1
vote
1answer
72 views

Subalgebra generated by selfadjoint operator $A_0\in\mathscr{L}(H,H)$

Let $\mathscr{L}(H,H)$ be the Banach algebra of bounded operators defined on a complex Hilbert space $H$ and let $B(A_0)$ be the subalgebra generated by the selfadjoint operator $A_0$, i.e. ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Bound on the derivative of a cut-off function

Let $\rho$ be a smooth function in $\mathbb R^n$ such that $0 \leq \rho \leq 1$ and $\rho$ is supported in the unit disk and let $\rho_\epsilon(x) = \epsilon^{-n}\rho(\epsilon^{-1}\|x\|)$. If $f$ is ...
0
votes
2answers
44 views

Firstly what is an $O(h^3)$ formula? Also I am not quite sure how to answer the question?

The forward-difference formula can be expressed as $$f'(x_0)=\frac{1}{h}(f(x_0 +h)- f(x_0))-\frac{h}{2}f''(x_0) - \frac{h^2}{6}f'''(x_0) + O(h^3).$$ Use Richardson's extrapolation to derive an ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

can we approximate $f,$ in $L^{p}$-norm, by a function $f+h$ which is constant in a some neighbourhood of the point?

Suppose $f\in L^{p}(\mathbb R), (1<p <\infty), \epsilon > 0, \gamma_{0}\in \mathbb R.$ Then My Question is: Can we expect to find, $h\in L^{p}(\mathbb R)$ such that ...
2
votes
1answer
16 views

lower bound of modified Besselfunction

i'm looking for an lower bound for the modified Bessel function of the first kind $I_\nu(x)$ of a +ive real argument. There should be one of the form $$ce^{x^\alpha} \le I_\nu(x)$$.
3
votes
1answer
25 views

Show that a subset $V \subseteq C[a,b]$ is a Haar subspace

Let $C[a,b]$ be the set of continuous functions on $[a,b]$, then a linear subspace $V \subseteq C[a,b]$ of finite dimension $n+1$ is called an Haar subspace iff one of the following equivalent ...
1
vote
2answers
52 views

Cebysev (Tschebyscheff-) Approximation

I have to find the best Tschebyscheff-Approximation of $x(t) = \sin(t)$ on the Interval $[0,d]$ by a line where $0 < d < 2\pi$. But I have no idea how to perform such an approximation, do you ...
1
vote
1answer
410 views

Solve non-linear equations of 3 variables using Newton-Raphson Method iterms of c,s and q.

The three non-linear equations are given by \begin{equation} c[(6.7 * 10^8) + (1.2 * 10^8)s+(1-q)(2.6*10^8)]-0.00114532=0 \end{equation} \begin{equation} s[2.001 *c + 835(1-q)]-2.001*c =0 ...
1
vote
2answers
73 views

Approximate a definite integral to three decimal places: $\int_0^2 \frac{dx}{\sqrt[3]{64+x^3}}$.

I try to expand function $$\frac1{\sqrt[3]{64+x^3}}$$ using Maclaurin series. So, $f(x) = 64{(1+ \frac{x^3}{64})}^{-1/3}$. I expand it and I get ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Sequence of piecewise constant functions converging to any $L^2$ function

Let $\{P_i\}_{i=1}^\infty$ be a sequence of partitions of the interval $[0,1]$ with a vanishing mesh. Additionally $H_i$ be the space of piecewise constant functions (step functions) with pieces ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Proving Chebyshev's Theorem (polynomials)

A polynomial $P_n(x)$ of degree $n$ is a polynomial of best approximation to the function $f \in C[a,b]$ if and only if there are at least $n+2$ Chebyshev alternant points on the closed interval ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

If there exists a polynomial of best approximation of degree n, there also exists a polynomial of best approximation of degree n+1.

First I'd like to say that although this question was asked before (here) and is from the same text, the answer used methods that were not introduced in the text. Let $P_n(x)$ be a polynomial of ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Approximating $C^2$ functions with compactly supported $C^2$ functions

Let $C^2$ be the space of twice-continuously differentiable functions from $\mathbb{R}^n$ to $\mathbb{R}$ and $C^2_K$ be the subset of functions in $C^2$ with compact support (that are zero outside ...
11
votes
4answers
288 views

Why is this number so close to $1$?

The only positive solution of the equation $\sin (\tan x) = x$ is at a number $a = 0.999906...$. Is it a coincidence that the number $a$ is so close to $1$, or is there a conceptual explanation? It ...
6
votes
4answers
507 views

Evaluating the precision in the calculation of $\mathrm{e}$

I'm calculating $\mathrm{e}$ using a computer like this: $$ \mathrm{e} \approx \sum\limits_{i=0}^n {1\over i!} $$ I'm storing it as a rational number. I was wondering, if I write down my rational ...
0
votes
1answer
87 views

Find an upper bound on the absolute error of 3.141 as an approximation to π

Q: Find an upper bound on the absolute error of 3.141 as an approximation to π I have no idea what to do... :( What I know: absolute error = real value - approximate value Help :)
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Approximating a piecewise algebraic polynomial

Let $f \in L_{\infty}[-\pi, \pi] $ with $|f|_\infty \leq 1$ be a piecewise algebraic polynomial $$f(t)=\sum_{k=1}^{M}P_k(t) \chi_{(t_k,t_{k+1}]}(t) , -\pi<t_1<...<t_{M+1}<\pi $$ So that ...
3
votes
1answer
243 views

On finding polynomials that approximate a function and its derivative (extensions of Stone-Weierstrass?)

The Stone-Weierstrass Theorem tells us that we can approximate any continuous $f:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}$ arbitrary well on a compact subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ by some polynomial. Suppose that $f$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
72 views

Can we get an analytical solution to this equation involving the Lambert W function?

Can we get an analytical solution to the variable $t$: $$H\left(1+W\left(A\exp\left(Bt\right)\right)\right)=1+W\left(X\exp\left(Yt+Z\right)\right)$$ $W(x)$ is the Lambert W function.$A$ $B$ $X$ $Y$ ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

a question on decreasing sequence of subspaces II

This is related to this question see here Let $V= \mathbb{Q}^{\mathbb{Z}}$, considered as an infinite dimensional linear space over $\mathbb{Q}$. And assume $W=\mathbb{Q}^F$ is a finite dimensional ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Does projection onto a finite dimensional subspace commute with intersection of a decreasing sequence of subspaces: $\cap_i P_W(V_i)=P_W(\cap_i V_i)$?

Let $V$ to be an infinite dimensional linear space over some field $k$. (you can take $k=\mathbb{C}$, or further assume $V$ is a complex Hilbert space). And assume $W$ is a finite dimensional ...
3
votes
2answers
61 views

Prove approximation given by the physicist Max Born

In an old book about optics, I have found a nice approximation, that for large l one has: $$P_l(\cos(\theta)) \sim \sqrt{\frac{2}{l \pi \sin(\theta)}} \sin \left((l+\frac{1}{2}) \theta + ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

I know what I need to do but dont know how to apply: the question related to The first order approximation theorem

$\mathbf{Question:}$ Prove that $\displaystyle \lim_{(x,y)\to (0,0)} \dfrac{\sin(2x+2y)-2x-2y}{\sqrt{x^{2}+y^{2}}}=0$ $\mathbf{My\ ideas:}$ I will use the First Order Approximation Theorem. But ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Verifing the solution

$\mathbf{Question:}$ Let $f(x,y)=e^{\sin(x-y)}$ for $(x,y)\in \Bbb R^2$ Find the affine function that is a first order approximation to the function $f$ at the point $(0,0)$ $\mathbf{Answer:}$ ...
4
votes
2answers
64 views

Does this ODE have an exact or well-established approximate analytical solution?

The equation looks like this: $$\frac{\mathrm{d}y}{\mathrm{d}t} = A + B\sin\omega t - C y^n,$$ where $A$, $B$, $C$ are positive constants, and $n\ge1$ is an integer. Actually I am mainly concerned ...
0
votes
1answer
93 views

Newton-Raphson in $\mathbb{R}^n$

Let $U\in\mathbb{R}^n$ be open and $f:U\to\mathbb{R}^n$ be a $\mathcal{C}^1$ map. $\exists p\in U$ such that $\;f(p) = 0$ and $Df_{|p}$ is invertible. Define $\phi(x)= x-(Df_{|x})^{-1}f(x)$, show ...
0
votes
0answers
80 views

Complete normed vector space

I came across this question and was not sure how to proceed. Is the normed vector space of all polynomial functions on [0,1] complete with respect to the infinity norm? Thank you
0
votes
2answers
276 views

Continuation of smooth functions on the bounded domain

Given a bounded domain $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ and a smooth function $f$ with bounded derivatives on $\Omega$, is it possible to extend $f$ to $\tilde{f} : \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}$ such that ...
1
vote
0answers
81 views

Smooth Approximation of $L^p$ function

Given a bounded domain $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^n$, is it possible to approximate every $L^p(\Omega)$ function (where $1\leq p < \infty$) by smooth functions $\mathit{C}^{\infty}$ ?
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Approximation related to resonance

Can someone help me with this problem. We have $$x(t)=N \sin (w_{0} t)+\frac{w_0}{w_1}e^{\frac{-t}{T}}\sin (w_{1}t)$$ and $w_1=(1+\frac{\delta_1}{N^2})w_0$ for some $|\delta_1|\leq 1$. I need to ...
12
votes
1answer
225 views

Why is integer approximation of a function interesting?

I have recently learnt the following result: Let $g \in \mathbb{R}[x]$ be a polynomial with $g(0) = 0$. Then, for any $\varepsilon > 0$, the set of positive integers $n$, such that $g(n)$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
319 views

Discrete approximation - exponential function and integrals

Let $f$ be a complex-valued continuous function on $\mathbb{R}_+$ with compact support and let $g, h$ be two complex-valued continuous functions on $\mathbb{R}_+$ such that $g$ is bounded and ...
7
votes
3answers
267 views

Even integer approximations to multiples of pi

I admit that I'm probably out of my depth with this question, but I can't help but feel curious. I wanted to show that, in the sequence $\{\sin(n)\}$, there is never a largest term (the sequence ...
2
votes
1answer
200 views

Approximate continous function with linear growth condition by Lipschitz function

Suppose a continuous function $f(u)<K(1+|u|)$ for some positive number $K$. How can we find a sequence of Lipschitz functions $f_{n}$ that converge to $f$ uniformly on $\mathbb{R}$. If we require ...
10
votes
2answers
370 views

Summation of divergent series of Euler: $0!-1!+2!-3!+\cdots$

Consider the series $$\sum\limits_{k=0}^\infty (-1)^kk!x^k\in\mathbb{R}[[x]]$$ Let $s_n(x)$ be partial sum. And let $\omega_{k,n}=(k!^2(n-k)!)^{-1}$. My question is: Prove that ...
3
votes
1answer
104 views

Approximating the logarithm of a Laplace transform

Suppose $X$ is a random variable on $\mathbb R_+$ with finite mean, i.e. $\mathbb E X <+\infty$. Let $F_X(t)$ be its c.d.f. and $\mathcal{L}_X(\cdot)$ its Laplace transform, i.e. ...
6
votes
2answers
415 views

Elementary bound of binomial coefficient

I'm working my way through an Erdős paper from the sixties and some of the elementary bounds he claims seem to be just beyond my reach. The expression looks horrendous but maybe there is a clever ...
4
votes
1answer
203 views

Evaluating a limit involving binomial coefficients.

If $N_c=\lfloor \frac{1}{2}n\log n+cn\rfloor$ for some integer $n$ and real constant $c$, then how would one go about showing the following identity where $k$ is a fixed integer: $$\lim_{n\rightarrow ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Approximation of a function with certain restrictions at problematic points

I can't compute a Taylor series of a function like $f(x)=\sqrt{x}$ to some order around $x_0=0$, because the derivative at that point doesn't exist. If I consider the taylor series $Tf$ at any ...
9
votes
1answer
596 views

Tensor products of functions generate dense subspace?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be two spaces in certain category, $F(\cdot)$ a functor associating each space with a function space (with certain topology). Assume that for any $f\in F(X)$ and $g\in F(Y)$, $f\otimes ...
2
votes
0answers
168 views

calculate the rate of change

I am trying to calculate the change frequency for a set of data. Each bit of data has the date-time it was created. I would like to say for a specific set of data the change frequency is hourly, ...
4
votes
3answers
517 views

How to find a Newton-like approximation for that function?

I want to find the complex fixpoint $t=b^t $ for real bases $b> \eta = \exp(\exp(-1))$. added remark: I'm aware that there is a solution using branches of the Lambert-W-function, but I've no ...
11
votes
2answers
781 views

Application de Stone-Weierstrass

Bonjour, J'ai rencontré le problème suivant dans le livre "Real and Functional Analysis" de Lang, au chapitre 3. J'explique d'abord le contexte, puis j'en viendrai à la question précise. Il faut ...