Questions on the use of the methods of real/complex analysis in the study of number theory.

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2
votes
1answer
48 views

Product of zeta and its conjugate

Suppose we have the zeta function $\zeta(s)$, and we want to multiply it by its complex conjugate $\zeta(s)^*$. Since $\zeta(s)^* = \zeta(s^*)$, we get $\displaystyle \zeta(s)\cdot\zeta(s)^* = ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Evaluation of Riemann-Stieltjes integral in Laurent expansion of zeta function

I'm probably being really stupid but in a proof of the Laurent expansion of the Riemann zeta function the quantity \begin{equation} S_r(t) = \sum_{n \leq t} \frac{(\log (x/n))^r}{n} \end{equation} is ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

On Dirichlet Theorem on primes in AP.

Let $A(h,k) = \{h + km: m = 0,1,2,\dots\}\;\;$ (EDIT: and $(h,k)=1$) Without using Dirichlet's Theorem, Prove that for every positive integer $n$, $A(h,k)$ contains infinitely numbers relatively ...
4
votes
1answer
44 views

Motivation for using $L(1,\chi)$ in the proof of Dirichlet's Theorem

Having read the proof of Dirichlet's Theorem on the infinitude of primes in arithmetic progressions, I am left wondering what his motivation for studying $L(1,\chi)$ was and why it is reasonable that ...
0
votes
0answers
61 views

A partial sum involving Euler's function

This is Exercise 2.1.17 of the book "H. Montgomery and R. Vaughan. Multiplicative Number Theory— I. Classical Theory". For $x\ge 2$, $\sum_{n\le x}\frac{\mu(n)^2}{\varphi(n)}=\log ...
6
votes
1answer
107 views

2014 USAMO #6, analytic number theory

Prove that there is a constant $c > 0$ with the following property: If $a, b, n$ are positive integers such that $ \gcd(a+i, b+j)>1 $ for all $ i, j\in\{0, 1,\ldots, n\} $ then $$ \min\{a, ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Dirichlet L function

The function is defined here - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dirichlet_L-function If $\chi$ is primitive and $\chi(-1)=1$ how do I show that $L$ has infinite number of zeros in the critical strip
1
vote
1answer
86 views

$\sum_{p\le x} \frac{1}{pq}$

I was given that $\sum_{p\le x} \frac{1}{p}$ = $\log\log x$+O(1). I need to show that $\sum_{pq\le x} \frac{1}{pq} = (\log \log x)^2 + O(\log \log x)$. Here we go: Break the sum into two sums: ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Generalized Riemann Hypothesis : Zeros of Dirichlet L function and its functional equation

Let $\chi$ pe a primitive character modulo q with $\chi(-1)=1$ ; L is the Dirichlet - L function Define, $\xi(z,\chi)=(q/\pi)^{z/2}\Gamma(z/2)L(z,\chi)$ Show that $L(z,\chi)$ has infinitely many ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Changing order of summation with Mobius function

Let $\mu(d)$ be the Mobius function, and $\mu_r(d)$ be the modified Mobius function which satisfies $\mu_r(d)=0$ if $d$ has strictly more than $r$ distinct prime factors. Let $\psi_r(n)=\sum_{d\mid ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Generalized Logarithmic Integral

Euler's logarithmic integral (of particular application in the Prime Number Theorem, for instance) is of the form \begin{equation*} \text{li}(x) := \int_0^{x} \frac{dt}{\log t} \end{equation*} and it ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Residues of $\frac{x^s}{s}\frac{\zeta'(s)}{\zeta\phantom{'}(s)}$

Going through a proof in Analyti number theory, the calculation of the residues of $$ f(s) = \frac{x^s}{s}\frac{\zeta'(s)}{\zeta\phantom{'}(s)} $$ came up. I do have some experience with complex ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Low bound of Dirichlet eta function

every one. Suppose that $\eta(s)$ is Dirichlet eta function, I may find a low bound of this function, namely $\eta(2n)>\frac{2^{2n-1}-2}{2^{2n-1}-1}$ with $n>1$ and $n$ is a integer. But is ...
4
votes
2answers
69 views

Squares modulo 2^n

How many squares are there modulo $2^n$? If we would deal with $p^n$, where p an odd prime, then we could use Hensel's Lemma, which clearly doesn't work with $2^n$.
4
votes
2answers
107 views

What does this $\asymp$ symbol mean? (subject: analytic number theory)

I'm reading a survey article by Andrew Granville on analytic number theory. On page 22 of the paper, there appears a strange looking symbol, undefined. I've circled it in red in the screenshot ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

Error term of the prime number theorem in arithmetic progressions

It is known that if $(a, q)$ and $q\le (\ln x)^N$, then the following is true $$\sum_{k\le x, k\equiv a\pmod{q}}\Lambda(k) = \frac{x}{\phi(q)} + O(x\exp(-C\sqrt{\ln x}))$$ where $C$ depends only on ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Rewriting $\tau(p)\Delta(\tau)$ when $p$ is prime

$p$ is a prime, and $\tau$ is Ramanujan's tau function: $$p^{11}\Delta(p\tau)+\frac{1}{p}\sum_{k=0}^{p-1}\Delta\bigg(\frac{\tau + ...
2
votes
2answers
102 views

Apostol - Analytic Number Theory, Chapter 3 problem 4a

The problem comes from "Introduction to Analytic Number Theory" by Tom M. Apostol, Chapter 3, Problem 4a: Question: Prove $\sum_{n \le x} \mu(n)[ \frac xn]^2 = \frac{x^2}{\zeta(2)} + O(x \log(x))$ ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Asymptotic result about analytic number theory

I don't know if there is any done work done about ehis matter, and I don't have access to research news. I'm interested in this question (I haen't tried to answer it myself, but it seems very ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Rational vs irrational

If two points on a number line is shown, are rational numbers between the two points is more or irrational number is more ? I have tried using probability , my collegue who was like my teacher also ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

Generalizations of results on the sum of divisors function over $\mathbb{Q}$ to number fields

Consider the sum of divisor function $$ \sigma_0(n) = \sum_{d\mid n} 1. $$ This is known to satisfy $\sum_{n\leq x} \sigma_0(n) = (x\log x)+2\gamma x+\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{x})$. If, instead, we shift the ...
2
votes
2answers
93 views

Riemann zeta, why are the residues either zero or one?

One more question, probably equally simple to answer but I don't know how this is true either: Why is the residue of Riemann zeta zero - trivial or non-trivial: $$\text{residue}\left(\zeta ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Prime Counting: Relationship between Chebyshev's function and the Prime counting function

How do I show that if $\psi(x)=x+O(x^{1/2}\log^2(x))$ then $\pi(x)=\int_2^x \frac{dt}{logt} + O(x^{1/2}\log x)$ Where $\psi(x)$ is Chebyshev's second function and $\pi(x)$ is the prime counting ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Pole of Riemann zeta and Riemann zeta zeros, prove this relation.

Prove this relation: $$\displaystyle \lim_{s\to 1} \, \left(\zeta (s)-\frac{\zeta '(s-1+\rho _n)}{\zeta \left(s-1+\rho _n\right)}\right)=\gamma -\frac{\zeta ''(\rho _n)}{2 \zeta '(\rho ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Equation with a sum for the prime-counting function involving the Mobius function

I have come across the statement that $$ \sum_{n\leq x}\sum_{d\mid(n,P_z)}\mu(d) = \sum_{d\mid P_z}\mu(d) \left[\frac{x}{d}\right], $$ where $P_z=\prod_{p\leq z}p$ where $p$ is prime, $\mu(d)$ is the ...
5
votes
2answers
330 views

Applications of generating functions to number theory

I am familiar (at least at a cursory level) with the extensive role generating functions play in the theory of partitions. What are some other prominent applications of generating functions to number ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Relation between Dirichlet convolution and Bell series and convolution of functions and the Fourier transform?

We define the Dirichlet convolution of two arithmetical functions $a,b:\mathbb{N}\to\mathbb{C}$ to be $$ (a*b)(n)=\sum_{d\mid n}a(d)b\left(\frac{n}{d}\right). $$ Given a prime $p$, we define the Bell ...
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Sums Involving the Mobius Function

Are there any good approximations for the following sums in terms of $n$? $$\sum_{k=1}^{n}\mu(k)$$ $$\sum_{k=1}^{n}\mu(k)\log^m(k)$$ $$\sum_{k=1}^{n}\frac{\mu(k)}{k}.$$ I realize that the third sum ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

Can the exact value of the product over the Riemann zeta function at even arguments be evaluated?

According to wolframalpha, the product over the Riemann zeta function at even arguments converges : $$\prod_{n=1}^{\infty} \zeta(2n) \approx 1.82 $$ Q1: Can it be proved that this product actually ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

Numerical verification of the ternary Goldbach conjecture

In his proof of the ternary Goldbach conjecture, H.A. Helfgott says that it has been verified that every odd number less than $N_0 = 10^{30}$ is the sum of at most 3 primes. How would one verify this ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

Zero Free Regions of Zeta'

I'm interested in calculating all of the zeroes of the first derivative of the Riemann $\zeta$ function. I know that (on the RH), all of these zeroes will have real part $\geq \frac{1}{2}$. I am ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Derivation of a generalization of Mertens' Third Theorem.

One of Mertens' Theorems states $$\prod_{p\le x}(1-\frac{1}{p})\sim \frac{e^{-\gamma}}{\ln(x)}.$$ I have seen a generalized version that states $$\prod_{m<p\le x}(1-\frac{m}{p})\sim ...
4
votes
0answers
99 views

Multiplicative subgroup of a finite field with prescribed trace.

Any suggestions/methods/estimates for the following problem would be very appreciated. $l,p$ are primes with $p \equiv 1 \!\! \pmod l$. $r$ is a positive integer with $r \equiv 1 \!\! \pmod p$ and $q ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Sum of Euler Phi equalities

Show: $\sum_{n\le x} \phi(n) [\frac{x}{n}] = \sum_{n \le x} \sum_{m\le \frac{x}{n}} \phi(m)$ I know the left most sum boils down to $\sum_{n\le x} n$. If we know that $m|\frac{x}{n}$ then we know ...
2
votes
0answers
135 views

Good book on analytic continuation?

For my Bachelor's thesis, I am investigating divergent series summation methods. One of those is analytic continuation. There are quite a few books on complex analysis that include a chapter or two on ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Euler totient function sum of divisors. Theorem 2.2 Apostol

Prove that : $If $ $ n\ge{1} $ $ \sum_{d|n}\phi(d)=N $ $ N \in{\mathbb Z} $ Let S denote the set {1,2,...,n}. We distribute the integers of S into disjoint sets as follows. For each divisor d ...
1
vote
1answer
124 views

how to find an upper bound for this series

I don't understand why $$\left|\sum_{b<y}\frac{\mu(b)\rho(bc)}{b}\right|\ll\tau(c)log(y)^{-A}$$ with $A>1$, where $\mu(b)$ is the mobius function and $\rho(n)$ is the number of solution of ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Proof of convergence of $L'\left(1,\chi\right)$

can someone give me a good reference for a clear proof of the convergence of $L'\left(1,\chi\right)$, $\chi$ real-valued, non-principal Dirichlet character? Thanks in advance.
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Question about Abel summation

Now in this sum. $A(y) =\sum_{n=1}^y a_n$ or $A(y) =\sum_{n=0}^y a_n$ Which one is true where does n starts?
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Analytic proof of quadratic reciprocity

Is there any proof of quadratic reciprocity that is more analytic than those described on Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proofs_of_quadratic_reciprocity)?
5
votes
0answers
113 views

What are going to change of our view if $\pi+e$ is a rational? [closed]

It is well known that there's no conclusion now whether $\pi+e$ is a rational or not. Just for curiosity, what will happen if we know the answer?
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Evaluation of certain trigonometric sums

In trying to approximate the number of solutions to the equation $3^n - 2 = k^2$ for positive integers $n, k$, I tried to use the circle method. In doing so, I had to bound the trigonometric sum for ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Questions about the proof that every odd integer is the sum of 5 primes

In http://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.6656.pdf, Tao proved that all odd numbers greater than 1 are the sum of 1, 3, or 5 primes. In page 36-37, he uses the fact that for all $x > 1.1\times10^{10}$, there ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

Explanation for a theorem pertaining on Dirichlet character sums

A very well known theorem pertaining on Dirichlet characters sums states that if $\chi$ is a Dirichlet character modulo $k$, defining $$ A\left(n\right)=\sum_{d\mid n}\chi\left(d\right) $$ Then ...
3
votes
2answers
144 views

Find the number of series

Find the number of series $(a_1,..., a_{2n})$ that have terms from ${\{0,...9\}}$ so that: $$ 11|\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i-\sum_{i=n+1}^{2n}a_i $$ (this is not a homework) There is a similar problem ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Lower bound on certain exponential sums and expressions related to them

Let $$G(\alpha, x) = \sum_{n\le x}e(\alpha n^2)$$ Clearly, $r_k(n)$, the number of representations of a number as the sum of $k$ squares is given by the following expression: $$r_k(n) = \int_0^1 ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Factorization Patterns for Ideals

Let $K/\mathbb{Q}$ be a Galois Number field. Let $p$ be an unramified rational prime. In this extension, for any $P,Q | p\mathcal{O}_K$ then the relative degrees $f(P) := [\mathcal{O}_K/P : ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Tightest constant factor for error term of the prime number theorem

What are the best known (unconditional) bounds on the following: $$\mid\psi(x) - x\mid$$ (With a known constant factor)
5
votes
1answer
57 views

Intuitive basis of Mobius inversion?

If we're given $f(n)= \sum_{d|n}g\left(\frac{n}{d}\right),n \in \mathbb{N},$ then Mobius inversion gives $$g(n)=\sum_{d|n}\mu \left( d\right) f \left( \frac{n}{d}\right).$$ Also, the generalised ...
4
votes
1answer
38 views

Precise Error Term in Chebotarev's Theorem

Let $K/\mathbb{Q}$ be a Galois Number Field with Galois group $G$ and discriminant $\Delta_K$. Chebotarev's theorem states that the number of (unramified) rational primes with Frobenius conjugacy ...