For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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1answer
129 views

inequality and equivalence for norms

Let $x \in R^m$. It is known that $\|x\|_{\infty}\leq \|x\|_2\leq \sqrt m\|x\|_{\infty}$. What the difference between above inequality and if we are saying that $\|x\|_2\sim \sqrt m\|x\|_{\infty}$? ...
1
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1answer
335 views

Spline Theory and Code

On P. Janert's book Data Analysis with Open Source Tools there is a discussion on splines, that they are "constructed from piecewise polynomial functions (typically cubic) that are joined together in ...
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0answers
82 views

Is that observation really a property of the log of coefficients of continued fractions (example: cf(log(3)/log(2))

I'm again looking at the problem of approximation of perfect powers of 2 to that of 3 (I assume $\small q_N = 2^S / 3^N \gt 1 $) and specifically using the continued fraction representation of $\small ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Degenerate critical points and higher order derivatives (Intuition)

The question I'd like to ask is about the relevance of higher order derivatives in determining the behaviour of a function around a critical point in the multivariate case. The question occurs towards ...
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1answer
1k views

How to approximate an integral using the Composite Trapezoid Rule

I'm trying to estimate the value of the following integral on the interval $[0,1]$ $$ I = \int_0^1 \frac{1}{1+x} dx $$ So, using the composite trapezoid rule (and with $n=4$, ie I'm only using the ...
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4answers
136 views

$\log_2$ approximation in $[1,2)$

this is realistically for a programming project, but is more math centric then CS centric. I am attempting to write a function that approximates a power function, but in order to complete I need to ...
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5answers
571 views

Find square root approximation function (tool)

first I have to apologize for any uncorrect naming or categorisation of my question, as I am an electrical engineer rather than a mathematican. I try to find a simple solution for my problem: I have ...
1
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1answer
272 views

Newton-Raphson's Method to find $\sqrt{2012}$

I am asked to find $\sqrt{2012}$ using Newton-Raphson's Method with the following recursive method $$x_{n+1} = \frac{1}{2} (x_n + \frac{a}{x_n}) $$ I notied that give same answers as using ...
4
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1answer
149 views

Numerical differentiation issues

I've been using this to compute the first order derivative's value of a function $f$ in a given point: $$f'(x) = \frac{f(x+\epsilon) - f(x-\epsilon)}{2\epsilon}$$ For some $\epsilon = 0.0001$ or ...
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1answer
637 views

Interpolation error

Working with a homework problem where I'm to derive an estimation of the interpolation error, and compare it with the actual error. This part is ok and I'm done with it. But while working with this in ...
2
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0answers
108 views

explicit error bounds for Multivariate interpolation

I want to interpolate a function of $d$ variables over a Cartesian grid, using multivariate interpolation, while characterizing interpolation error in terms of bounds on partial derivatives of the ...
3
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3answers
9k views

Relation between Simpson's Rule, Trapezoid Rule and Midpoint Rule

I am studying numerical approximation and verifying $S_{2n} = \frac{1}{3}\left(T_n +2 M_n\right)$. ($S_n$ refers to Simpson's Rule approximation, $T_n$ refers to Trapezoid Rule approximation and $M_n$ ...
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3answers
7k views

How to justify small angle approximation for cosine

Everyone knows the picture that explains instantly the small angle approximation to the sine function (as defined by the parametrisation of the unit circle): "what's the length of that arc?" "See how ...
1
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1answer
126 views

Estimation of $x$ if $x! = N^{\log N}$

If $x! = N^{\log N}\;,$ How can I estimate $x$ in terms of $N$?
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0answers
260 views

What “boundary conditions” can make a rectangle “look” like a circle?

I posted the question below in Stackoverflow but then realized that it perhaps would find a better audience here. I am solving a fourth order non-linear partial ...
4
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1answer
1k views

Projection of Gaussian in Spherical Coordinates

Consider a point with spherical coordinates $\vec{r}_0=(r_0, \theta_0, 0)$. The spherical gaussian distribution centered at $\vec{r}_0$ is $f(\vec{r})=Ne^{|\vec{r}-\vec{r}_0|^2/A}$, where $N$ is the ...
2
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1answer
370 views

Sum of power series

Good morning, I have difficulties to find an approximation formula (or bound from the height) for the sum of the following power series $\sum \limits_{k=1}^\infty e^{-k^2}x^k$. Thanks
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8answers
3k views

Rapid approximation of $\tanh(x)$

This is kind of a signal processing/programming/mathematics crossover question. At the moment it seems more math-related to me, but if the moderators feel it belongs elsewhere please feel free to ...
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3answers
1k views

Sine Approximation of Bhaskara

An Indian mathematician, Bhaskara I, gave the following amazing approximation of the sine (I checked the graph and some values, and the approximation is truly impressive.) $$\sin x \approx ...
4
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3answers
497 views

A better approximation of $H_n $

I'm convinced that $$H_n \approx\log(n+\gamma) +\gamma$$ is a better approximation of the $n$-th harmonic number than the classical $$H_n \approx \log(n) +\gamma$$ Specially for small values of $n$. ...
2
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0answers
69 views

On bounding the average cost of top-down merge sort

Let $A_n$ be the average number of comparisons to sort $n$ keys by merging them in a top-down fashion (see any algorithm textbook). It can he shown that $$ A_0 = A_1 = 0;\quad A_n = ...
2
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2answers
306 views

How does this square root approximation work?

I've come across an odd way of estimating the square root of a number, going like this: Given a number n, Subtract the odd numbers from n in a rising order (1, 3, 5...), until $n \leq 0$ Count how ...
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1answer
1k views

Generating control-point tangents for a Catmull-Rom spline

From Wikipedia, we have a few variations for calculating tangents when creating a spline based only on positions of control-points: Finite difference $$\mathbf m_k=\frac{\mathbf p_{k+1}-\mathbf ...
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2answers
866 views

Deriving the approximation formula

$f'(x) \thickapprox$ $\frac{1}{2h} [ 4f(x+h) - 3 f(x) + f(x + 2h)]$ I need to derive the approximation formula for the function above. And I need to show that it's error term is of the form ...
3
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1answer
53 views

Lower-Bounding angles in integer Lattices

Given an $n \times n$ integer grid I chose any two grid points $a,b$, draw a line $l$ through $a$ and $b$ and measure the angle between $l$ and a horizontal line. I can do this for any grid point pair ...
2
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1answer
284 views

A question about the coercivity of a lsc and convex function.

I was doing a proof and I need to show a result to conclude it: $X$ is a reflexive Banach space with a norm, $\|\cdot\|$, of class $\mathcal{C}^1$. $f:X\to\overline{\mathbb{R}}$ is lower ...
4
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1answer
176 views

solution to $\min \|A-BXC \|$

I have the following problem. Let $A$, $B$ $C$ be real-valued matrices of size $m \times q$, $m \times n$, $p\times q$ respectively. I would like to find matrix $X$ of size $n\times p$ and maximum ...
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0answers
91 views

Combining multiple posterior distributions

I am new to Bayesian statistics, and thus have problems to come up with a solution for the following problem: Using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC), I generate a posterior distribution from ...
5
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3answers
221 views

Approximate $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\text{d} x}{1 + x^4}$

Now, I have been given this integral. And need to approximate it. My first idea was to use a Taylor series, but this series explodes, as x reaches infinity. Does anyone know how to approximate ...
0
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1answer
116 views

Approximation to $\mathbb{E}(X/Y)$

Let $X,Y$ are two random variables which are not necessarily independent. It is easy to get $\mathbb{E}(X)$ ann $\mathbb{E}(Y)$. I want to know: is there some approximation to ...
4
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1answer
463 views

Differentiability of Moreau-Yosida approximation.

I want to show that if $X$ is a reflexive Banach space with norm of class $\mathcal{C}^1$ and $f\colon X\to\mathbb{R}\cup \{+\infty\}$ is convex and lower semicontinuous, then $f_{\lambda}$ is ...
21
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9answers
5k views

What is the purpose of Stirling's approximation to a factorial?

Stirling approximation to a factorial is $$ n! \sim \sqrt{2 \pi n} \left(\frac{n}{e}\right)^n. $$ I wonder what benefit can be got from it? From computational perspective (I admit I don't ...
12
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2answers
3k views

Euler's Approximation of pi.

I recently stumbled across the formula: $$\pi=20\arctan\frac{1}{7}+8\arctan\frac{3}{79}$$ developed by Euler, for approximating pi. I evaluated it to several thousand decimal places and up to that ...
1
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1answer
71 views

Finding the fit $A\ T^a+B\ T^{-b}\ \rightarrow\ C\ T^c\exp{(\small{-\frac d T})}$ for an interval? (specifically in Mathematica)

I'm given an expression $$A\ T^a+B\ T^{-b},$$ $$\text{with} \ \ \ \ A,B>0,\ \ \ \ a,b\in(0,1),$$ but the plus sign "$+$" is a problem for my purposes. I want to make a fit of the following ...
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5answers
2k views

Numerically Efficient Approximation of cos(s)

I have an application where I need to run $\cos(s)$ (and $\operatorname{sinc}(s) = \sin(s)/s$) a large number of times and is measured to be a bottleneck in my application. I don't need every last ...
9
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1answer
6k views

What is the difference between natural cubic spline, Hermite spline, Bézier spline and B-spline?

I am reading a book about computer graphics. It is confusing about the various splines and their algorithms. What is the difference between natural cubic spline, Hermite spline, Bézier spline and ...
0
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2answers
130 views

Transform/approximate this expression to avoid undefined value

I have an expression like this $$\sum_i^n\log\frac{x_i}{y_i}+\alpha\sum_i^nx_i\log\frac{x_i}{\beta}$$ A potential problem is that $x_i$ and $y_i$ may take value $0$ for certain $i$, hence making ...
2
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1answer
78 views

Density of polynomials having “additive-separation of their variables”?

Let $K$ be a compact subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$. Let $P$ be a polynomial in the variables $x$ and $y$. Given $\epsilon>0$, can we find two polynomials $P_1=P_1(x)$ and $P_2=P_2(y)$ such that $$ ...
1
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1answer
605 views

Picard's method application

Hello guys here is my question thank you for all the help. I need to determine On which integral the Picard's Method is applicable for $y'=xy^2$, $y(0)=0$ and need to calculate the first ...
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0answers
78 views

Riemannian sums approximation: bounds on the argument

I'd like to approximate a sum of the form $ S(n)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}\phi\left(\frac{k}{n}\right)$ with an integral using Riemannian sums: $$S(n) \approx n \int_{0}^{1}\phi(x)dx +o(n).$$ My ...
2
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2answers
271 views

$\pi$ polynomials whose real zeros approximate $\pi$

Let's have the following polynomials $x^4+105x^2-1134=0$,$x^6+126^x4+10395x^2-115830=0$, $3x^8+550x^6+45045x^4+3378375x^2-38288250=0$ The positive real zeros of these equations are good ...
2
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0answers
71 views

Algorithm to predict next 3D points

For example, having this data: year x/y/z 2007 10/20/70 2008 20/10/70 2009 30/10/60 2010 40/10/50 2011 40/15/45 We want to predict what will be the x/y/z in ...
2
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0answers
143 views

approximation of the sum

I have difficulties to find an approximation formula (or bound from the below) for the following sum: $$ \sum_{k=1}^n\left( \frac{1}{35}\right)^{k-1}(n-k)!\left(k-\frac 32\right)!. $$
1
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2answers
160 views

approximation formula for the integral

Get an approximation formula for the following integral: $$ \sum_{k=1}^n \left( \frac{1}{35} \right)^{k-1}\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\cos^{2(n-k)+1}(y) \cdot \sin^{2(k-1)}(y) \, dy $$
2
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1answer
686 views

Trouble Understanding Newton-Raphson Iterative Method

Currently i am reading this page which discusses the newton-raphson method of approximating the roots of an equation. It says given a function $f$ over the reals $x$, and its derivative $f$,we begin ...
4
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1answer
474 views

Hermite Interpolation of $e^x$. Strange behaviour when increasing the number of derivatives at interpolating points.

I am trying to understand Hermite Interpolation. Here is my pedagogical example. I want to approximate $f(x)=e^x$ on the domain $[-1,1]$ using Hermite interpolation. I choose the Chebyshev zeros ...
1
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1answer
110 views

Approximation of a function and second derivative

While solving some exercise I came up with this problem: Assume that $f \in C^2[0,\infty]$ (i.e. $f$ has continuous second derivative on $[0,\infty)$ and there exists limit in $+\infty$ of $f$) be ...
2
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2answers
322 views

Approximating $|x|$ by a linear combination of $1, \cos x, \sin x, \cos 2x, \sin 2x$

Let $\phi(x) = |x|$ for $x \in (-\pi, \pi)$. Suppose we approximate $\phi(x)$ by a linear combination of the functions $\{1, \cos x, \sin x, \cos 2x, \sin 2x\}$. What linear combination of the form: ...
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0answers
36 views

Approximation of a function with certain restrictions at problematic points

I can't compute a Taylor series of a function like $f(x)=\sqrt{x}$ to some order around $x_0=0$, because the derivative at that point doesn't exist. If I consider the taylor series $Tf$ at any ...
2
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1answer
208 views

Approximate Set Cover Problem by Rounding

Here is the simple algorithm for approximating set cover problem using rounding: Algorithm 14.1 (Set cover via LP-rounding) Find an optimal solution to the LP-relaxation. Pick all sets ...