For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
1answer
772 views

Confused by the answer of this Riemann sum approximation question.

$$\begin{array}{ | c | c | } \hline n & \sum \limits_{k=1}^{n} \left(\frac{1}{x_k}\right)\left(\frac{1}{n}\right) \\ \hline 100 & 5.19 \\ \hline 200 & 5.88 \\ \hline 300 & 6.28 ...
4
votes
1answer
866 views

Application of Runge's theorem

Runge's theorem states: Let $K$ be a compact subset of $\mathbb C$ and let $S\subset \overline{\mathbb C}\setminus K$, such that $S$ contains at least one point in each connected component of ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Properties of Lebesgue functions

If $f\in \mathcal {L}$ then there exists a sequence $\{f_k\}$ of step functions s.t. $\lim_{k\to\infty} f_k(x)=f(x)$ for almost all $x$ and $$\lim_{k\to\infty} \int|f(x)-f_k(x)|\,dx=0.$$ If I have ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Significant digits/rounding

I have a bunch of criteria to evaluate for a product, and each is scored on a scale from 0 to 5. Each criterion has a weight associated with it. If I find the weighted score of a criterion, it is ...
2
votes
1answer
227 views

How to use undefined value in Composite Simpson's Rule

I have to use the Composite Simpson's Rule to approximate the integral $\int_0^1 t^2\cdot sin(\frac{1}{t}) dt$. I've used the Composite Simpson's Rule, but when I work through the algorithm, one step ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Weierstrass Approximation Theorem for continuous functions on open interval

I am studying for my introductory real analysis final exam, and here is a problem I am somewhat stuck on. It is Question 2, in page 3 of the following past exam (no answer key unfortunately!): ...
0
votes
0answers
523 views

How to find integer solutions of an equation using approximation methods?

If I have a function called $f(x)$ that have several roots, integers and not integers. How can I find just the integer ones by approximations methods? A simple example would be ...
2
votes
1answer
183 views

Handling matrix of differential operator when using the Ritz method for an extremum problem

The internal energy (or strain energy) of a typical structural member under a displacement field $\{u\}$ can be represented as: $$ U = \frac{1}{2}\int_{V}[u]^T[B]^T[F]^T[B][u]dV $$ where $V$ is the ...
3
votes
0answers
141 views

Useful approximation of the pdf

Good day to everyone. In my research work I came out with a function, which looks like this (it is the pdf of some random variable): $$f(x,\rho,\psi)=\frac{2}{\pi }+\sqrt{\frac{2}{\pi }} ...
0
votes
2answers
668 views

How to show that a measurable function on $R^d$ can be approximated by step functions?

In Stein's Book: Real Analysis, Theorem 4.3 says that any measurable function $f$ on $R^d$ can be approximated by step functions. But the proof provided there only show that when $f=\chi_E$, with ...
2
votes
0answers
100 views

$\epsilon$-net of a $n$-dimensional $\ell_2$-ball

Let $B$ be an $\ell_2$-ball of radius $r$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$. I want to find the cardinal of a (not too big) $\epsilon$-net of $B$, that is the cardinal of a finite set $V\subset B$ such that $\forall ...
4
votes
1answer
313 views

Find the order of the error for the approximation $f' '(x)$

Given $$f''(x) = \frac{ f(x+h) - 2f(x) + f(x-h)}{h^2}.$$ I realize that this is just an approximation - that it won't give the exact value of $f''(x)$ and therefore there is an error term. However, I ...
2
votes
4answers
420 views

Analytical approximation of an integral

I think there is no analytical solution for $$ \int_{K}^{\infty} \frac{exp(-x)}{x} dx $$ where $K > 0$. Instead, is there an analytical approximation?
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Approximation of a function

Let $f:[0, 1] \rightarrow [0, \infty]$ be a function of $x$, with a parameter $\theta > 0$, such that $f$ is continuous $f$ is strictly decreasing $f(0) = \infty$ $f(1) = 0$ For example, $f(x) ...
1
vote
2answers
99 views

Asymptotic expansion for $\frac{1}{2\zeta(3)}\int_x^\infty \frac{u^2}{e^u - 1} du$?

Is there an asymptotic expansion for the function: \begin{equation} g(x)=\frac{1}{2\zeta(3)}\int_x^\infty \frac{u^2}{e^u - 1} du, \end{equation} over the domain $x\in [0,\infty)$ in terms of ...
1
vote
0answers
83 views

Expansion in powers

Let $n=2k, k \in Z_+$. Let $$P_k\left(\frac{t}{\sqrt n}\right)=n!\sum_{\begin{smallmatrix} n_1+\ldots+n_k=n \\ ...
0
votes
3answers
878 views

Approximating the integral $\int_0^{0.1} \sqrt{1-1/2\sin^2(t)} dt$

How would I go about evaluating $I = \int_0^{0.1} \sqrt{1-1/2\sin^2(t)} dt$ to four decimal accuracy?
2
votes
0answers
474 views

Approximations of the incomplete elliptic integral of the second kind

For a calculation I am working on I need to determine the arc length $l$ of a part of an ellipse in terms of the major axis $2a$, the minor axis $2b$ and the angle $\phi$. I know that this is a ...
3
votes
2answers
143 views

Bounds on $ \sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty }{\frac{a..\left( a+n-1 \right)}{\left( a+b \right)…\left( a+b+n-1 \right)}\frac{{{z}^{n}}}{n!}}$

I have a confluent hypergeometric function as $ _{1}{{F}_{1}}\left( a,a+b,z \right)$ where $z<0$ and $a,b>0$ and integer. I am interested to find the bounds on the value it can take or an ...
1
vote
1answer
288 views

Find taylor polynomial that approximates e^x with accuracy at least 1.

Find Taylor polynomial at $x=0$ which approximates $e^x$ with accuracy at least $1$ for each $x \in [-2,2]$. I dont undestand these questions that involve the $n^{th}$ remainder. I know I need to ...
1
vote
1answer
2k views

What is a fitting parameter in least-squares?

I was doing some least-squares homework when I saw this term "fitting parameters". I was asked to implement the leas-squares fit using polynomials of $p-th$ degree to a generic dataset. This is done. ...
1
vote
2answers
8k views

Power series for $\ln(1+x^2)$

In the problem I am asked to use a power series representation of $\ln(1+x)$ to approximate the integral from $0$ to $0.5$ of $\ln(1+x^2)$ to within 4 decimal places. So far I have found a series for ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Approximation related to resonance

Can someone help me with this problem. We have $$x(t)=N \sin (w_{0} t)+\frac{w_0}{w_1}e^{\frac{-t}{T}}\sin (w_{1}t)$$ and $w_1=(1+\frac{\delta_1}{N^2})w_0$ for some $|\delta_1|\leq 1$. I need to ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

Formula for the pseudofrequency using approximations

We know that $w_1=\frac{\sqrt{4w_{0}^2-b^2}}{2}$ and $(1+u)^{\alpha}=1+\alpha u + \mathrm{O}\left(u^2\right)$ I need to show that ...
1
vote
0answers
185 views

Approximate CDF of the sum of a gaussian and a truncated gaussian

I am looking for a quick-to-compute approximation of the CDF of $X+Y$, where $X \sim N(0,\sigma_1^2)$ and $Y$ is a truncated gaussian, more specifically, a gaussian with mean $0$, standard deviation ...
1
vote
1answer
321 views

B-Spline Interpolation/Approximation

I've got a couple of probably very simple questions, yet some googling didn't bring up what I was looking for. First what I want to do: I have a grid, and the gridpoints are function values. I want to ...
3
votes
0answers
83 views

How to solve a distance problem inside of a picture?

sorry for my bad english. I have the following problem: In the picture you can see 4 different positions. Every position is known to me (longitude, latitude with screen-x and screen-y). Now i want ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

approximation of law sines from spherical case to planar case

we know for plane triangle cosine rule is $\cos C=\frac{a^+b^2-c^2}{2ab}$ and on spherical triangle is $ \cos C=\frac{\cos c - \cos a \cos b} {\sin a\sin b}$ suppose $a,b,c<\epsilon$ which are ...
0
votes
2answers
144 views

Aproximate calculation in decimals

I am trying to refresh on precision of calculations. If we have the decimal fractions: $.234673$, $.322135$, $.114342$, $.563217$ each known to be correct to six figures why are each of the decimals ...
0
votes
1answer
454 views

Need some help understanding notation for composite gauss quadrature formula

Reading through some notes on 2-point gauss quadrature, I came across the following general formula. I'm currently doing an assignment with 3-point quadrature, and have gotten to a similar formula, ...
3
votes
0answers
65 views

Root calculation by hand (division-like algorithm)

I remember from my highschool days a division-like algorithm for calculating square, even cubic roots. I know the continued fraction method, some series and Newton's method. I have checked similar ...
0
votes
2answers
59 views

Using approximation to find a value of theta

So I have one vector of alpha, one vector of beta, and I am trying to find a theta for when the sum of all the estimates (for alpha's i to n and beta's i to n) equals 60. Basically what I did is ...
0
votes
1answer
300 views

Approximating probability of success of Bernoulli trials using Kullback–Leibler divergence

In "Probabilistic Graphical Models" book by Daphne Koller and Nir Friedman they have the following approximation of probability of r successful outcomes of N Bernoulli trials: $P(S_N=r)\approx ...
7
votes
0answers
340 views

Show that the function is constant

Let $S^n$ be an $n$-dimentional unit sphere. Consider $f: S^n \longrightarrow R_+$ even continuous function. Denote $$ ...
12
votes
1answer
238 views

Why is integer approximation of a function interesting?

I have recently learnt the following result: Let $g \in \mathbb{R}[x]$ be a polynomial with $g(0) = 0$. Then, for any $\varepsilon > 0$, the set of positive integers $n$, such that $g(n)$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Compute approximation difference

How can one compute $$e^{\frac{-j(j+1)}{2n}} -\prod_{i=1}^{j}\left(1-\frac{i}{n} \right)$$ assuming $j,n \geq 2$? I am interested in understanding how quickly this number tends towards zero as $n$ ...
14
votes
1answer
622 views

Approximation of Semicontinuous Functions

Assume that $k \in \mathbb{N}$ and $f : \mathbb{R}^d \rightarrow [0,\infty)$ is lower semicontinuous, i.e. $f(x) \leq \liminf_{y \rightarrow x} f(y)$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}^d$. Does there exist a ...
4
votes
0answers
281 views

Low-rank approximation to the Graph Laplacian matrix of a regular grid.

As mentioned in the title, does anybody know any methods of efficient low-rank approximation $LL^T$ to the Graph Laplacian matrix $A$ corresponding to a square lattice? (except PCA)
0
votes
1answer
62 views

Approximations with differentials

My book states that for large n and small a, $$\dfrac{1}{(n+a)^2} - \dfrac{1}{(n)^2} \approx -\dfrac{2a}{n^3}$$ Let $f(x) = \dfrac{1}{x^2}$, $$ df = -\dfrac{2}{n^3}dx$$ with $$dx = a$$ and so the ...
3
votes
2answers
301 views

Integration over a combination of confluent hypergeometric, power, and exponential functions

I am trying to work out this integral. If there is no closed form, can you think of any approximations to it? $$\int_0^T e^{a (T-x)} (T-x)^{1+m+n} x^k \, _1F_1\Big(1+n;2+m+n;a (x-T) \Big) \, dx$$ ...
3
votes
0answers
242 views

Runge-Kutta Error Analysis

Could anyone explain to me how to reduce the error propagated by using Runge-Kutta of order 4? Or can anyone give me a nice reference to it.
2
votes
1answer
919 views

Finding approximate eigenvalues of perturbed matrix

Assume I have some constant matrix $A$ to which I add a perturbation, resulting in $M(\epsilon )=A+\epsilon B$ the perturbed matrix ($B$ is constant as well), and that I can easily find the ...
7
votes
3answers
921 views

Finding good approximation for $x^{1/2.4}$

I would like to a good (8 bits accuracy) approximation for $x^{1/2.4}$ in the range $[0, 1]$. This transform is used for converting linear intensities to SRGB compressed values, so it's important that ...
11
votes
3answers
6k views

Approximating the error function erf by analytical functions

The Error function $\mathrm{erf}(x)=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\int_0^x e^{-t^2}\,dt$ shows up in many contexts, but can't be represented using elementary functions. I compared it with another function ...
2
votes
0answers
57 views

Approximate Differential Equation?

Let $x \in \mathbb{R}$ be a variable and $c\in\mathbb{R}$ a parameter. Also, let $f(x,c)$ be a function dependent on $x$ and $c$. Furthermore, define a Differential Equation which is solved by the ...
3
votes
0answers
42 views

Bound on Permutations [duplicate]

I am trying to prove the following inequality, $$n^{(l)} = n(n-1)\cdots(n-l+1) \geq \frac{n^l}{e}\quad\text{ for }\quad 2 \leq l \leq \sqrt{n}\;.$$ So my approach is to observe that $n^{(l)} = ...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

alternating series estimation with integral?

We know that there are some approximation like Abel's identity. If $\lambda_n$ is increasing and $$ C(x)=\sum_{\lambda_n\le x}c_n,\qquad(c_n\in\mathbb{C}) $$ Then if $X\ge\lambda_1$ and $\phi(x)$ has ...
3
votes
2answers
112 views

Discrete approximations of $\nabla^2{\bf v}$

I am writing a Navier Stokes solver. The vector field is represented as a grid with integer coordinates I am looking at other people's computer code. I don't entirely understand the vector calculus, ...
4
votes
1answer
160 views

How to calculate (or approximate) “trimmed” (a+b)^n?

$a^n + C_n^{1}a^{n-1}b + ... C_n^{n-1}a^{1}b^{n-1}+b^n = (a+b)^n$ But how to calculate (maybe approximately) $a^n + C_n^{1}a^{n-1}b + ... C_n^{i}a^{n-i}b^{i} = ?$ For info, the underlying problem ...
0
votes
1answer
514 views

Discrete approximation - exponential function and integrals

Let $f$ be a complex-valued continuous function on $\mathbb{R}_+$ with compact support and let $g, h$ be two complex-valued continuous functions on $\mathbb{R}_+$ such that $g$ is bounded and ...