For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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20
votes
8answers
4k views

Rapid approximation of $\tanh(x)$

This is kind of a signal processing/programming/mathematics crossover question. At the moment it seems more math-related to me, but if the moderators feel it belongs elsewhere please feel free to ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

Sine Approximation of Bhaskara

An Indian mathematician, Bhaskara I, gave the following amazing approximation of the sine (I checked the graph and some values, and the approximation is truly impressive.) $$\sin x \approx ...
4
votes
3answers
503 views

A better approximation of $H_n $

I'm convinced that $$H_n \approx\log(n+\gamma) +\gamma$$ is a better approximation of the $n$-th harmonic number than the classical $$H_n \approx \log(n) +\gamma$$ Specially for small values of $n$. ...
2
votes
0answers
73 views

On bounding the average cost of top-down merge sort

Let $A_n$ be the average number of comparisons to sort $n$ keys by merging them in a top-down fashion (see any algorithm textbook). It can he shown that $$ A_0 = A_1 = 0;\quad A_n = ...
2
votes
2answers
326 views

How does this square root approximation work?

I've come across an odd way of estimating the square root of a number, going like this: Given a number n, Subtract the odd numbers from n in a rising order (1, 3, 5...), until $n \leq 0$ Count how ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Generating control-point tangents for a Catmull-Rom spline

From Wikipedia, we have a few variations for calculating tangents when creating a spline based only on positions of control-points: Finite difference $$\mathbf m_k=\frac{\mathbf p_{k+1}-\mathbf ...
1
vote
2answers
890 views

Deriving the approximation formula

$f'(x) \thickapprox$ $\frac{1}{2h} [ 4f(x+h) - 3 f(x) + f(x + 2h)]$ I need to derive the approximation formula for the function above. And I need to show that it's error term is of the form ...
3
votes
1answer
55 views

Lower-Bounding angles in integer Lattices

Given an $n \times n$ integer grid I chose any two grid points $a,b$, draw a line $l$ through $a$ and $b$ and measure the angle between $l$ and a horizontal line. I can do this for any grid point pair ...
2
votes
1answer
304 views

A question about the coercivity of a lsc and convex function.

I was doing a proof and I need to show a result to conclude it: $X$ is a reflexive Banach space with a norm, $\|\cdot\|$, of class $\mathcal{C}^1$. $f:X\to\overline{\mathbb{R}}$ is lower ...
4
votes
2answers
195 views

solution to $\min \|A-BXC \|$

I have the following problem. Let $A$, $B$ $C$ be real-valued matrices of size $m \times q$, $m \times n$, $p\times q$ respectively. I would like to find matrix $X$ of size $n\times p$ and maximum ...
1
vote
0answers
100 views

Combining multiple posterior distributions

I am new to Bayesian statistics, and thus have problems to come up with a solution for the following problem: Using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), I generate a posterior distribution from ...
5
votes
3answers
221 views

Approximate $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\text{d} x}{1 + x^4}$

Now, I have been given this integral. And need to approximate it. My first idea was to use a Taylor series, but this series explodes, as x reaches infinity. Does anyone know how to approximate ...
0
votes
1answer
116 views

Approximation to $\mathbb{E}(X/Y)$

Let $X,Y$ are two random variables which are not necessarily independent. It is easy to get $\mathbb{E}(X)$ ann $\mathbb{E}(Y)$. I want to know: is there some approximation to ...
4
votes
1answer
500 views

Differentiability of Moreau-Yosida approximation.

I want to show that if $X$ is a reflexive Banach space with norm of class $\mathcal{C}^1$ and $f\colon X\to\mathbb{R}\cup \{+\infty\}$ is convex and lower semicontinuous, then $f_{\lambda}$ is ...
21
votes
9answers
5k views

What is the purpose of Stirling's approximation to a factorial?

Stirling approximation to a factorial is $$ n! \sim \sqrt{2 \pi n} \left(\frac{n}{e}\right)^n. $$ I wonder what benefit can be got from it? From computational perspective (I admit I don't ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

Euler's Approximation of pi.

I recently stumbled across the formula: $$\pi=20\arctan\frac{1}{7}+8\arctan\frac{3}{79}$$ developed by Euler, for approximating pi. I evaluated it to several thousand decimal places and up to that ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Finding the fit $A\ T^a+B\ T^{-b}\ \rightarrow\ C\ T^c\exp{(\small{-\frac d T})}$ for an interval? (specifically in Mathematica)

I'm given an expression $$A\ T^a+B\ T^{-b},$$ $$\text{with} \ \ \ \ A,B>0,\ \ \ \ a,b\in(0,1),$$ but the plus sign "$+$" is a problem for my purposes. I want to make a fit of the following ...
5
votes
5answers
2k views

Numerically Efficient Approximation of cos(s)

I have an application where I need to run $\cos(s)$ (and $\operatorname{sinc}(s) = \sin(s)/s$) a large number of times and is measured to be a bottleneck in my application. I don't need every last ...
10
votes
1answer
7k views

What is the difference between natural cubic spline, Hermite spline, Bézier spline and B-spline?

I am reading a book about computer graphics. It is confusing about the various splines and their algorithms. What is the difference between natural cubic spline, Hermite spline, Bézier spline and ...
0
votes
2answers
131 views

Transform/approximate this expression to avoid undefined value

I have an expression like this $$\sum_i^n\log\frac{x_i}{y_i}+\alpha\sum_i^nx_i\log\frac{x_i}{\beta}$$ A potential problem is that $x_i$ and $y_i$ may take value $0$ for certain $i$, hence making ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

Density of polynomials having “additive-separation of their variables”?

Let $K$ be a compact subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$. Let $P$ be a polynomial in the variables $x$ and $y$. Given $\epsilon>0$, can we find two polynomials $P_1=P_1(x)$ and $P_2=P_2(y)$ such that $$ ...
1
vote
1answer
657 views

Picard's method application

Hello guys here is my question thank you for all the help. I need to determine On which integral the Picard's Method is applicable for $y'=xy^2$, $y(0)=0$ and need to calculate the first ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Riemannian sums approximation: bounds on the argument

I'd like to approximate a sum of the form $ S(n)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}\phi\left(\frac{k}{n}\right)$ with an integral using Riemannian sums: $$S(n) \approx n \int_{0}^{1}\phi(x)dx +o(n).$$ My ...
2
votes
2answers
278 views

$\pi$ polynomials whose real zeros approximate $\pi$

Let's have the following polynomials $x^4+105x^2-1134=0$,$x^6+126^x4+10395x^2-115830=0$, $3x^8+550x^6+45045x^4+3378375x^2-38288250=0$ The positive real zeros of these equations are good ...
2
votes
0answers
73 views

Algorithm to predict next 3D points

For example, having this data: year x/y/z 2007 10/20/70 2008 20/10/70 2009 30/10/60 2010 40/10/50 2011 40/15/45 We want to predict what will be the x/y/z in ...
2
votes
0answers
144 views

approximation of the sum

I have difficulties to find an approximation formula (or bound from the below) for the following sum: $$ \sum_{k=1}^n\left( \frac{1}{35}\right)^{k-1}(n-k)!\left(k-\frac 32\right)!. $$
1
vote
2answers
162 views

approximation formula for the integral

Get an approximation formula for the following integral: $$ \sum_{k=1}^n \left( \frac{1}{35} \right)^{k-1}\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\cos^{2(n-k)+1}(y) \cdot \sin^{2(k-1)}(y) \, dy $$
2
votes
1answer
724 views

Trouble Understanding Newton-Raphson Iterative Method

Currently i am reading this page which discusses the newton-raphson method of approximating the roots of an equation. It says given a function $f$ over the reals $x$, and its derivative $f$,we begin ...
4
votes
1answer
488 views

Hermite Interpolation of $e^x$. Strange behaviour when increasing the number of derivatives at interpolating points.

I am trying to understand Hermite Interpolation. Here is my pedagogical example. I want to approximate $f(x)=e^x$ on the domain $[-1,1]$ using Hermite interpolation. I choose the Chebyshev zeros ...
1
vote
1answer
110 views

Approximation of a function and second derivative

While solving some exercise I came up with this problem: Assume that $f \in C^2[0,\infty]$ (i.e. $f$ has continuous second derivative on $[0,\infty)$ and there exists limit in $+\infty$ of $f$) be ...
2
votes
2answers
334 views

Approximating $|x|$ by a linear combination of $1, \cos x, \sin x, \cos 2x, \sin 2x$

Let $\phi(x) = |x|$ for $x \in (-\pi, \pi)$. Suppose we approximate $\phi(x)$ by a linear combination of the functions $\{1, \cos x, \sin x, \cos 2x, \sin 2x\}$. What linear combination of the form: ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Approximation of a function with certain restrictions at problematic points

I can't compute a Taylor series of a function like $f(x)=\sqrt{x}$ to some order around $x_0=0$, because the derivative at that point doesn't exist. If I consider the taylor series $Tf$ at any ...
2
votes
1answer
212 views

Approximate Set Cover Problem by Rounding

Here is the simple algorithm for approximating set cover problem using rounding: Algorithm 14.1 (Set cover via LP-rounding) Find an optimal solution to the LP-relaxation. Pick all sets ...
2
votes
0answers
111 views

Approximating sums like $\sum_{j=1}^n\sum_{k=1}^{\lfloor\frac{n}{j}\rfloor}\int_1^{\frac{n}{jk}}dx$

Can anyone tell me how to approximate the following functions? $f_3(n) = \displaystyle\sum_{j=1}^n\sum_{k=1}^{\lfloor\frac{n}{j}\rfloor}\int_1^{\frac{n}{jk}}dx$ $f_4(n) = ...
2
votes
2answers
106 views

Approximating $x^k e^{-x}$

I want to approximate the function $ f(x) = x^k e^{-x}$ with some finite series. One approach would be to use the power series expansion for $ e^{-x} $. But in that case, the power series would have ...
3
votes
1answer
213 views

Calculate $E[X]$ using polynomial approximation of CDF

I have a black box called $F(t)$ ($~$($P~(X\le t)~$, $X$ is random variable) with me where I don't have any information on the exact expression of $F(t)$. But if I supply a $t\ge 0$ I will get a value ...
3
votes
2answers
80 views

Approximation or bound of $\operatorname{Pr}(X<\operatorname{E}(X))$

$X$ is a continuous random variable (we can assume some statistic (e.g., mean and variance) are known, but the distribution is unknown). Consider a probability ...
0
votes
1answer
90 views

Please, Let me know this approximation

$$ N_v = 0.5(t^{2}+2t^{6/7})\ln(1+2t^{-8/7})-t^{6/7} \tag{1} $$ $$ N_v =(0.871+0.125\ln t)^2 \tag{2}$$ Eq(2) is the approximated version of Eq(1). Does anyone know how to derive (2) from ...
1
vote
1answer
129 views

Berry-Esseen inequality for the event $a<S_n<b$

Suppose that $X_i$ are independent identically distributed with finite variance and $S_n=X_1+\cdots+X_n$. One can use the Central Limit Theorem to estimate (a) $P(S_n \leq b)$ and (b) $P(a<S_n \leq ...
0
votes
1answer
103 views

the additional term $4Nd$ in Bakhshali approximation for square roots

In the wiki page of square root calculation, I see an additional term $4Nd$ in Bakhshali approximation than in the Taylor series with 3 terms. I do not see how Bakhshali approximation is "equivalent ...
0
votes
2answers
135 views

Fitting a function to a polynomial

I have a black box called $F(t)$ with me where I don't have any information on the exact expression of $F(t)$. But if I supply a $t\ge 0$ I will get a value of $F(t)$ from the black box as output. It ...
2
votes
1answer
978 views

Power series representation of $e^x$ and $e^{-x}$

The power series representation of $e^x = \sum \limits_{k=0}^{\infty} \frac{x^k}{k!}$. Can I use this approximation for $e^{-x} = 1/e^x = 1/\sum \limits_{k=0}^{\infty} \frac{x^k}{k!}$ instead of ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Approximation in the Plane of Constant Curvature

In Euclidean space, There is a classic Theorem claims that: The length of every rectifiable curve can be approximated by sufficiently small straight line segment with ends on the curve. Now, The ...
2
votes
1answer
256 views

Polynomial approximation of $\chi^2$ distribution pdf

The $\chi^2$ distribution PDF is $$f_{\chi^2}(x;k) = \frac{1}{2^{k/2}\Gamma(k/2)} x^{k/2 - 1} \mathrm{e}^{-x/2} \mathbf{1}_{x \geq 0}$$ I am trying to find a polynomial approximation to this density ...
3
votes
0answers
248 views

Approximating a system of differential equations as a Bézier curve

I am looking for a general transform to approximate the solution to an n-dimensional system of differential equations and initial conditions as a cubic or quadratic Bézier curve. Sorry if my ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Approximation of closest k-coloured points?

I'm a working software engineer faced with the following problem: I have a set of points on a 2d plane. Each point can have one of $k$ different colours. I wish to select one point of each colour that ...
4
votes
1answer
109 views

How can we approximate $\sum_{j=0}^n{\sum_{k=0}^j{c^j k^{1/2}}}$ by integrals?

"Difference Equations" by Walter G. Kelley and Allan C. Peterson, 2nd Edition, gives an example on how to approximate $\sum_{k=1}^n{k^{1/2}}$ using integrals and Bernoulli numbers. I'm interested in ...
0
votes
1answer
215 views

Solve $\displaystyle\int_{0}^a \left(3^{\frac{1}{3} \left( x^3 - 3x \right) }-1\right)\, dx = 0$ using elementary methods

A friend of mine came upon the following problem. Solve for $a$ the equation $\displaystyle\int_{0}^a \left(3^{\frac{1}{3} \left( x^3 - 3x \right)}- 1\right)\, dx = 0$. By typing the problem ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Help finding the absolute error with $n$th degree Taylor polynomials

I am trying to estimate the absolute error in approximating $\ln 1.09$ with the $3$rd-order Taylor polynomial centered at $0$. It's been a while since I've taken the Calculus and I'm afraid I need ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Euler's approximation of $m' = -\frac{m}{V}v$

Continuing my previous question from today - I should code a program that finds approximate value of the aforementioned differential equation. The full text of the assignment is: Water purifier with ...