For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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1answer
59 views

Forcing coefficient of best fit quadratic

So I have a question regarding best-fit polynomials. Currently, using matrices and then Gaussian elimination, I come up with f(x) = Ax^2 + Bx + C and use the derivative of that fit to come up with the ...
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0answers
54 views

Matching First and Second Derivatives: Taylor Series

I have $$ f(x) = \sqrt{\ln\left(a\cosh^{2}(mx)(1+bx^{2})\right)} $$ If I expand this as a series I should get something of the form $$ \sqrt{\ln a}+gx^{2}+\mathcal{O}(x^{4}) $$ but I'm having ...
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0answers
57 views

Approximation for the logarithm of a summatory

I would like to find an approximation for: $$ \log \left(\sum_{i=1}^{N} a_i\exp(-b_i^2)\exp(-c_i^2)\right) $$ with $$ a_i = \frac{1}{\sqrt{(e^2 + e_i^2)(g^2 + g_i^2)}} \\ b_i = \frac{b-d_i}{2(e^2 + ...
1
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0answers
60 views

Does a complex polynomial can be approximated by a Euler-type exponential function?

Can one uniformly approximate a complex polynomial with a Euler-type exponential function? I mean: let $E\subset\Bbb C$ be a compact set with the connected complement $\Omega:= \bar {\Bbb C}\setminus ...
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1answer
236 views

MatLab: estimate number of iterations

I want automatically estimate iterations number in matlab. Suppose we have for(int i = 1; i < N; i++). It's clear that for-loop prodices ...
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0answers
23 views

Copying the Curvature of One Function onto Another: Approximation

I have a polar function $$ r(\theta)=\left(r+\epsilon\right)\cos(\theta)-\sqrt{r^{2}-\left(r+\epsilon\right)^{2}\sin^{2}(\theta)} $$ Is it possible to methodically conjure another polar function ...
2
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0answers
36 views

Using Polars to Approximate a Cartesian line: Approximating an Integral

I have the equation of the lower semicircle of radius $r$ centred at a distance $a+r$ above the x-axis $$ f(x)=r+a-\sqrt{r^{2}-x^{2}} $$ which I can approximate (for small $x$) as $$ f(x)\approx a+\...
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2answers
28 views

Divide $n$ seats by a list of $\mathbf{w}$ weights proportionally.

I have $n$ number of seats and I have list of weights $\mathbf{w} \in \mathbb{R}^{k}$ which is a probability distribution with $k$ possible values, $\sum_{i=1}^k{w_i}=1$. I want to divide the $n$ ...
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2answers
46 views

How to use $t(29/\sqrt{2})<0$ where $t(x)=x^2-41x+420$ to prove that $41/29<\sqrt{2}<42/29$??

So I was investigating different ways to approximate $\sqrt{2}$. Here's my latest: $$Let:t(x)=x^2-41x+420$$ then the roots of $t(x)$ are $20$ and $21$. I showed that then $t(x)=(x-20)(x-21)$ and ...
4
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2answers
184 views

Evaluate $\sum_0^\infty \frac{1}{n^n}$

Courtesy of this xkcd comic I now know that $$ \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^n} \approx \ln^e(3) $$ Echoing the views of the comic itself, if I ever find myself taking $\ln^e(x)$ then something has ...
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0answers
48 views

How to evaluate the derivate of a hypergeometric function w.r.t. one of its parameters?

I have to numerically evaluate the derivative of the hypergeometric function w.r.t. its first and second parameters $\large\frac{\partial}{\partial a}{_2F_1}\left(a , b ,c;z\right)$ and $\large\...
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1answer
40 views

Approximations to the Roots of a Function

I want to find approximations to the root of a function in two variables using the Newton-Raphson method. I can use the method on a function in a single variable but I'm lost as to how you can use it ...
3
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1answer
836 views

Weierstrass Approximation Theorem for $\Bbb C$

The Weierstrass approximation theorem states that any continuous function $ f : I \rightarrow \Bbb R $ on a closed, bounded, connected subset $ I \subseteq \Bbb R $ can be uniformly approximated by ...
31
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4answers
1k views

Geometric explanation of $\sqrt 2 + \sqrt 3 \approx \pi$

Just curious, is there a geometry picture explanation to show that $\sqrt 2 + \sqrt 3 $ is close to $ \pi $?
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4answers
139 views

Approximation to $\sqrt{\cos(\theta)}$?

I have this formula, (it is just the law of cosines angle formula): $$ d = \sqrt{a^2 + b^2 - 2ab \ cos(\theta)} $$ Here is my issue. I am wondering if there is a way to 'extract' the $cos$ term. My ...
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2answers
49 views

Approximating 'big' ratio with 'small' ratio

Given a ratio $ \frac{m}{n}, p \in N, q \in N $ where either $m$ or $n$ (or both) is a very big number, how can we find a ratio $ \frac{p}{q}, p \in N, q \in N $ which estimates $ \frac{m}{n} $ up to $...
3
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1answer
546 views

Why is Simpson's rule exact for cubics?

I can't understand: Why is Simpson's rule exact for cubic polynomials?
8
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5answers
8k views

Approximating Logs and Antilogs by hand

I have read through questions like Calculate logarithms by hand and and a section of the Feynman Lecture series which talks about calculation of logarithms. I have recognized neither of them useful ...
2
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0answers
43 views

Time Discretization

I wonder why we work with constant discretization in Time Discretization of numerical approximation for numerical scheme if we take not necessarily constant Discretization Is the numerical scheme (...
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0answers
75 views

Counterexample to smooth approximation of sobolev function on closure of set without $C^1$ boundary

I'm working through the following problem, and I just need a hint to finish it I think. Consider the set $\Omega = B(0,1) \backslash \left\{x\in \mathbb{R}^N : x_N = 0 \right\}$. We are given the ...
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1answer
66 views

Absolute error computation

Given is a function $f(x)=4x^{2}$, which we want to evaluate for $x\in \left [ 1,2 \right ]$, $\widetilde{x}\in \left [ 1,2 \right ]$ is the approximation of $x$. What can be the value of the ...
0
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1answer
50 views

What is a good approximation of $(1-p)(1-q)$ as $(1-x)^2$, for $p,q \in (0,1)$?

I'm doing some scientific modeling, and I want to use $(1-x)^2$ to approximate $(1-p)(1-q)$, with $p, q \in (0,1)$. $p$ and $q$ are probabilities, and are not near zero. My intuition is that since I'...
2
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2answers
1k views

Approximate a polynomial function using a sum of sine waves

I have a polynomial function which I need to approximate by a sum of sine waves with constant amplitude along a given domain. From what I hear, this might be a good time to make use of Fourier ...
4
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1answer
451 views

Approximation of indicator function of an open set by continuous functions

Let $(X,\mathcal{T})$ be a locally compact separable Hausdorff space and $A \in \mathcal{T}$ open. Does there exist a sequence $(f_n)_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ of (bounded) continuous functions such that $$...
3
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2answers
896 views

Approximating Trig Functions with Polynomials

I was thinking about the graphs of different trig functions and noticed that most of them are of a similar shape to some different types of polynomials. For example: Higher degree polynomials create ...
2
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4answers
78 views

Approximating $\ln{\frac{x-y}{x+y}}$

For $x>>y$, $$\ln{\frac{x-y}{x+y}} = \ln{\left[ x\left( 1-y/x \right) \right]} -\ln{\left[ x\left( 1+y/x \right) \right]} \approx -2\frac{y}{x}$$ However, the following does not work: $$\ln{\...
0
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1answer
52 views

A power approximation function

I am trying to construct a function that would approximate $a^b$ using Maclaurin series. Here are my reasoning: Since $$a^b=e^{b\ln a}$$ and $$e^x=\sum^{\infty}_{k=0} \frac{x^k}{k!}$$ it should ...
0
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1answer
32 views

Show $\int_{M}^{\infty}\left|\frac{e^{-x^a}\cos(Cx)}{x^{b+1}}\right|dx<\frac{1}{aM^{a+b}e^{M^a}}$?

is there a way to show the inequality \begin{equation}\int_{M}^{\infty}\left|\frac{e^{-x^a}\cos(Cx)}{x^{b+1}}\right|dx<\frac{1}{aM^{a+b}e^{M^a}}\end{equation} for positive constants $M$ and $C$ ...
3
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0answers
485 views

Taylor Series of Integral

I'm trying to come up with the Taylor expansion of an integral expression. For simplicity, consider the toy integral $$ I(\epsilon)=P\int_{-1}^{\epsilon^2}\frac{\epsilon}{x\sqrt{(\epsilon^2-x)(1-x)}}...
2
votes
1answer
190 views

Stone-Weierstrass theorem with $p(1/x)$

I am trying to prove that for a continuous $f\colon[1,\infty)\rightarrow\mathbb R$ and $f(x)\to a$ as $x\to\infty$ it could be approximated by $g(x)=p(1/x)$ where $p$ is a polynomial.
1
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0answers
545 views

Sharpness of the upper bound $(1-x)^n \leq 1 + \frac{nx}{2}$

Here is a known inequality: $$(1-x)^n\leq 1+\frac{nx}{2}\qquad \text{for} \, \frac 1n\leq x\leq 1 $$ I am wondering if there is a better upper bound than this? Thank you.
9
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0answers
218 views

Are there known pairs of simple numbers equal to huge precision, but not equal strictly?

Are there known pairs of numbers $a$ and $b$, which at first look at them seemed likely to be equal, and after checking up to $10^n$ decimal places appeared to agree, but suddenly for some $n$ they ...
1
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0answers
60 views

Approximating an IVP

I wish to solve the IVP: \begin{align} x(0) =& -1 \\ x' =& 1 + x^2 - t^3 \end{align} With a fourth order taylor series method, I solved the ODE on the interval [0, 2] and then made the ...
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0answers
38 views

How to find a function that can approximate another blackbox function programmaticly?

This question has been posted on http://stackoverflow.com/questions/21758016/how-to-find-a-function-that-can-approximate-another-blackbox-function-programmat I was suggested to post it here. I ...
0
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1answer
58 views

How to approximate L^1[0,1] functions?

Do functions on a uniform grid with n points in the interval $[0,1]$ approximate $L^1[0,1]$ functions, as $n \to \infty$? I want to sample functions in $L^1[0,1]$ space numerically and I want to be ...
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0answers
30 views

Find allowed error of an argument regarding the allowed error of a function.

To what precision can $x$ be obtained with logarithmic table (with $5$ digit table) if $x$ lies between $300$ and $400$? Any ideas?
0
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0answers
135 views

Probability of a sample from a random variable with Gaussian distribution

I am studying a paper [1] which states that, as far as I understand, the probability of a single sample $x$ taken from a random variable $X$ with Gaussian distribution equals the Gaussian distribution ...
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0answers
48 views

Approximating the probability that a range bounds a given number, with very large numbers

Let $m$ numbers be chosen uniformly from $0,\dots,n-1$ without replacement and then sorted in ascending order as $\ell_0,\dots,\ell_{m-1}$. Let there be $b,e,x$ such that $0 \le b \le e \le m$ and $0 \...
4
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0answers
95 views

Can we use a sum of residues to develop an asymptotic expansion for this unknown function?

In the course of solving a particular physical problem, I have derived a relationship between two unknown functions: $$ f(s) = \frac{s \sinh{\frac{\pi s}{2}}}{2 \pi i \beta} \int_{-c- i \infty}^{-c+i\...
1
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1answer
130 views

How to approximate a smooth function

Now I have a target smooth function f which is infinitely differentiable over $R^d$, $f \in C^{\inf}(R^d)$. $f = \Sigma c_ig_i(x)$, where $c_i$s are unknown coefficients and $g_i(x)$ is a smooth ...
4
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4answers
197 views

$\sin x$ approximates $x$ for small angles

In physics, particularly in waves, we make use of the fact that for small angles (less than $\pi/12$-ish), the sine function value of an angle is pretty close to the value of the angle itself (in ...
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2answers
201 views

Why sum of sigmoids is a good approximation of softplus function?

According to this paper: Rectified Linear Units Improve Restricted Boltzmann Machines, $\sum_{i=1}^N \sigma(x-i+\tfrac{1}{2}) \approx \log(1+e^x)$ (equation 7) where $\sigma(z) = \frac{1}{1+e^{-x}}$ ...
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0answers
60 views

approximating Gegenbauer polynomials (or ultraspherical or Jacobi)

Looking for hardcore orthogonal polynomial people here... If we hold the degree $\ell$ constant and take the order $\alpha$ to infinity, the Gegenbauer polynomial $G_\ell^{(\alpha)}$ approaches the ...
2
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1answer
133 views

From 'The Joy of x' book: John Hubbard and problems with multiple roots

My math skills are super rusty. In an effort to get some vigor back I started some reading and picked up The Joy of x based on its rave reviews.. I just couldn't make any sense out of the following ...
3
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1answer
168 views

Why some curious almost-identities

I read somewhere that $$e^{\pi\sqrt{163}}$$ is almost an integer and strangely enough this isn't just a random coincidence but rather there exists some general theory http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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2answers
2k views

What is the advantage of using Fourier Series representation rather than the function itself?

Suppose we have a function $f$ defined over $[a,b]$ to the real numbers, i.e. $f: [a, b] \to \mathbb R.$. We can approximate this function as Fourier Series. Suppose $a_n, b_n$ is the Fourier series ...
2
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0answers
34 views

Non Approximation result

Say we have a constant approximation algorithm for the following objective: $$\min_x f(x) \;\;\;\;\;\; (1)$$ Now, we want to solve the following objective: $$ \max_x (N - f(x)) \;\;\;\;\;\; (2) $...
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0answers
326 views

Calculate a 5x5 Vandermonde system for a 5 point mesh

This is problem 1.2 in Randall J Leveque's textbook, "Finite Di fference Methods for Ordinary and Partial Di fferential Equations". I'm struggling with how to actually do the computation, I'm not so ...
0
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1answer
30 views

How to find sequence from set of values

I have set of probability values arranged in ascending order, p1<p2<p3<...<pM. Now I want to assign set of numbers in the same manner in which probabilities are increasing. It means I ...
1
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0answers
34 views

any approximation for $\sum_{i_3=3}^{n-k+3}\sum_{i_4=i_3+1}^{n-k+4}\sum_{i_5=i_4+1}^{n-k+5}\cdots\sum_{i_k=i_{k-1}+1}^{n} 1, (n \gg k)$?

Is there any approximation for $$\sum\limits_{i_3=3}^{n-k+3}\sum\limits_{i_4=i_3+1}^{n-k+4}\sum\limits_{i_5=i_4+1}^{n-k+5}\cdots\sum\limits_{i_k=i_{k-1}+1}^{n} 1, \quad (n \gg k)$$ ? We know that $\...