approximation theorem states: Given any $d$ real numbers $\alpha_1,\ldots,\alpha_d$ and for every ...
2
votes
1answer
159 views

Chebyshev coefficients from a polynomial

Is there an efficient algorithm for finding the coefficients in a Chebyshev basis of a polynomial? That is, given the set of $a_k$ such that: $p_n(x) = \sum_{k=0}^N a_k x^k $ Find the set of $c_k$ ...
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2answers
2k views

Interpolation, Extrapolation and Approximations rigorously

A foreign book mentioned that "when the Lagrange's interpolation formula fails (for example with large sample due to Runge's phenomenon), you should use approximation methods such as Least-...
0
votes
1answer
270 views

Is there an integral or series for $\frac{\pi}{3}-1-\frac{1}{15\sqrt{2}}$?

The approximation $$\pi\approx\frac{22}{7}=3+\frac{1}{7}$$ suggests that the closest integer to $\frac{1}{\left(\pi-3\right)}$ is $7$. However, $$ \frac{1}{\left(\pi-3\right)^2}\approx49.879 $$ is ...
0
votes
2answers
507 views

Continuation of smooth functions on the bounded domain

Given a bounded domain $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ and a smooth function $f$ with bounded derivatives on $\Omega$, is it possible to extend $f$ to $\tilde{f} : \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}$ such that ...
26
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3answers
1k views

The right “weigh” to do integrals

Back in the day, before approximation methods like splines became vogue in my line of work, one way of computing the area under an empirically drawn curve was to painstakingly sketch it on a piece of ...
12
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1answer
238 views

Why is integer approximation of a function interesting?

I have recently learnt the following result: Let $g \in \mathbb{R}[x]$ be a polynomial with $g(0) = 0$. Then, for any $\varepsilon > 0$, the set of positive integers $n$, such that $g(n)$ is ...
10
votes
2answers
802 views

Complex Zeros of $z^2e^z-z$

Can anyone give me a hint on showing (in a relatively elegant way, as I know the answer from WolframAlpha), that the complex valued function $z^2e^z-z$ has at most 2 roots with norm less than 2? ...
8
votes
2answers
850 views

Sum of inverse of Fibonacci numbers

If $F(n)$ is the nth Fibonacci number, How can I prove that: $$\sum_{i=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{F(i)}\approx 3.36\, .$$
7
votes
3answers
56k views

Approximation symbol: Is π ≈ 3.14.. equal to π ≒ 3.14..?

This could be a trivial question, but what is exactly the difference of between these two expressions? Am I correct to state the both interchangeably whenever I need to express the approximation of pi?...
5
votes
2answers
3k views

Modern formula for calculating Riemann Zeta Function [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How to evaluate Riemann Zeta function I have an amateur interest in the Zeta Function. I have read Edward's book on the topic, which is perhaps a little dated. I would like ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

How to calculate $\exp(-x)$ using Taylor series

We know that the Taylor series expansion of $e^x$ is \begin{equation} e^x = \sum\limits_{i=1}^{\infty}\frac{x^{i-1}}{(i-1)!}. \end{equation} If I have to use this formula to evaluate $e^{-20}$, how ...
4
votes
4answers
91 views

Generalization of piece-wise linear functions over a metric space

Suppose we want to construct a function $f$ from a compact metric space $(X,\rho)$ to a Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$ that is Lipschitz continuous with a constant $L$: $$ \forall x,y \in X . ||f(x)-...
4
votes
1answer
105 views

$f$ is approximated uniformly on $R$ by $p_n(x)$, then $f$ is a polynomial

Suppose $p_n(x)$ is a sequence of polynomials which converge to a function $f$, uniformly on $\mathbb{R}$. Show that $f$ is a polynomial. If there were a uniform bound $M$ on the degree of $p_n(x)$, ...
4
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2answers
1k views

approximating a maximum function by a differentiable function

Is it possible to approximate the max{x,y} by a differentiable function? f(x,y)=max{x,y} x,y>0
4
votes
1answer
235 views

Evaluating a limit involving binomial coefficients.

If $N_c=\lfloor \frac{1}{2}n\log n+cn\rfloor$ for some integer $n$ and real constant $c$, then how would one go about showing the following identity where $k$ is a fixed integer: $$\lim_{n\rightarrow ...
3
votes
1answer
700 views

Approximation for Lambert W function near zero

I am looking for a good approximation for the $W_0$ branch of the Lambert $W$ function. I am looking for values $0 < x < e$ only, so I expect something simpler than the general Taylor expansion. ...
3
votes
2answers
823 views

How to bound the truncation error for a Taylor polynomial approximation of $\tan(x)$

I am playing with Taylor series! I want to go beyond the basic text book examples ($\sin(x)$, $\cos(x)$, $\exp(x)$, $\ln(x)$, etc.) and try something different to improve my understanding. So I ...
2
votes
1answer
841 views

Approximating a large number of data points using (cubic) splines in l1/l2 norm.

I have a pretty large dataset ($x,y$) consisting of a few million points. There is a lot of noise in the data. I want to find a smooth but simple approximation/representation for this dataset, so that ...
2
votes
1answer
583 views

Approximating Stirling's number of the second kind to allow for large inputs

I'm looking for an approximation for Stirling's number of the second kind, $S_2(n,k)$, which counts the ways to partition a set of $n$ objects into $k$ non-empty subsets: ( http://en.wikipedia.org/...
2
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1answer
54 views

How do you Taylor expand the log likelihood function of the Poisson distribution?

This question is an extension to this previous question asked by myself: When doing a maximum likelihood fit, we often take a ‘Gaussian approximation’. This problem works through the case of a ...
2
votes
1answer
836 views

Bounding the modified Bessel function of the first kind

i'm looking for an upper bound for the modified Bessel function of the first kind of a +ive real argument. It seems that it satisfies the inequality : $$I_{n}(x)\leqslant \frac{x^{n}}{2^{n}n!}e^{x}$$ ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

Series expansion of elliptic integral involving n th order polynomial in the denominator

My goal is to find an expansion in powers of 1/ρ of the integral: \begin{equation}I_n(\rho)=\int_\rho^{+\infty}\frac{dt}{(E_n(t))^2\sqrt{t^2-h_2^2}\sqrt{t^2-h_3^2}},\quad \rho \ge h_2\end{equation} ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

Solve non-linear equations of 3 variables using Newton-Raphson Method iterms of c,s and q.

The three non-linear equations are given by \begin{equation} c[(6.7 * 10^8) + (1.2 * 10^8)s+(1-q)(2.6*10^8)]-0.00114532=0 \end{equation} \begin{equation} s[2.001 *c + 835(1-q)]-2.001*c =0 \end{...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

How to approximate an integral using the Composite Trapezoid Rule

I'm trying to estimate the value of the following integral on the interval $[0,1]$ $$ I = \int_0^1 \frac{1}{1+x} dx $$ So, using the composite trapezoid rule (and with $n=4$, ie I'm only using the ...
1
vote
2answers
765 views

Product of Gamma functions II

What is the value of the product of Gamma functions \begin{align} \prod_{k=1}^{10} \Gamma\left(\frac{k}{10}\right) \end{align} and can it be shown that \begin{align} \prod_{k=1}^{20} \Gamma\left(\frac{...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

When is right to kill $r^l$ and/or $r^{(-l-1)}$?

When we solve the Laplace equation in spherical polar coordinate, we get the radial part whose solution is: $$R=Ar^l+Br^{-(l+1)}$$ Now, some solutions keep this two terms, but when we derive the ...
0
votes
2answers
677 views

How to show that a measurable function on $R^d$ can be approximated by step functions?

In Stein's Book: Real Analysis, Theorem 4.3 says that any measurable function $f$ on $R^d$ can be approximated by step functions. But the proof provided there only show that when $f=\chi_E$, with $m(E)...
0
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3answers
891 views

Approximating the integral $\int_0^{0.1} \sqrt{1-1/2\sin^2(t)} dt$

How would I go about evaluating $I = \int_0^{0.1} \sqrt{1-1/2\sin^2(t)} dt$ to four decimal accuracy?
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votes
5answers
2k views

What exactly is “approximation”?

There are a lot of great "approximations" that exist in the mathematical field:$$\dfrac{22}{7} \approx \pi$$ $$e \approx \left(1 + \dfrac{1}{n}\right)^n$$But the fact that I have yet to know what ...
5
votes
1answer
97 views

Inverse of $\frac{1-e^{-x}}{x}$ on $(0,1)$

I am trying to invert (or to estimate the inverse of) $$y=\frac{1-e^{-x}}{x}$$ for $y\in(0,1)$. The function 'looks' monotonically decreasing between $x=0$ and $x=\infty$, but I have not been able to ...
5
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0answers
76 views

Pointwise approximation of a closed operator

If $T:\mathcal D(T) \rightarrow \mathcal Y$ is a closed operator from a Banach space $\mathcal X$ to a Banach space $\mathcal Y$, is it possible to find bounded operators $T_n\in \mathscr B(\mathcal X,...
5
votes
5answers
3k views

Numerically Efficient Approximation of cos(s)

I have an application where I need to run $\cos(s)$ (and $\operatorname{sinc}(s) = \sin(s)/s$) a large number of times and is measured to be a bottleneck in my application. I don't need every last ...
4
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2answers
113 views

Approximation of DE

It depends on my previous question. Closed form solution of DE I don't want to deal with Airy functions. How can I approximate this DE in continous domain $[0,1]$? $$y''(x)+(x+1)y(x)=0\quad\text{ ...
4
votes
1answer
555 views

Hermite Interpolation of $e^x$. Strange behaviour when increasing the number of derivatives at interpolating points.

I am trying to understand Hermite Interpolation. Here is my pedagogical example. I want to approximate $f(x)=e^x$ on the domain $[-1,1]$ using Hermite interpolation. I choose the Chebyshev zeros ...
4
votes
1answer
704 views

Newton-Raphson for reciprocal square root

I have a question about using Newton-Raphson to refine a guess of the reciprocal square root function. The reciprocal square root of $a$ is the number $x$ which satisfies the following equation: $$x^{...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

With Euler's method for differential equations, is it possible to take the limit as $h \to 0$ and get an exact approximation?

I was recently watching a tutorial on Euler's method for approximating differential equations, and the whole time I was thinking "why can't you just take the limit of the step size $h$ as it goes to $...
3
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2answers
143 views

Bounds on $ \sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty }{\frac{a..\left( a+n-1 \right)}{\left( a+b \right)…\left( a+b+n-1 \right)}\frac{{{z}^{n}}}{n!}}$

I have a confluent hypergeometric function as $ _{1}{{F}_{1}}\left( a,a+b,z \right)$ where $z<0$ and $a,b>0$ and integer. I am interested to find the bounds on the value it can take or an ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

Approximate a convolution as a sum of separable convolutions

I want to compute the discrete convolution of two 3D arrays: $A(i, j, k) \ast B(i, j, k)$ Is there a general way to decompose the array $A$ into a sum of a small number of separable arrays? That is: ...
3
votes
2answers
465 views

Asymptotic number of unlabeled graphs

A rather tight lower bound $c(n)$ of the number of unlabeled digraphs of order $n$ (loops allowed) seems to be $$c(n) = 2^{n^2}/n!$$ because there are $2^{n^2}$ labeled graphs, almost all of them ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

Does projection onto a finite dimensional subspace commute with intersection of a decreasing sequence of subspaces: $\cap_i P_W(V_i)=P_W(\cap_i V_i)$?

Let $V$ to be an infinite dimensional linear space over some field $k$. (you can take $k=\mathbb{C}$, or further assume $V$ is a complex Hilbert space). And assume $W$ is a finite dimensional ...