# Tagged Questions

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### A real analytic function that takes each value in $\mathbb{R}$ three times

I was inspired by this question: it is quite easy to prove that for any positive odd number $2m+1$ there exists a function $f\in C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R})$ such that ...
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### separate vs joint real analyticity

Let $$f(x,y) := xy\exp\left(-\frac{1}{x^2+y^2}\right),$$ if $(x,y)\neq (0,0)$ and $f(0,0):=0$. I read the claim that $f$ is (a) separately real analytic on $\mathbb{R}\times\mathbb{R}$ (i.e. for ...
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### Reference for the fact that a smooth function analytic on every line is itself analytic

Let $f \in \mathcal C^\infty(\mathbb R^p)$ ($p \geq 2$) be a smooth function such that the functions $g_d(t) := f(td)$ are all analytic for all $t \in \mathbb R$ and all $d \in \mathbb R^p.$ (i.e. $f$ ...
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### Uniformly analytic functions

Consider the following definition: Let $\Omega$ be an open set of $\mathbb{R}_x^n$, $x = (x_1, ..., x_n)$. A $\mathcal{C}^{\infty}$-function $\varphi(x)$ on $\Omega$ is said to be uniformly analytic ...
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Let $f: [0,1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be analytic. Let $r_f(x)$ be the radius of convergence of $f$ at $x$. Is $r_x(f)$ continuous? Alternatively, is there an $r_{min}$ I can choose so ...
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### $\forall x \,\exists k$ s.t. $f^{(k)}(x)=0$, then $f$ is a polynomial

My friend sent me the following problem: Suppose that $f$ is real analytic on $(a,b)$, and that for all $x$ in $(a,b)$ there exists a non-negative integer $k$ such that $f^{(k)}(x)=0$. Show ...
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### Can we find a real $s$ such that $f(s)=w$ and $f'(s)≠0$?

Let $f\colon\mathbb C\to\mathbb C$ be an entire non constant function. We consider its values on the real line. The function $f$ has infinitely many real zeros and there is infinitely many real ...
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### Example of a smooth 'step'-function that is constant below 0 and constant above 1

I need an infinitely smooth non-decreasing function $\ f(x)$, that $$f(x)=0\quad\forall x\leq 0,$$ $$f(x)=1\quad\forall x\geq 1,$$ and all its derivatives in $x=0$ and $x=1$ are $0$. I found that I ...
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### Real-analytic $f(z)=f(\sqrt z) + f(-\sqrt z)$?

Are there nonconstant real-analytic functions $f(z)$ such that $$f(z)=f(\sqrt z) + f(-\sqrt z)$$ is satisfied near the real line ? Also can such functions be entire ? And/Or can they be periodic ...
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### Termwise differentiation of sequence of rational functions when the uniform limit is analytic

Given a sequence $\{f_n(x)\}$ of rational functions which converges uniformly to the analytic function $\{g(x)\}$ on $[a, b]$ ($f_n(x)$ are defined on $[a, b]$ and hence are analytic), what can we say ...
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### The Identity Theorem for real analytic functions

What is the condition for two real analytic functions to be identically equal? We know that there is a nice condition (Identity Theorem) for holomorphic function to check if they are the same. What is ...
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### Showing a function is not analytic

Let $g(x)=e^{-1/x^2}$ for $x\neq0$, and $g(0)=0$. I've shown that $g^{(n)}(0)=0$ and thus that it is infinitely differentiable about 0, but now I must show that it cannot be expressed as a power ...
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### Proofs for $g(x)=e^{-1/x^2}$ when $x\neq0$, and $g(x)=0$ when $x=0$

Sorry for the non-descriptive title - the question is a bit long. I have $g(x)$ as in the title, and we proved previously that $g'(0)=0$ using L'Hôpital's rule. Now I must show by induction that ...
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### Double exponential Taylor series $\exp(-\exp(k-ex))$

k is real constant $\gt = 1$. Is $a_n$ for $f(x)$ positive, increasing, and $\lt 1$, where $n\lt= e^{k-1}$? $$f(x) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_n x^n = \exp(-\exp(k-ex))$$ $f(x)$ is the double ...
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### Smooth function becomes analytic

Let $f$ be a smooth function ,defined on unit interval $[0,1]$.Moreover $\Vert f^{(k)}\Vert_2\leq \alpha,\:\forall k\in\mathbb{N}_o$. Can we conclude that $f$ is analytic. More generally when ...
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### If it converges, how to show that power series converges to $f(x)$?

I had a very basic question. Suppose $f(x)$ is a function. And let us say it has a power series :- $$f(x) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_nx^n.$$ Suppose we are operating inside the region of convergence. ...
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### Show that the iterated $\ln^{[n]}$ of tetration(x,n) is nowhere analytic

$$f(x) = \lim_{n\to \infty} \ln^{[n]} x \uparrow\uparrow n$$ The conjecture is that $f(x)$ is monotonic and infinitely differentiable at the real axis, but nowhere analytic; because at each point on ...
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### Commutativity of integration and Taylor expansion of the integrand in an integral

I am baffled with a seemingly a straightforward problem. Suppose we are given the following integral: $$f(a)\,=\,\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{x^4}{x^4+a^4} e^{-x},$$ and we ...
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### Is it possible for a function to be smooth everywhere, analytic nowhere, yet Taylor series at any point converges in a nonzero radius?

It is well-known that the function $$f(x) = \begin{cases} e^{-1/x^2}, \mbox{if } x \ne 0 \\ 0, \mbox{if } x = 0\end{cases}$$ is smooth everywhere, yet not analytic at $x = 0$. In particular, its ...
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### Function $f(x)=\int_0^\infty\left|\sin(t)\cdot\sin(x\,t)\cdot e^{-t}\right|\,dt$

Let $$f(x)=\int_0^\infty\Big|\sin(t)\cdot\sin(x\,t)\cdot e^{-t}\Big|\,dt,$$ where $|\dots|$ denotes the absolute value. We are concerned only with positive values of $x$ (i.e. let the domain of the ...
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### Two $C^\infty$ functions which agree on a set containing an accumulation point, but do not agree on *any* neighborhood?

As I understand it, two analytic functions defined on $\mathbb{R}^k$ which agree on a set with an accumulation point must agree on a neighborhood; however, the same is not true of $C^\infty$ ...
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### Using Taylor expansion for a smooth real function

I've come across the following problem in Cracking Mathematics Subject Test, 4th Edition by Steve Leduc, from Princeton Review. Let $f(x)$ be a function that has derivatives of all orders at every ...
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### Sufficient and necessary conditions to get an infinite fiber $g^{-1}(w)$

I want to verify the proof of this result and get some start ideas to overcome the different steps of this proof. Lemma: Let $g$ be a real analytic function. Then we have the equivalence ...
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### Does this property persists for the derivatives $f^{(k)}, k=1,2,..$

Let $f$ be a real non polynomial analytic function. Suppose that the function $f$ assumes arbitrarily large and arbitrarily small values, i.e., for all $K>0$, there are $a,b$ with $f(a)<−K$ and ...
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### Analyticity of a real function on $[0,\infty)$

I'm struggling to understand the difference of the analyticity of a real and a complex functions. Consider the following real valued function which is a minimal example of a somewhat more involved ...
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### What does it mean to say that a function is valued in the space of analytic functions?

I am reading some paper and I encountered this statement: ... the coefficients $a_{p,\beta}(t,x)$ [are] of class $C^m$ in $t$, valued in the space of analytic functions of $x$, in a neighborhood ...
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### Smooth Pac-Man Curve?

Idle curiosity and a basic understanding of the last example here led me to this polar curve: $$r(\theta) = \exp\left(10\frac{|2\theta|-1-||2\theta|-1|}{|2\theta|}\right)\qquad\theta\in(-\pi,\pi]$$ ...
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### Does $f'$ analytic imply $f$ analytic?

If $f'$ is known to be analytic, does it mean that $f$ is analytic as well? I've tried to expand $f$ and then to replace the tail of it by the expansion of $f'$, yet the factorials don't add up. I ...
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### Can we deduce that $\lim_{x\to+\infty}f(x)=\pm\infty$ or $\lim_{x\to-\infty}f(x)=\pm\infty$?

Let $f:ℝ→ℝ$ be rael analtic function. Asume that $f$ is of finite order $1$ (An entire function is said to be of finite order if there exist numbers $a,r>0$ such that $$|f(x)|≤exp(|x|^{a})$$ for ...
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### Find conditions on the function $f$ such that the fiber $f^{-1}(a)$ has a finite number of elements

Let $f:ℝ→ℝ$ be a real analytic function. We know that for any real number $a$, the fiber $f^{-1}(a)$ is a discrete set unless $f = a$. My question is: Find conditions on the function $f$ such that the ...
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### Show that the fiber $f^{-1}(a)$ is finite if $a∈ℝ,a≠0$

Let $f:ℝ→ℝ$ be a real analytic function. If $f$ has infinitely many zeros, then we know that the fiber $f^{-1}(0)$ is an infinite discrete and countable set. Let $a∈ℝ,a≠0$, we know also that the fiber ...
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### The fiber $f^{-1}(a)$ is a discrete (and countable) set

Let $f:ℝ→ℝ$ be a real analytic function. Then my question is: Show that for a real number $a$, the fiber $f^{-1}(a)$ is a discrete (and countable) set unless $f = a$.
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### Continuous dependence of zeros on a parameter

Let $F:I\times J\to\mathbb{R}$ be a $C^k$ (or analytic) function, with $I,J$ real open intervals. Set $f_\lambda(x):=F(\lambda,x)$ and consider the parametric equation $$f_\lambda(x)=0\,.$$ Assume its ...
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### Assume that the set of values where $f^{(k)}≠0$ is finite

Let $f:ℝ→ℝ$ be a real analytic function. Let $f^{(k)}$ be the $k$th derivative of $f$. Assume that the set of values where $f^{(k)}≠0$ is finite, then what we can say about the function $f$.
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### Is the inverse of a real analytic function still analytic?

If $f:D\to D'$, with $D, D'$ open subsets of $\mathbb{C}$, is a complex analytic invertible function with non-zero derviative, it's easy to see that $f^{-1}:D'\to D$ is analytic too. Indeed complex ...
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### Prove that the $k^{th}$ derivative of $f$ has necessarily infinitely many zeros

I have the following question: Let $f$ be a real entire function, i.e., $$f(x)=∑_{n=1}^{∞}a_{n}x^{n}$$ with infinitely many zeros. Prove that the $k^{th}$ derivative of $f$ has necessarily ...
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### Composition Taylor Series

Is there any theorem that specifies when we are allowed to compose the taylor series of two functions? Does it have a name? Thanks.
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### Entire function dominated by another entire function is a constant multiple

These two questions I didn't even find the way to solve So please if you can help Suppose $f (z)$ is entire with $|f(z)| \le |\exp(z)|$ for every $z$ I want to prove that $f(z) = k\exp(z)$ for some ...
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### Notation in Old Paper

I am reading a paper http://www.ams.org/journals/bull/1935-41-04/S0002-9904-1935-06049-5/S0002-9904-1935-06049-5.pdf and I am wondering about the notation in the lemma page which states that ...
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### Mean values theorem and countable sets

The mean values theorem says that there exists a $c∈(u,v)$ such that $$f(v)-f(u)=f′(c)(v-u)$$ My question is: Assume that $u$ is a root of $f$, hence we obtain $$f(v)=f′(c)(v-u)$$ Assume that $f$ is a ...
### Domain of bijectivity of function $f:\mathbb{C}\rightarrow\mathbb{C}$
There is a type of problems in my course in Complex analysis that I don't fully understand them. Given function $f:\mathbb{C}\rightarrow\mathbb{C}$, $f(z)=z^2$. You must specify the analytic and ...
### How to show that $f(x,y)$ are real analytical
Given a real function $f(x,y)$ on $R^2$, we know that (from wiki) it is called real analytic if it is locally given by a convergent power series. My question is that whether there has some principle ...