For questions that involve concrete approximations, such as finding an approximate value of a number with some precision. For questions that belong to the mathematical area of Approximation Theory, use (approximation-theory).

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84 views

A series to prove $\frac{22}{7}-\pi>0$

After T. Piezas answered Is there a series to show $22\pi^4>2143\,$? a natural question is Is there a series that proves $\frac{22}{7}-\pi>0$? One such series may be found combining ...
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2answers
37 views

About Taylor series

Suppose $f(0) = 0, f'(0) = 2, f''(0) = −1$ and $|f''' (x)| ≤ 0.024$ for $0 ≤ x ≤ 2$. Estimate $f(1)$ to $4$ significant figures by using a Taylor polynomial. Compute a good bound for the absolute ...
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1answer
134 views

Is $\pi^k$ any closer to $[\pi^k]$ than expected?

Particular questions such as Why is $\pi$ so close to $3$? or Why is $\pi^2$ so close to $10$? may be regarded as the first two cases of the question sequence Why is $\pi^k$ so close to $[\pi^k]$? ...
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1answer
45 views

Another way to calculate $\cos(x)$ and $\cosh (x)$

I usually don't see any expressions for approximate calculation of trigonometric functions aside from their Taylor series. But Taylor series work better for small angles, so in general they are not ...
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1answer
106 views

Is there a series to show $22\pi^4>2143\,$?

This extends this post. I. For $\pi^3$: $$\pi^6-31^2 =\sum_{k=0}^\infty\left(-\frac{63}{(2k+2)^6}+\frac{31^2}{(2k+3)^6}\right) =\sum_{k=0}^\infty P_1(k)\tag1$$ As pointed out by J. Lafont, when ...
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0answers
26 views

Approximating $\prod_{r=s}^t (1-b/r)$

I am currently trying to place an order of precision on the approximation $$\prod_{r=s}^t \left(1-\frac{b}{r}\right) \approx \left(\frac{s}{t}\right)^b$$ This follows because $$\prod_{r=s}^t ...
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36 views

Best Approximate Solution of Heat Equation (Diffusive Logistic Equation)

If $u(x,t) \ge 0$ in the domain $ (0 \times 1) \times (0,\infty)$, find a function that caps the value of $u(x,t)$ in the region $(0 \times 1) \times (0,T)$. $u(x,t)$ is a solution of the following ...
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27 views

Searching an Approximation Formula for Two Parameters

I have an algorithm with two parameters ($p_1$ and $p_2$) and one result ($x$). Interesting (for me) parameters and results are: ...
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2answers
49 views

How to find approximate value of $1.01e^{1.01({0.99) }^2} $?

I want to find the approximate value of $1.01e^{1.01({0.99) }^2}$ by using derivative. I tried choosing x=1 and $\delta x=0.01$ it didnt work. How can I start?
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171 views

A monotonically increasing series for $\pi^6-961$ to prove $\pi^3>31$

This question is motivated by Why is $\pi$ so close to $3$?, Why is $\pi^2$ so close to $10$? and Proving $\pi^3 \gt 31$. I. $\pi$ and $\pi^2$ There are series with all terms positive for ...
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13 views

Continuity of Monte-Carlo simulations with uniformly distributed input parameters

Suppose a continuous and monotone function $f:\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ to be given. So, in the general case, if I slightly change parameters $a$ and $b$, the function ...
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2answers
20 views

Finding a root approach with a polynomial

So, i'm solving last's year's exams in Mathematical Analysis and i've found one interesting. It says: The equation $e^{-4x}=5x^2$ has one root close to (nearby) 0. By approaching $e^{-4x}$(close to ...
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30 views

Find required degree of Maclaurin polynomial to estimate the cosine to two decimal places

I have a question where I am asked to find the amount of terms required in a Maclaurin polynomial to estimate $\cos(1)$ to be correct to two decimal places. So far what I have done is used Taylor's ...
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227 views

Why is $\pi^2$ so close to $10$?

Noam Elkies explained why $\pi^2=9.8696...$ is so close to $10$ using an inequality on Euler's solution to Basel problem $$\frac{\pi^2}{6}=\sum_{k=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{\left(k+1\right)^2}$$ to form ...
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1answer
199 views

Proof that $\frac{2}{3} < \log(2) < \frac{7}{10}$

Positive integrals $$\int_{0}^{1}\frac{2x(1-x)^2}{1+x^2}dx=\pi-3$$ and $$\int_0^1\frac{x^4(1-x)^4}{1+x^2}dx=\frac{22}{7}-\pi $$ (http://math.stackexchange.com/a/1618454/134791) prove that ...
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12 views

approximating random variable

Can anyone explain the construction of the sequence of simple random variables that can be approximated to any random variable? $ X_n(\omega)=\sum_{k=0}^{n2^{n}} k2^{-n}$ where $\, k2^{-n} \leq ...
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32 views

Mixing Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic interpretation of a dataset

A probabilistic data cloud is a set $M$ of data points $\{m_i\}_i$, where each data point $m_i$ is associated to an event $E_i$ expressing the set of the occurrences of $m_i$ in any possible ...
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1answer
51 views

small amplitude oscillation of rotating system.

I've solved the euler-lagrange equation for a frictionless bead on circular vertical loop of radius a where the loop is rotating at $\Omega$ to get the equation of motion for the bead as ...
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16 views

functional analysis (Faedo Galerkin Method)

if \begin{equation} \left\{ \begin{array}{l} (u^{0\nu },u^{1\nu },v^{0\nu },v^{1\nu },p^{0\nu },q^{0\nu }) \rightarrow (u^{0},u^{1},v^{0},v^{1},p^{0},q^{0}) \\ \text{strongly in } (H^1_\gamma \cap ...
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45 views

Is there a section of mathematics that studies near-integer equations.

When I saw: $$e^\pi-\pi \approx 20$$ I thought it was pretty cool. And : $$\pi^3 \approx 31$$ So now the thought comes to me is what positive integer value of $n$ will make the expression: ...
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1answer
161 views

A series related to $\pi\approx 2\sqrt{1+\sqrt{2}}$

This question follows a suggestion by Tito Piezas in Is there an integral or series for $\frac{\pi}{3}-1-\frac{1}{15\sqrt{2}}$? Q: Is there a series by Ramanujan that justifies the approximation ...
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29 views

Determining the minimal number of terms to use in a sum to approximate a number given a tolerance

In page 33-34 of Numerical Analysis by Burden & Faires an algorithm was given to compute the minimal value of $N$ for which $$|\ln{1.5}-P_N(1.5)|<10^{-5}\tag{1}$$,where ...
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1answer
18 views

Which approximation should I use?

I have a function $ k(x,y)$, and I want to approximate it for low values of x and y. $k(x,y) = \dfrac{a^3-ax^2-x^3+a^2x+ay^2-xy^2}{a^3-ax^2+x^3-a^2x+ay^2+xy^2}$ With $ a>>x, a>>y $ ...
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1answer
29 views

Is $e^{-r/2}$ equivalent to $r^{-(l+1)}$ in the radial solution of Laplace equation?

When we solve the Laplace equation for Hydrogen Wave Equation at large r, we obtain the expression below to account for the behavior of the wave at very very large $r$ $$R=e^{-(r/2)}$$ At very small ...
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2answers
27 views

Approximating a sum of reciprocals

What is a good approximation for the function: $$S_{N,k} = \sum_{i=N}^\infty {\frac{1}{i^k}}$$ when $k$ is a given constant (2, 3 or 4) and $N$ is large? $S_{N,k}$ is a decreasing function of $N$; ...
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1answer
36 views

When is right to kill $r^l$ and/or $r^{(-l-1)}$?

When we solve the Laplace equation in spherical polar coordinate, we get the radial part whose solution is: $$R=Ar^l+Br^{-(l+1)}$$ Now, some solutions keep this two terms, but when we derive the ...
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1answer
72 views

Simpler derivation to $\pi$ [closed]

I'm an amateur in mathematics, being in 9th grade. I have been trying to derive $\pi$. During this I reached a limit to find the value of $\pi$. $$\lim_{x \to 0} \frac{180\sin x}{x}$$ Where $x$ is in ...
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14 views

Continuous/interpolating alternative to order of magnitude?

Define $\operatorname{magnitude}\left(x\right) = 10 ^ { \lfloor \log_{10} x \rfloor }$ and $\operatorname{magnitude'}\left(x\right) = 10 ^ { \lfloor \log_{10} x \rceil }$ Currently I'm using this ...
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1answer
83 views

Which function to kill: Sine or Cos?

I got an equation which was a solution to some familiar Differential Equation I am solving, the solution takes the form of: $$V=Ce^{-ix}$$ but $$Ce^{-ix}=A\cos(x)+B\sin(x)$$ so ...
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1answer
117 views

Calculating ${(0.9)}^{\left(0.6\right)}$ with an approximation of ${10}^{\left(-4\right)}$

I'm having extreme difficulties understanding how to use Lagrange theorem to find an approximation. So far for my series I have: $$(1+(-x))^\frac{3}{5}= ...
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38 views

Sum Calculation: $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \left(1- \frac{\cosh^{-1} n}{\log 2x}\right)$

I was investigating the asymptotic properties of the $\cosh$ functions and how they all strongly relate to $e^x$ In my studying, I found out that $\cosh x\sim \frac{e^x}{2}$ By that definition, that ...
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31 views

What approximations for the Gamma function's inverse appear to work 'best'?

So I was wondering how we approximate the inverse of the Gamma function, where I tried a few methods: Lagrange inversion theorem: $$\Gamma^{-1}(z)=a+\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\lim_{w\to ...
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1answer
239 views

Is there an integral or series for $\frac{\pi}{3}-1-\frac{1}{15\sqrt{2}}$?

The approximation $$\pi\approx\frac{22}{7}=3+\frac{1}{7}$$ suggests that the closest integer to $\frac{1}{\left(\pi-3\right)}$ is $7$. However, $$ \frac{1}{\left(\pi-3\right)^2}\approx49.879 $$ is ...
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1answer
35 views

QR(pivot) vs SVD for low rank approximation

Define the low rank problem as finding the approximation of matrix A, B: where we want to minimize rank(B) and we want the 2 norm of the residu of A-B to be less than epsilon. Could someone help me ...
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39 views

Error when approximating $\int_0^{1}(x^{2}+x)dx$ with midpoint rule.

Task is to define the exact error when approximating $\int_0^{1}(x^{2}+x)dx$ with midpoint rule using n subintervals. I know the error term is $E(f)=\frac{1}{24}(b-a)f^{''}(\varepsilon)h^{2}$ but im ...
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50 views

Bound for $\log { \binom{n}{i}}$?

(1) Are there better (smaller; tighter) bounds for $\log { \binom{n}{i}}$, than $O(n \log n )$? (2) Under what conditions $O(i \log n)$ is a good bound? Clearly this bound should be in a way that it ...
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1answer
39 views

Using Lagrange Remainder to find the approximation of $\sqrt(8)

I'm looking for an approximation of $\sqrt 8$ with an approximation of $10^{-4}$. It was given that $\sqrt 8 =3\sqrt\frac{8}{9}$ so I set up a general series for $ \sqrt{1+x}^\frac{1}{2} $ around zero ...
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16 views

What do you call Binomial Distributions Correlated like this?

If we have two biased coins, and throw both $n$ times, then we can describe the probability of getting $a$ heads with the first coin and $b$ heads with the second coin, as a product distribution of ...
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24 views

Use linear scales for both the X- and Y- axes?

I am trying to understand this question: Use linear scales for both the X- and Y- axes. In which region, ƒ2(x) is a good approximation to ƒ1(x)? My equations are: ...
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25 views

Approximating a Riccati Differential Equation/Differential equation of two variables

I am currently really struggling to solve/approximate this Riccati equation $x'(t, v) = cv(1-x(t)) + \beta x(t)(1-x(t)) - \gamma x(t)$ st. $0 < c, \gamma, x_{0} < 1$ $ 0 \leq v \leq 1$ $ 0 ...
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2answers
72 views

Closed form or approximation of $\sum\limits_{i=0}^{n-1}\sum\limits_{j=i + 1}^{n-1} \frac{i + j + 2}{(i + 1)(j+1)} (i + 2x)(j +2x)$

During the solution of my programming problem I ended up with the following double sum: $$\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\sum_{j=i + 1}^{n-1} \frac{i + j + 2}{(i + 1)(j+1)}\cdot (i + 2x)(j +2x)$$ where $x$ is some ...
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48 views

Three almost-integers of the form $ce^{H_a+H_b}\approx 2^k\pm1$

The approximation $$H_n\approx log(2n+1)$$ http://math.stackexchange.com/a/1602945/134791 suggests that the harmonic number for composite odd numbers might be close to the sum of the harmonic ...
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56 views

Integral of a Gaussian with Trigonometric functions Involved

I am having a difficult time evaluating an integral unlike any integral I have seen before. To get right into things here is the integral: $$\frac{A}{\sigma_o\sqrt{2\pi}}\int_{-\infty}^\infty ...
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13 views

Cubic curve as approximation of Euler spirals?

I was reading the wiki article about Euler spirals and I reached this passage: Unaware of the solution of the geometry by Leonhard Euler, Rankine cited the cubic curve (a polynomial curve of ...
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1answer
30 views

How many “seeks” are there in these binary sequences?

Consider a set of $k \geq 1$ random, IID binary sequences of length $n$, denoted $S_i,\;i = 1\ldots k$, and a "master sequence", also of length $n$, and denoted $S_M$ (see figure for $k = 4$).   ...
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1answer
80 views

Can this integral be evaluated/approximated?

I've been trying to evaluate this integral without much success: $\displaystyle \int_{-\infty}^\infty dx\, e^{iax} \frac{1- e^{-c\sinh^2 bx}}{\sinh^2 bx}$ I've tried contour integration. There are no ...
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98 views

How to verfy if the approximations of the complex error function have no poles?

I found an article published few days ago in arXiv:1601.01261 that shows a very simple Matlab code for computation of the complex error function (aka the Faddeeva function) defined as \begin{equation} ...
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15 views

Galerkin and Ritz method

I know Galerkin method gives us the best approximation. But i couldn't understand the difference between this method and Ritz method for approximation. Do not give us the same results? What is the ...
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63 views

Series for Stieltjes constants from $\gamma= \sum_{n=1}^\infty \left(\frac{2}{n}-\sum_{j=n(n-1)+1}^{n(n+1)} \frac{1}{j}\right)$

Euler's constant has the following representations (Euler-Mascheroni constant expression, further simplification, http://math.stackexchange.com/a/129808/134791, Question on Macys formula for ...
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184 views

Why is $e$ close to $H_8$, closer to $H_8\left(1+\frac{1}{80^2}\right)$ and even closer to $\gamma+log\left(\frac{17}{2}\right) +\frac{1}{10^3}$?

The eighth harmonic number happens to be close to $e$. $$e\approx2.71(8)$$ $$H_8=\sum_{k=1}^8 \frac{1}{k}=\frac{761}{280}\approx2.71(7)$$ This leads to the almost-integer ...