For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

learn more… | top users | synonyms

1
vote
0answers
37 views

How to find a function that can approximate another blackbox function programmaticly?

This question has been posted on http://stackoverflow.com/questions/21758016/how-to-find-a-function-that-can-approximate-another-blackbox-function-programmat I was suggested to post it here. I ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

How to approximate L^1[0,1] functions?

Do functions on a uniform grid with n points in the interval $[0,1]$ approximate $L^1[0,1]$ functions, as $n \to \infty$? I want to sample functions in $L^1[0,1]$ space numerically and I want to be ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Find allowed error of an argument regarding the allowed error of a function.

To what precision can $x$ be obtained with logarithmic table (with $5$ digit table) if $x$ lies between $300$ and $400$? Any ideas?
0
votes
0answers
134 views

Probability of a sample from a random variable with Gaussian distribution

I am studying a paper [1] which states that, as far as I understand, the probability of a single sample $x$ taken from a random variable $X$ with Gaussian distribution equals the Gaussian distribution ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Approximating the probability that a range bounds a given number, with very large numbers

Let $m$ numbers be chosen uniformly from $0,\dots,n-1$ without replacement and then sorted in ascending order as $\ell_0,\dots,\ell_{m-1}$. Let there be $b,e,x$ such that $0 \le b \le e \le m$ and $0 ...
4
votes
0answers
93 views

Can we use a sum of residues to develop an asymptotic expansion for this unknown function?

In the course of solving a particular physical problem, I have derived a relationship between two unknown functions: $$ f(s) = \frac{s \sinh{\frac{\pi s}{2}}}{2 \pi i \beta} \int_{-c- i ...
1
vote
1answer
129 views

How to approximate a smooth function

Now I have a target smooth function f which is infinitely differentiable over $R^d$, $f \in C^{\inf}(R^d)$. $f = \Sigma c_ig_i(x)$, where $c_i$s are unknown coefficients and $g_i(x)$ is a smooth ...
4
votes
4answers
195 views

$\sin x$ approximates $x$ for small angles

In physics, particularly in waves, we make use of the fact that for small angles (less than $\pi/12$-ish), the sine function value of an angle is pretty close to the value of the angle itself (in ...
1
vote
2answers
195 views

Why sum of sigmoids is a good approximation of softplus function?

According to this paper: Rectified Linear Units Improve Restricted Boltzmann Machines, $\sum_{i=1}^N \sigma(x-i+\tfrac{1}{2}) \approx \log(1+e^x)$ (equation 7) where $\sigma(z) = \frac{1}{1+e^{-x}}$ ...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

approximating Gegenbauer polynomials (or ultraspherical or Jacobi)

Looking for hardcore orthogonal polynomial people here... If we hold the degree $\ell$ constant and take the order $\alpha$ to infinity, the Gegenbauer polynomial $G_\ell^{(\alpha)}$ approaches the ...
2
votes
1answer
132 views

From 'The Joy of x' book: John Hubbard and problems with multiple roots

My math skills are super rusty. In an effort to get some vigor back I started some reading and picked up The Joy of x based on its rave reviews.. I just couldn't make any sense out of the following ...
3
votes
1answer
167 views

Why some curious almost-identities

I read somewhere that $$e^{\pi\sqrt{163}}$$ is almost an integer and strangely enough this isn't just a random coincidence but rather there exists some general theory ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

What is the advantage of using Fourier Series representation rather than the function itself?

Suppose we have a function $f$ defined over $[a,b]$ to the real numbers, i.e. $f: [a, b] \to \mathbb R.$. We can approximate this function as Fourier Series. Suppose $a_n, b_n$ is the Fourier series ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Non Approximation result

Say we have a constant approximation algorithm for the following objective: $$\min_x f(x) \;\;\;\;\;\; (1)$$ Now, we want to solve the following objective: $$ \max_x (N - f(x)) \;\;\;\;\;\; (2) ...
1
vote
0answers
325 views

Calculate a 5x5 Vandermonde system for a 5 point mesh

This is problem 1.2 in Randall J Leveque's textbook, "Finite Di fference Methods for Ordinary and Partial Di fferential Equations". I'm struggling with how to actually do the computation, I'm not so ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

How to find sequence from set of values

I have set of probability values arranged in ascending order, p1<p2<p3<...<pM. Now I want to assign set of numbers in the same manner in which probabilities are increasing. It means I ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

any approximation for $\sum_{i_3=3}^{n-k+3}\sum_{i_4=i_3+1}^{n-k+4}\sum_{i_5=i_4+1}^{n-k+5}\cdots\sum_{i_k=i_{k-1}+1}^{n} 1, (n \gg k)$?

Is there any approximation for $$\sum\limits_{i_3=3}^{n-k+3}\sum\limits_{i_4=i_3+1}^{n-k+4}\sum\limits_{i_5=i_4+1}^{n-k+5}\cdots\sum\limits_{i_k=i_{k-1}+1}^{n} 1, \quad (n \gg k)$$ ? We know that ...
2
votes
5answers
82 views

Is there any good approximation for $\prod_{i=3}^k (n-i)$? $(n \gg k)$

Is there any good approximation for $\prod_{i=3}^k (n-i)$? $(n \gg k)$ I know that $\prod_{i=3}^k (n-i) < \prod_{i=3}^k n = n^{k-2}$ Also a tighter upper bound is appreciated.
15
votes
2answers
507 views

Intuitively, why is the Euler-Mascheroni constant near sqrt(1/3)?

Questions that ask for "intuitive" reasons are admittedly subjective, but I suspect some people will find this interesting. Some time ago, I was struck by the coincidence that the Euler-Mascheroni ...
1
vote
2answers
74 views

Approximate minimum of function

Let: $$f(\Delta)=\sqrt{b \log ^n\left(\frac{E}{\Delta }\right)+4\frac{\Delta ^2}{E^2}},\ \ n=4,6$$ $$E,b,\Delta>0,\ \ \Delta \ll E$$ The function has a single minimum, but the explicit ...
2
votes
1answer
155 views

Mysterious subleading corrections to sums with internal dependence on limit

Is there a standard method for finding expansions in $N$ of sums like $$S(N)=\sum_{n=0}^N \sqrt{N^2-n^2}$$ beyond the first term? It is easy to compute here that $$S(N)=N^2 \int_0 ^1 \sqrt{1-x^2} ...
1
vote
0answers
131 views

Numerically integrating in to Chebyshev polynomial

I'm trying to find the Chebyshev interpolate for an ODE in a given interval. That is, given an ODE that looks something like: $$y'' = g(y) \ y'$$ I want to numerically integrate it inside the ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

Zeta function universality: How to compute the shift parameter for simple functions?

I've come across Zeta function universality. For a nice function $f$ in a nice subset $U$ of the complex strip between real $0$ and $1$, one can find a real $t$, such the zeta function $\zeta$ shifted ...
0
votes
2answers
37 views

When to consider an approximation as a Good approximation?

What is the criteria for the Good approximation ? e.g. we can approxiamte $\sin(x)$ to $x$ for $x<0.16 rad $ why 0.16 ? why not 0.23 enother e.g. $\tanh(x/2s)=x$ for $x<s$ and so on .. how ...
2
votes
1answer
628 views

The approximation of first-ordered modified Bessel function of the second kind

After analysing the outage probability of a single relay selection system, I got to the following form: $P = 1 + \sum\limits_{k = 1}^K {\left( \begin{array}{l} K\\ k \end{array} \right){{\left( { - 1} ...
1
vote
1answer
223 views

How to make recursive computation of $I_n=\int_0^1 \frac{x^n}{x+\alpha}\,dx$ stable?

This is homework, so please only hints. We see that the recurrence $$I_n=\frac{1}{n}-\alpha I_{n-1}$$ can be used to compute the value of the integral $I_n=\int_0^1 \frac{x^n}{x+\alpha}\,dx$ ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Summing up Standard Deviations - best approximation

For a long data series the overall Standard Deviation shall be collected. However, due to memory constraints the data has to be aggregated per day - in a way that only one number is stored per day ...
2
votes
0answers
62 views

Approximating sums

I got a general question, that is motivated by a recent problem. So let me first describe the problem and then add the general part: I got a rather simple (using only basic elements) equation, which ...
4
votes
0answers
45 views

How to approximate derivative inside derivative

I am using a box-scheme for solving partial differential equation. The function is approximated with: $$ f_p=\psi\cdot\left(\theta\cdot f_{j}^{k+1}+(1-\theta)\cdot f_{j}^{k} \right) + (1-\psi)\cdot ...
6
votes
3answers
203 views

Name of the generalization of quadtree and octree?

What is the name of the equivalent of quadtrees and octrees in n-dimension ?
11
votes
4answers
312 views

Why is this number so close to $1$?

The only positive solution of the equation $\sin (\tan x) = x$ is at a number $a = 0.999906...$. Is it a coincidence that the number $a$ is so close to $1$, or is there a conceptual explanation? It ...
2
votes
1answer
8k views

Midpoint approximation over/under estimation

So left handed approximation underestimates the area under a increasing curve and over estimates for decreasing curves. And right handed approximation overestimates for increasing curves and ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Taylor polynomial approximation (Little $o$)

Suppose $(a_1,...,a_n) \in {\mathbb{R}_{*}^{+}}^n$, how can I prove that using the little $o$ (Taylor polynomial approximation): $\displaystyle\lim _{ x\to +\infty }{ \left( \cfrac { \sum _{ i=1 }^{ ...
2
votes
1answer
154 views

Chebyshev coefficients from a polynomial

Is there an efficient algorithm for finding the coefficients in a Chebyshev basis of a polynomial? That is, given the set of $a_k$ such that: $p_n(x) = \sum_{k=0}^N a_k x^k $ Find the set of $c_k$ ...
2
votes
3answers
78 views

Factoring/approximating an apparently simple formula

Does anyone know if the following formula can be factorized or approximated: $a^3 + b^3 + c^3 + a^2b + ab^2 + a^2c + ac^2 + b^2c + bc^2 + abc$ It looks a lot like $(a + b + c)^3$, except for the ...
3
votes
1answer
62 views

Error of apprximation

Have anyone read book "Paul Glasserman Monte Carlo MIFE", it's good, but i'm stuck in chapter 6 page 341 let $$ dX_t=a(X_t)dt+b(X_t)\,dW_t $$ they said that $$ \int_{t}^{t+\Delta t}a(X_{u}) \, ...
0
votes
2answers
69 views

Confusion regarding an alleged hyperbola

While studying a chapter called price elasticity of demand in my economics course, I have been presented with something called a unit elasticity curve (some sort of a hyperbola), which has supposed ...
0
votes
5answers
918 views

linear or quadratic approximation for exp(-x) for large x

Is there any linear or quadratic approximation of $exp(-x)$ where $0<x<L$ ? $L$ is large, may be 40 (say) i.e. $x$ is not close to zero.
1
vote
1answer
267 views

Showing (1 - polynomial fraction) raised to a polynomial power is a negligible function

Let $P(k)$ and $Q(k)$ be two polynomials ($k>0$). Let $\mathrm{neg}(k)$ be a negligible function for sufficiently large $k$ (see Appendix on question for definition). Does someone know how to show ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Iterative approximation of non-constant values in linear equation

The issue regards an algorithm for iterative approximation of unknown transaction values. For each iteration (each day), we are give the total revenue of all transactions for that day, and we have the ...
2
votes
1answer
122 views

Approximating a Gaussian Integral: Can you do better?

I have attempted to approximate this Gaussian: $$ I =\int_{0}^{\lambda}dx\left(r+x\right)\exp\left(-\rho\left(ax^{1/2}+bx^{3/2}\right)\right)\ $$ using $$ I ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

How to calculate APR using Newton Raphson

I'm have a computer program to calculate apr using Newton Rhapson. I imagine most mathletes can code so i dont imagine the coding being an issue. The solution is based on this initial formula ...
7
votes
4answers
513 views

Evaluating the precision in the calculation of $\mathrm{e}$

I'm calculating $\mathrm{e}$ using a computer like this: $$ \mathrm{e} \approx \sum\limits_{i=0}^n {1\over i!} $$ I'm storing it as a rational number. I was wondering, if I write down my rational ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

Find derivation (dB/decade) for given amplitude characteristic of low pass filter [Hz, -]

I am trying to find derivation (differential attenuation) for frequency's 600 and 2000 Hz for given amplitude characteristic of low pass filter, which look like this: I assume, that I should ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Determining the surface with given polynomial borders

Let's say we'd like to guess the shape (I'm not sure the word 'approximate' is appropriate here) of some surface when we are given its borders via third order polynomials (i.e. we are given their ...
0
votes
3answers
59 views

I want to show that $\left | f(3)-P(3) \right |\leq \frac1{1000}$ without a calculator.

Let $f(x)=\ln x$. Then the Taylor polynomial of degree 2 at $x=e$ is $P(x)=1+\frac1e(x-e)-\frac1{2e^2}(x-e)^2$ I want to show that $\left | f(3)-P(3) \right |\leq \frac1{1000}$ without a calculator. ...
0
votes
2answers
55 views

Help evaluating or approximating this integral

For a thermodynamics project I'm working on, I need to evaluate this integral: $\int \frac{(a-bx)(x-c)^d}{x^3}dx$, where $a,b,c,$ and $d$ are all positive constants. I tried evaluating it on ...
0
votes
1answer
64 views

Newton Raphson Method: approximating root

How do we start from approximating a root using this technique? I know of two, viz - a table of x vs f(x), and see where f(x) changes sign - plot a graph, and see where the graph cuts the x axis But ...
1
vote
1answer
150 views

Normal approximation for binomial distribution isn't giving correct result, z score comes out 0

I'm trying to use the normal distribution to calculate approximate values for the (cumulative) binomial distribution with large values (since it's impractical to evaluate the factorials). I'm very ...
1
vote
2answers
46 views

Finding a line of approximation using the normal equations for $A\vec{x}=\vec{b}$

To find the line $y=ax+b$ that best approximates the data points $\{(-2,3),(0,5),(1,7)\}$ I need to use the equation $$A\vec{x}=\vec{b}\ \ \ (\mbox{where}\ \vec{x}=\left({a\atop b}\right))$$ Then ...