Tagged Questions

For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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1
vote
1answer
249 views

How to fit a 3-D parametric equation to datapoints

Consider that I have $3$ parametric equations as function of time and describe the motion of a body in space: $x = f(t)$ $y = g(t)$ $z = h(t)$ These curves are pretty simple and can be modeled ...
6
votes
4answers
4k views

How to simplify or calculate a formula with very big factorials

I'm facing a practical problem where I've calculated a formula that, with the help of some programming, can bring me to my final answer. However, the numbers involved are so big that it takes ages to ...
4
votes
1answer
462 views

Large Deviation Properties of a function of a geometric random variable

Suppose I have a variable $s$ that has a geometric distribution with success parameter x. So the probability of success on trial $s$ is $p_s = (1 - x)^{s - 1} x$, Consider the following function of ...
8
votes
3answers
713 views

Why are some mathematical constants irrational by their continued fraction while others aren't?

Catalan's Constant and quite a few other mathematical constants are known to have an infinite continued fraction (see the bottom of that webpage). On wikipedia (I'm sorry, I can't post anymore ...
4
votes
1answer
651 views

Approximating $\pi$ using Monte Carlo integration

I'm trying to approximate $\pi$ using Monte Carlo integration; I am approximating the integral $$\int\limits_0^1\!\frac{4}{1+x^2}\;\mathrm{d}x=\pi$$ This is working fine, and so is estimating the ...
10
votes
3answers
416 views

Solving randomized recurrence relation

I'm looking at the random sequence $x_n$ with $x_0=x_1=1$ and \begin{equation} x_{n+1}=2x_n\pm x_{n-1} \end{equation} where we choose the $\pm$ sign independently with equal probability. Now ...
6
votes
0answers
397 views

Using Padé approximants for the quaternion exponential

On a lark, I wanted to know if one can use Padé approximants to compute the exponential $\exp(z)$ of a quaternion $z=a+b\mathbf{i}+c\mathbf{j}+d\mathbf{k}$. Since Mathematica has a package meant for ...
25
votes
3answers
1k views

The right “weigh” to do integrals

Back in the day, before approximation methods like splines became vogue in my line of work, one way of computing the area under an empirically drawn curve was to painstakingly sketch it on a piece of ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

How to approximate/connect two continuous cubic Bézier curves with/to a single one?

I subdivide a cubic Bézier curve at a given t value using de Casteljau’s algorithm, which yields two cubic Bézier curves. Afterwards I “scale” the second curve (proportionally). I’d like to reconnect ...
10
votes
5answers
570 views

Approximation theorems

The Weierstrass' approximation theorem for continuous functions on a compact space by using polynomials is well-known. As far as I know, there are some variants of this theorem, e.g. Stone-Weierstrass ...
7
votes
2answers
776 views

Minimum of the Gamma Function $\Gamma (x)$ for $x>0$. How to find $x_{\min}$?

The $\Gamma (x)$ function has just one minimum for $x>0$ . This result uses some properties of the gamma function: $\Gamma ^{\prime \prime }(x)>0$ and $\Gamma (x)>0$ for all $x>0$ $\Gamma (1)=\Gamma ...
3
votes
2answers
425 views

Math behind a “fling”? (i.e. on a mobile touch device)

I'm working on a game which relies on "flinging" an object. That is, click and hold on the object, and then drag and release it, and it continues on the path you were dragging it. Of course, the most ...
2
votes
2answers
380 views

Approximating a cosine

Let $\theta_{kl}$ be an angle such that $\cos\theta_{kl}=\frac{1}{2}(\cos(\frac{2\pi k}{n})+\cos(\frac{2\pi l}{n}))$. Given that definition, if I introduce a new variable $t$ is the following a ...
2
votes
3answers
187 views

Determine speed of the object at the current time by the non-uniform time sample

Here is a time sample: $Q = \{(t_i, x_i) | 0 \leq x_i \leq x_{i+1}, 1 \leq i \leq n\}$ and rules: (1) $T_1 \leq t_{i+1} - t_i < T_2$ where $T_1, T_2 > 0$ (2) $x_i$ comes with error: $x_i = ...
68
votes
3answers
3k views

Is there an integral that proves $\pi > 333/106$?

The following integral, $$ \int_0^1 \frac{x^4(1-x)^4}{x^2 + 1} \mathrm{d}x = \frac{22}{7} - \pi $$ is clearly positive, which proves that $\pi < 22/7$. Is there a similar integral which proves ...
4
votes
4answers
2k views

Why is $22/7$ a better approximation for $\pi$ than $3.14$?

This seems counterintuitive, but $22/7$ is closer to $\pi$ than $3.14=314/100$ which has a significantly greater denominator. Why is $22/7$ a better approximation for $\pi$ than $3.14$? This has ...
3
votes
2answers
8k views

Approximation symbol: Is π ≈ 3.14.. equal to π ≒ 3.14..?

This could be a trivial question, but what is exactly the difference of between these two expressions? Am I correct to state the both interchangeably whenever I need to express the approximation of ...
6
votes
3answers
344 views

Are there variations on least-squares approximations?

In least-squares approximations the normal equations act to project a vector existing in N-dimensional space onto a lower dimensional space, where our problem actually lies, thus providing the "best" ...
15
votes
6answers
9k views

Simple numerical methods for calculating the digits of $\pi$

Are there any simple methods for calculating the digits of $\pi$? Computers are able to calculate billions of digits, so there must be an algorithm for computing them. Is there a simple algorithm that ...