Questions on the use of the methods of real/complex analysis in the study of number theory.

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3
votes
1answer
68 views

Asymptotic expression for $3$ term arithmetic progression in the primes

I have found an asymptotic for the following sum using the circle method: \begin{align} R(n)=\sum_{\substack{p_1,p_2,p_3 \le n \\p_1+p_2=2p_3 }} \log (p_1) \log (p_2) \log ...
2
votes
1answer
77 views

Asymptotics of $\sum_{\mathfrak{a}}\frac{n^{k-\epsilon}}{\mathfrak{N}\left(\mathfrak{a}\right)^{r\left(k-\epsilon\right)}}$

In this paper by Brian D. Sittinger, the following claim is made: For an algebraic number field $K$ with norm $\mathfrak{N}$, let $\epsilon=\left[K:\mathbb{Q}\right]^{-1}$. Then, taking the sum over ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Do you know any answer for equation y^2 = x^3 + k? [duplicate]

As you know, the equation y^2 = x^3 + k for k like (4n-1)^3 - 4m^2 that m , n are integers & no prime number that p is congruent to 1 modulo 4 count m, don't have any answer & it's proof is by ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

Asymptotics of $\sum_{n\leq x}\tau_{k}\left(n\right)$

We define $\tau_{k}\left(n\right)$ to be the number of ordered $k$-tuples of positive integers with product equal to $n$. It is easily shown that this satisfies the recurrence relation ...
2
votes
0answers
90 views

Any formula for the exact number of primes below a given bound?

Reading The music of the primes, the author relates that Riemann had figured out a formula giving exact number of primes up to a certain bound with no errors. Does such formula really exist? If ...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

Explicit formula for floor(x)?

In number theory we have so-called explicit formula's in terms of the Riemann zeta zero's. For instance to count the sum of the logarithms of the primes below some given integer. ( second Chebyshev ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Moving the integral $Q(x) = -\frac{e^{-1/2x}}{4i}\int_{1/2-i\infty}^{1/2+i\infty} \zeta(s)\Gamma(\frac{s}{2})\pi^{-s/2}e^{xs} ds$ past Re(s) = 1.

Given the integral $$Q(x) = -\frac{e^{-1/2x}}{4i}\int_{1/2-i\infty}^{1/2+i\infty} \zeta(s)\Gamma(\frac{s}{2})\pi^{-s/2}e^{xs} ds,$$ I know that the integrand is holomorphic except for simple poles at ...
3
votes
1answer
150 views

What is the inverse of the divisor sum function $\sigma $?

Let $(A, +, *)$ be the commutative ring of arithmetic functions with Dirichlet convolution as the multiplicative operation *. The element $$\sigma(n)=\prod_i \frac{p_i^{k_i+1}-1}{p_i-1}, \text { ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

On the proof of Fejér-Riesz theorem

I'm having a course about Analytic Number Theory, and I'm having trouble understanding the proof of Fejér-Riesz Theorem: http://people.virginia.edu/~jlr5m/Papers/FejerRiesz.pdf First of all, I didn't ...
2
votes
1answer
192 views

How to calculate this sum like Gauss sum.

I would like to calculate the following sum, which looks like a Gauss sum. Let $n$ be a natural number and let $a,b$ be integers. Denote by $e(x)=e^{2\pi i x/n}$. Consider the sum $$ \sum_{1 \leq j, ...
9
votes
3answers
84 views

Is there a monotonic $f$ such that $\sum f(n)$ diverges but $\sum f(p)$ converges?

(where the former summation is over natural numbers $n$ and the latter is over prime numbers $p$, and $f: \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{R}$ is a monotonic function.) For the class of functions $f_s(n) = ...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

What is the value of $\sum_{p\le x} 1/p^2$?

My question is, what is the value of $$\sum_{p\le x} \frac{1}{p^2}?$$ More generally, what is the value of $$\sum_{p\le x} \frac{1}{p^n}?$$ How can we find it? For $\sum_{p\le x} 1/p$ the idea was ...
12
votes
1answer
166 views

Is $\sum\frac1{p^{1+ 1/p}}$ divergent?

Is $\displaystyle\sum\frac1{p^{1+ 1/p}}$ divergent? How can we prove that it is divergent or convergent in analytic number theory? I know what bound of the n-th prime number is, and that its order is ...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

Hardy-Ramanujan theorem's “purely elementary reasoning”

I'm reading through The normal number of prime factors of a number $n$. I'm confused by a remark on the second page: let $f(n)$ represent the number of distinct prime factors of $n$. Then we can ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

How can one show that $\prod_{n<p\leq2n}p\leq C(2n,n)$?

I am trying to rove that $\prod_{n<p\leq2n}p \leq C(2n,n) \leq 2^{2n}$, where $C(2n,n)= \frac{2n!}{n! n!}$ and $p$ is prime. I can prove the second part by induction, but first part induction ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Is the integral $\int_1^{\infty} {A(t)}{t^{-s-1}}dt$ a holomorphic function of $s$?

My question is whether, for $Re(s)=\sigma > 3/4$, $$s\int_1^{\infty} \dfrac{A(t)}{t^{s+1}}dt$$ is holomorphic, where $A(x)=O(x^{3/4})$. Under absolute value, it is easy to see that the integral ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Number of the positive integers up to $\sqrt x $ generated by the prime factors of $x$.

Let $x$ be a natural number and $F_x$ be the set of distinct prime factors of $x$. One more let $\langle F_x \cup \{ 1 \} \rangle$ be multiplicative semigroup generated by the set. Then, the problem ...
2
votes
0answers
49 views

Find the integral values for which $\left(\pi(x+y)\right)^2=4\pi(x)\pi(y)$

Let $\pi(x)$ be the prime counting function. Find all integral values of $x,y$ such that, $$\left(\pi(x+y)\right)^2=4\pi(x)\pi(y)$$ I have no idea as to where to begin with. I think that probably ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Non-trivial odd characters mod m

I am stuck with this problem of marcus: I proved it when the charater is even. But I cannot prove the given formula when the character is odd. Please help.
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Can we define Mobius function for any real number and any complex number ?

All: To me, Mobius function is a bit mysterious. I just want to know if we can define Mobius function for any real number or any complex number ? Can anyone point out any resource on this ? Thank ...
3
votes
1answer
84 views

Absolutely convergent function

I am trying to show that if $\displaystyle\sum_{n\le x}f(n)=Cx+O(x^{3/4})$, where $f$ is non-negative multiplicative function and $C$ is a positive constant, then ...
1
vote
0answers
45 views

Using Perron's formula for asymptotic behaviors

I happen to read this post about trying to get the formula of $\sum_{n=1}^N n^m$ for Perron's formula. The general Perron's formula is $$\sum'_{n\le x} a(n)=\frac{1}{2\pi i}\int_{\text{Re ...
5
votes
1answer
101 views

Riemann Hypothesis, is this statement equivalent to Mertens function statement?

All: I saw one form of Riemann Hypothesis, it says: $$ \lim ∑(μ(n))/n^σ $$ Converges for all σ > ½ Is this statement same as the order of Mertens function is less than square root of n ?
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Estimates for a Mertens-type Product.

The first corollary of Theorem 8 of this paper by Rosser and Schoenfeld states that $$\prod_{p\leq x}\left(\frac{p}{p-1}\right)<e^{\gamma}(\log x)\left(1+\frac{1}{\log^2 x}\right)$$ for all $x\geq ...
2
votes
0answers
70 views

Riemann's explicit formula for $\pi(x)$

Riemann's explicit formula $J(x)=\mathrm{Li}(x)-\sum_{\Im\varrho>0}\left(\mathrm{Li}(x^\varrho)+\mathrm{Li}(x^{1-\varrho})\right)+\int_x^\infty\frac{\mathrm{d}t}{t(t^2-1)\log t}-\log2,$ where ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

On the prime number theorem in shorts intervals

In 1988 Heath-Brown (" The number of primes in a short interval ", J. reine angew. Math. 389, 22-63) proved this theorem: Let $\varepsilon\left(x\right)\leq\frac{1}{12}$ be a non-negative function ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

Cramer and Riemann Conjecture Implication

Cramer's conjecture gives $$p_{n+1}-p_n= O(\log^2 p_n)$$ while Riemann Hypothesis yields just $$p_{n+1}-p_n= O(\sqrt p_n\log^2 p_n).$$ Does Cramer conjecture on prime gaps imply Riemann Hypothesis ...
2
votes
0answers
37 views

parity problems for sieve methods, is it only for Selberg Sieve or for all sieve methods?

It is said that sieve methods have parity problems. Terence Tao gave this "rough" statement of the problem: "Parity problem. If A is a set whose elements are all products of an odd number of primes ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

How to compute $\lim_{s \to 1} (s-1) \frac{\zeta'(s)}{\zeta(s)} $ ?

I wish to verify the conditions of a certain theorem to prove that the integral $$\int_{1}^{\infty} \frac{\psi(x) - x}{x^2} dx $$ converges. (Where $\psi(x) = \sum_{n\leq x} \Lambda (n) $, and ...
9
votes
2answers
279 views

What are some equivalent statements of (strong) Goldbach Conjecture?

What are some equivalent statements of (strong) Goldbach Conjecture ? We all know that Riemann Hypothesis has some interesting equivalent statements. My favorites are involved with Mertens ...
2
votes
2answers
181 views

Riemann Hypothesis and Prime Count

Let $\pi(a)$ be the number of primes below $a>0$. The prime number theorem states $\pi(a)\sim\frac{a}{\ln a}$. My question is trivial. Is $$\frac{a}{\ln a}\leq\pi(a)\leq\frac{a}{\ln a}+c\sqrt{a}\ln ...
2
votes
2answers
115 views

Chebyshev's first function prime count

How is Chebyshev's first function $$\vartheta(N)=\sum_{p\leq N}\log p$$ useful in counting primes? Can it alone be used to analytically derive the prime number theorem?
8
votes
2answers
223 views

Importance of the zero free region of Riemann zeta function

I have heard that for improving the error term in the Prime Number Theorem, we need better and better estimates on the zero free region. I have also heard that the best possible error term comes from ...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

Summing the reciprocal of $\phi(n)^2$

I am currently reading Vaughan's book 'The Hardy-Littlewood method' and am working on exercise 3.3 (page 37). I have tried working through a special case but that didn't help either. More concretely, ...
2
votes
1answer
41 views

How to find all Dirichlet characters

I want to know all the Dirichlet characters modulo $m$. I know that the number of such characters are $\phi(m)$. But how do find each and every character. for small moduli I could do it using some ...
2
votes
3answers
75 views

Arithmetic functions of particular type

Any there any natural functions real valued single variable that: changes (increases) values only at primes but otherwise stay constant (like a non periodic increasing staircase)? whose increase in ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Looking for methods for approximating an iterative equation regarding primes

In a previous question, I was looking for an equation for counting the number of the number of integers between $1$ and $x$ that have a prime factor besides $2$ or $3$. There were 2 iterative ...
5
votes
0answers
48 views

Kloosterman sum and multiples of 16

A Kloosterman sum is defined as $$K(a,b;m)=\sum_{0\leq x \leq m-1}_{\gcd(x,m)=1} e^{2\pi \mathcal{i} (ax+bx^*)/m}$$ where $a,b,m \in \mathbb{N}$ and $x^*$ is the inverse of $x$ modulo $m$. How can ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

GCD of Arguments of Kloosterman Sum

A Kloosterman sum is defined as $$K(a,b;m)=\sum_{0\leq x \leq m-1}_{\gcd(x,m)=1} e^{2\pi \mathcal{i} (ax+bx^*)/m}$$ where $a,b,m \in \mathbb{N}$ and $x^*$ is the inverse of $x$ modulo $m$. It ...
2
votes
0answers
50 views

Riemann Zeta Function and Laurent Expansion

In the wikipedia page "1+2+3+4+..." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_%2B_2_%2B_3_%2B_4_%2B_%E2%8B%AF (and specifically in the section "Zeta Function Regularization")it is stated without reference ...
1
vote
1answer
165 views

Abscissa of convergence for a Dirichlet series

Let $\alpha \in \mathbb{Z}$ and $f(n) = n^{i \alpha n}$. What is the abscissa of convergence, $\sigma_c$, for the associated Dirichlet series, $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{f(n)}{n^s}$? Since $|f(n)| = ...
0
votes
2answers
107 views

Prove that as $x\to\infty $, $\sum\limits_{p \leq x} \frac{1}{p \log \log p} \approx \log \log \log x$

Prove that as $x\to\infty$, $$\sum_{p \leq x} \frac{1}{p \log \log p} \approx \log \log \log x$$ Here sum is taken over primes.I tried to use the partial summation formula but could not ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Convergence of a certain series of Primes

This is a problem from Alan Baker's Comprehensive Course in Number Theory. We have to show that $\displaystyle \sum\limits_{p} \frac{1}{p (\log\log p)^{\delta}}$ converges for all $\delta >1$.Here ...
4
votes
1answer
54 views

equivalence between Chebyshev estimation and pi estimation in PNT

I searched, but though many posts are close, none of them are dublicates. Our version of PNT states that there is some $c$ s.t. $$\psi(x)=x+O(x\exp(-c\sqrt{\ln x}))$$ We have to prove equivalence ...
1
vote
2answers
110 views

References for Riemann Hypotheis giving the best bound for Prime Number Theorem

Which books cover the proof that Riemann Hypothesis is equivalent to the best error bound for the Prime Number Theorem? My understanding is that Riemann Hypothesis is equivalent to the best bound of ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Reference for Analytic Number Theory

Are there any good video lectures available on Analytic Number Theory? I have a decent background of complex analysis but I have just started Analytic Number Theory.
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Solving $x^n \equiv a \text{ (mod } p)$ in $\mathbb{Z}$

I want to show that for any integers $a$ and $n,$ ($n > 1$) there are infinitely many primes $p$ such that $$x^n \equiv a \text{ (mod } p).$$ When $n$ is odd, I used the fact that if $(a,p)=1$ ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Product involving Dirichlet characters $\prod_{i=1}^{\phi(m)}(1 - \frac{\chi_i(p)}{p^s}) =(1 - \frac{1}{p^{fs}})^{\frac{\phi(m)}{f}}$

While working with divisors in cyclotomic extensions of $\mathbb{Q},$ I came across this identity: Given a prime $p$ and an integer $m$ such that $(p,m) =1$, let $f$ be the smallest such the $p^f ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Nonvanishing of Dirichlet Series on Re(s)=1

I am reading a proof of Prime numbers in Dirichlet arithmetic progressions via this link: http://www.math.leidenuniv.nl/~evertse/ant14-7.pdf However, according to his lemma 7.6, the writer wanted to ...
3
votes
1answer
70 views

Mangoldt Lambda Sum Rearrangement (from proof of Logarithmic Derivative of Riemann zeta function)

Also, we have by the definition of Λ, $$\sum_{n\geq 1} \Lambda(n) n^{−s} = \sum_p(\log p) \sum_{n \geq 1}p^{−ns}$$ (From https://proofwiki.org/wiki/Logarithmic_Derivative_of_Riemann_Zeta_Function) ...