For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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3
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1answer
83 views

Can I find a good approximation of this function?

I am wondering, if I can find a good approximant for this function $$f(z)=\log \left[ \frac{1-z^2}{z \left(3-z^2\right)}\sinh \left\{\frac{z \left(3-z^2\right)}{1-z^2}\right\}\right]$$ assuming $z ...
4
votes
0answers
30 views

Shaking a box of rocks (Optimal Packing)

My coworker was telling me that when he plants seeds on his farm, he puts them all in a large container on the tractor and after a period of just driving, the seeds are more densely packed than when ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Imprecise logarithms that reference sets of numbers.

I apologize in advance if my question seems vague, I'm only in algebra II, so It may turn out that I lack the terminology to phrase my question correctly. Some background, we just finished our unit ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Approximation for a binomial coefficient sequence summation

What is a good approximation to $$\dfrac{{\binom{k}{i}}{\binom{k}{i}}(i-1)!}{\binom{k(k-1)/2}{i}}$$ $$\dfrac{{\binom{k}{i}}{\binom{k}{i}}(i-1)!}{(2^{(\log ...
0
votes
2answers
77 views

Is there a good approximation for this?

What is a good approximation for $\dfrac{k!}{\binom{k^2}{k}}$ as a function of $k$? Is there a $k_0\in\Bbb N$ such that for all $k\gt k_0$, ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Taylor Approximation of $\cos(0.02)$

Use a Maclaurin $(a=0)$ polynomial for $\cos{(x)}$ with $3$ nonzero terms to approximate $\cos{(0.02)}$. Also, use the Taylor Remainder Theorem to find a bound on the error $\left(\displaystyle ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

How to calculate entropy from a set of samples?

entropy (information content) is defined as: $$ H(X) = \sum_{i} {\mathrm{P}(x_i)\,\mathrm{I}(x_i)} = -\sum_{i} {\mathrm{P}(x_i) \log_b \mathrm{P}(x_i)} $$ This allows to calculate the entropy of a ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Distribution of Difference of Ordered Values Drawn From A Normal Distribution

This question has come up at least twice now when I was trying to estimate something*. I could always write out the integral or find it computationally but I'm hoping someone will give me an exact ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Which “approximate” value of f(0.98) is this question looking for?

In a section of a calculus workbook dealing with local linearity and linear approximations of functions, the following question is posed: Consider the function f(x) = aln(x+2). Given that f'(1) = ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Approximate solutions to differential equations

If one has a differential equation for $y(x)$. If this differential equation has two solutions one for $x\ll a$ and the other for $a\ll x$, where $a$ is constant real value. My question is at what ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

$T_2^4-T_1^4\approx4T_1^3(T_2-T_1)$ if $(T_2-T_1)/T_1$ small

I read, in a text of elementary physics, that $$T_2^4-T_1^4\approx4T_1^3(T_2-T_1)$$ if $\Delta T:=T_2-T_1$ "is small with respect to $T_1$". In a rigourous language, I suppose that it means that ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Derivation of approximation of Error function

In Abramowitz and Stegun there are some formulas for approximation of Error funtion. I am intrested in the formulas $7.1.25$ to $7.1.28$, here is one of them ($7.1.26$). ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Catenary with loads

I'm working on a program to do strength calculations on a 2D suspension cable, with equally distributed load (self weight) and vertical and horizontal forces at certain points A,B,C,...F along the ...
2
votes
6answers
1k views

How to prove this approximation for a logarithm? [closed]

I need to prove this approximation, but I am unable to conclude $$\log \left(1+\frac{1}{n}\right) \approx \frac{1}{n}$$
0
votes
0answers
70 views

Integration of a given Integral

Given the integral $$ \hat{\alpha}({r_{0}})=2\int^{\infty}_{{r_{0}}}\frac{dr}{r \sqrt{1-\frac{2M}{r}} \sqrt{\left(\frac{r}{{r_{0}}}\right)^{2}\left(1-\frac{2M}{{r_{0}}}\right) ...
5
votes
2answers
233 views

Numerical methods (for ODE/PDE) that could take approximate solutions/good initial guesses, and further refine it to an certain accuracy

I am currently playing with an old analog computer, which could solve time-dependent ODE/PDEs pretty fast, without time-stepping; thus there is no convergence issues caused by time-stepping because of ...
23
votes
0answers
256 views

Is there an integral for $\pi^4-\frac{2143}{22}$?

In Ramanujan's Notebooks, Vol 4, p.48 (and a related one in Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, XLV, 1914) there are various approximations, including the close (by just $10^{-7}$), $$\pi^4 \approx ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Having trouble applying the formula for simpson's rule.

My professor provided following formula for simpson's rule: $$\int_a^b f(x)\;dx \approx \frac{h}{3} \sum_{j=0}^{n-1} ( f(x_{2j}) + 4f(x_{2j+1}) + f(x_{2j+2}))$$ Okay so my problem lies when solving ...
2
votes
0answers
74 views

Why the quadrature formula is exact one not an approximation?

I am reading this material on the algorithm of calculating the centroid of a polyhedron. I am confused by the last step of the deduction: The three coordinates of the centroid can be obtained: ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

Proving Lower bounds on an Approximately Linear Function

We are looking for a lower bound on the function, $\frac{1.31}{e^{\frac{1.31}{x+1}} - 1}$ for $x \geq 2$. This function seems to behave linearly. We believe that the following statement holds: ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

How to computer the proximal operator of a indicator function?

For $G_{1}(x) = I_{c}(x), c =\{x|Ax=b\}$, the Proximal operator is: $Prox_{\gamma G_{1}}(x) = Proj_{c}(x) = x + A^{T}(AA^{T})^{-1}(y-Ax)$ I hope to know, how to derivative this result. And, for ...
6
votes
5answers
1k views

Pythagorean theorem expressed without roots in an old Tamilian (Indian) statement

There's an old Tamil statement that predicts the hypotenuse of a right angle triangle to a reasonable level of accuracy considering it doesn't involve roots. This is how it goes: “Odum Neelam ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Approximate fraction of two integrals

could you propose a way to simplify or approximate (under some assumptions) $\bar{\eta}$ defined as below? $$ \bar{\eta} = \frac{\int f(t)dt}{\int\frac{f(t)}{\eta{(t)}}dt} $$ The $f(x)$ and ...
2
votes
3answers
75 views

Symmetry Of Differentiation Matrix

I have a problem computing numerically the eigenvalues of Laplace-Beltrami operator. I use meshfree Radial Basis Functions (RBF) approach to construct differentiation matrix $D$. Testing my code on ...
-1
votes
4answers
108 views

If $f(x)\ll1$ is it safe to assume that $f^{\prime}(x)\ll1$?

If $$f(x)\ll1$$ is it safe to assume that $$f^{\prime}(x)\ll1$$
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Integral approximation for alternating series

I can approximate the sum of $\frac 1 {n^2}$ using its integral. But what about $(-1)^n\frac 1 {n^2}$? Is it possible to approximate this using integrals? I want to know if there are other ways than ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Inverse of prime counting function

The prime counting function $ \pi (x) \approx \dfrac {x} {\ln(x-1)} $. This function returns the number of primes less than $x$. Note: $x-1$ gives a better estimate than $x$. How to find $x$ given $ ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Which polynomial has similar properties with Legendre?

I am looking for an kind of polynomial such as Legendre properties that polynomial sequence of orthogonal polynomials such as bellow image. Could you suggest to me one polynomial? Is B-spline correct? ...
3
votes
2answers
65 views

How to choose a left-add$(X)$-approximation with a certain property

Let $A$ be an artin algebra and $X,Y$ in mod-$A$. Suppose $0\rightarrow Y \stackrel{\alpha}{\rightarrow} X^n\stackrel{\beta}{\rightarrow} X^m$ is exact. Set $C:=Coker(\alpha)$ (as module) and ...
6
votes
1answer
84 views

For any smooth n-manifold $M$, construct a smooth map $f:M\to S^n$ which is not null-homotopic

PROBLEM: For any smooth n-manifold $M$, construct a smooth map $f:M\to S^n$ which is not null-homotopic ,or even of degree 1 The following is my idea: First, choosing an arbitrary open coordinate ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Ruling span derivation?

I have recently read a paper about the ruling span for electrical wires and they have an approximation that looks like it can be derived with mathematical intuition only. I'd like to find a derivation ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

Minimizing Area by Approximation

Suppose I have an increasing step function $E_c$ given by $$E_c(\phi) = \sum_{i=1}^n E_i \theta(\phi - \phi_i),$$ where $\theta$ is the Heaviside step function and $E_i$, $\phi$, and $\phi_i$ are all ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Why is this true - easy question concerning asymptotics of exponential

Suppose $\lambda > 0$ is constant as $t \searrow 0$. In my lecture notes it is written that $\left(1+\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-\lambda t)^k}{k!}\right) \lambda t = \lambda t + o(t)$ and ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Approximating $\frac{(kn)!}{(n!)^k}$

Is there any approximations for the form $$\frac{(kn)!}{(n!)^k},$$ where $n$ and $k$ are positive integers? $n$ is not necessary much larger than $k$?
0
votes
1answer
14 views

Eliminating order notation in upper bound

I have that some value $E_i=\alpha^2\varepsilon_i^3+O(\varepsilon_i^4)$, where $\alpha>0$ is a fixed constant and for every $i$, $0<\varepsilon_i\ll1$. I would like to place an upper bound on ...
4
votes
0answers
35 views

Asymptotic behavior of many derivatives

To compute the residue of a pole of very high order $M$ at $z=0$, one needs to compute $\frac{d^M}{dz^M} g(z)$ Suppose that $g(z)$ is a reasonable but not trivial function, that itself may depend on ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Iterative algorithms to approximate unknown multivariate convex real-valued functions by a set of linear upper/lower bounds

I am looking for iterative algorithms that can approximate a multivariate convex real-valued function $f(\vec{x})=y,\, \Bbb{R}^n\rightarrow \Bbb{R}$. The function is not known beforehand, but it is ...
6
votes
0answers
89 views

Could this approximation be made simpler ? Solve $n!=a^n 10^k$

I need to find the smallest value of $n$ such that $$\frac{a^n}{n!}\leq 10^{-k}$$ in which $a$ and $k$ are given (these can be large numbers). I set the problem as : solve for $n$ the equation ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Ratio of step sizes in Richardson extrapolation for numerical integration

When using Richardson extrapolation for numerical integration, are there any criteria whether ratio between the steps should be or does it not matter what step size I use? For an integral I can write ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

How should i apply Richardson Extrapolation?

I trying to understand how the Richardson Extrapolation works, and what it is good for. The internet has lots articles about the this, but they all seem to lack in what it is useful for. I wanted ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

approximation of function by polynomials

Given a function $f \in L^2[a,b]$, it can be written as $f(x)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty c_nL_n(x)$. where $L_n(x)$ is shifted Legendre polynomial. I am taking the finite sum to approximate. If I take some ...
0
votes
2answers
19 views

Approximation Reasoning

I can't understand one step in the following problem. We start with a function $f(x)=x^\alpha$ on the interval $(0,1)$ where $\alpha>0$ is a constant. We pick two points $x_1<x_2$ from this ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Rate of convergence of a Weyl-Heisenberg (Gabor) frame expansion

If $\{g_{m,n}\}$ is a Gabor frame for $L^2(R)$, with window function $g$, and $f \in L^2(R)$, is there a bound on the approximation error of $f$ using a finite subset of the frame? That is, is ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Prove that $y-x < \delta$

In Hardy's Pure Mathematics it says if $x^2<2, y^2>2, 2-x^2 < \delta,$ and $y^2 - 2 < \delta$, then $y-x<\delta$. I added the last two inequalities to get $(y+x)(y-x)<2\delta$. How ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

error bound in function approximation algorithm

Suppose we have the set of floating point number with "m" bit mantissa and "e" bits for exponent. Suppose more over we want to approximate a function "f". From the theory we know that usually a ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

approximation of $\pi$ by $\arctan$

Determinate the order n of the Maclaurin polynomial for $f(x)=4tan^{-1}x$ so that the remainader term $|R_{n}(1)|<0.000005$. Here $R_{n}(1)=\frac{f^{(n+1)}(c)}{(n+1)!}$ for some c between 0 and 1 ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Help me approximate this sum: $S = \sum_{j=2}^{N}{\frac{\ln \ln \ln \ j}{( \ln \ln \ j)^2}}$

I would like to figure out the asymptotic rate of growth for the sum $S = \sum_{j=2}^{N}{\frac{\ln \ln \ln j}{( \ln \ln j)^2}}$ in the limit of large $N$. Ultimately, I want to know if $S(N)$ is ...
22
votes
5answers
521 views

Why is it that this gives a good approximation of $\pi$?

At the end of a Physics examination, I decided to play around with my calculator, as I always do when I have time left over, and found that: $$\frac{1}{100} \cdot 11^{\ln(11)} \approx ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Interesting approximation of distribution of numbers in a Farey sequence

I was investigating the distribution of the numbers in a Farey sequence and found some pattern. It is known that the number of elements in Farey sequence can be found using Euler totient function. So ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Approximation for probability of at least $t$ events

I'm reading through a paper, and they are discussing the approximate probability that $t+1$ out of $t^b$ events occur, where $b$ is a constant, and the probability of each event occurring is ...