Mathematical analysis. Consider a more specific tag instead: (real-analysis), (complex-analysis), (functional-analysis), (fourier-analysis), (measure-theory), (calculus-of-variations), etc. For data analysis, use (data-analysis).

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590
votes
16answers
54k views

Is $\frac{\textrm{d}y}{\textrm{d}x}$ not a ratio?

In the book Thomas's Calculus (11th edition) it is mentioned (Section 3.8 pg 225) that the derivative $\frac{\textrm{d}y}{\textrm{d}x}$ is not a ratio. Couldn't it be interpreted as a ratio, because ...
246
votes
15answers
28k views

Why does $1+2+3+\cdots = -\frac{1}{12}$?

$\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^s}$ only converges to $\zeta(s)$ if $\text{Re}(s) > 1$. Why should analytically continuing to $\zeta(-1)$ give the right answer?
437
votes
19answers
42k views

Is value of $\pi = 4$?

What is wrong with this? SOURCE
117
votes
21answers
31k views

Solving the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin{x}}{x} \ dx = \frac{\pi}{2}$?

A famous exercise which one encounters while doing Complex Analysis (Residue theory) is to prove that the given integral: $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin{x}}{x} \, dx = \frac{\pi}{2}$$ Well, can ...
16
votes
8answers
2k views

How to show that $\lim_{n \to +\infty} n^{\frac{1}{n}} = 1$?

I've spent the better part of this day trying to show from first principles that this sequence tends to 1. Could anyone give me an idea of how I can approach this problem? $$ \lim_{n \to +\infty} n^{...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Inequality involving $\limsup$ and $\liminf$: $ \liminf(a_{n+1}/a_n) \le \liminf((a_n)^{(1/n)}) \le \limsup((a_n)^{(1/n)}) \le \limsup(a_{n+1}/a_n)$

This may have been asked before, however I was unable to find any duplicate. This comes from pg. 52 of "Mathematical Analysis: An Introduction" by Browder. Problem 14: If $(a_n)$ is a sequence in $...
45
votes
10answers
9k views

Proof of $\int_0^\infty \left(\frac{\sin x}{x}\right)^2 \mathrm dx=\frac{\pi}{2}.$

I am looking for a short proof that $$\int_0^\infty \left(\frac{\sin x}{x}\right)^2 \mathrm dx=\frac{\pi}{2}.$$ What do you think? It is kind of amazing that $$\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin x}{x} \mathrm ...
24
votes
4answers
4k views

Sine function dense in $[-1,1]$

We know that the sine function takes it values between $[-1,1]$. So is the set $$A = \{ \sin{n} \ : \ n \in \mathbb{N}\}$$ dense in $[-1,1]$. Generally, for showing the set is dense, one proceeds, by ...
94
votes
7answers
9k views

Why is $1^{\infty}$ considered to be an indeterminate form

From Wikipedia: In calculus and other branches of mathematical analysis, an indeterminate form is an algebraic expression obtained in the context of limits. Limits involving algebraic operations are ...
55
votes
2answers
28k views

When can a sum and integral be interchanged?

Let's say I have $\int_{0}^{\infty}\sum_{n = 0}^{\infty} f_{n}(x)\, dx$ with $f_{n}(x)$ being continuous functions. When can interchange the integral and summation? Is $f_{n}(x) \geq 0$ for all $x$ ...
45
votes
5answers
3k views

Proof of Frullani's theorem

How can I prove the Theorem of Frullani? I did not even know all the hypothesis that $f$ must satisfy, but I think that this are Let $\,f:\left[ {0,\infty } \right) \to \mathbb R$ be a a continuously ...
66
votes
12answers
24k views

Any open subset of $\Bbb R$ is a at most countable union of disjoint open intervals. [Collecting Proofs]

This question has probably been asked. However, I am not interested in just getting the answer to it. Rather, I am interested in collecting as many different proofs of it which are as diverse as ...
18
votes
5answers
3k views

Nonzero $f \in C([0, 1])$ for which $\int_0^1 f(x)x^n dx = 0$ for all $n$

As the title says, I'm wondering if there is a continuous function such that $f$ is nonzero on $[0, 1]$, and for which $\int_0^1 f(x)x^n dx = 0$ for all $n \geq 1$. I am trying to solve a problem ...
41
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the limit of $n \sin (2 \pi \cdot e \cdot n!)$ as $n$ goes to infinity?

I tried and got this $$e=\sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{1}{k!}=\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}$$ $$n!\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}=\frac{n!}{0!}+\frac{n!}{1!}+\cdots+\frac{n!}{n!}=m$$ where $m$ is an ...
21
votes
3answers
3k views

$f$ uniformly continuous and $\int_a^\infty f(x)\,dx$ converges imply $\lim_{x \to \infty} f(x) = 0$ [closed]

Trying to solve $f(x)$ is uniformly continuous in the range of $[0, +\infty)$ and $\int_a^\infty f(x)dx $ converges. I need to prove that: $$\lim \limits_{x \to \infty} f(x) = 0$$ Would ...
10
votes
4answers
1k views

Combinatorial proof

Using notion of derivative of functions from Taylor formula follow that $$e^x=\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{x^k}{k!}$$ Is there any elementary combinatorial proof of this formula here is my proof for $x$...
60
votes
6answers
5k views

Continuity of the roots of a polynomial in terms of its coefficients

It's commonly stated that the roots of a polynomial are a continuous function of the coefficients. How is this statement formalized? I would assume it's by restricting to polynomials of a fixed ...
16
votes
6answers
1k views

How can I compute the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{dt}{1+t^4}$?

I have to compute this integral $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{dt}{1+t^4}$$ to solve a problem in a homework. I have tried in many ways, but I'm stuck. A search in the web reveals me that it can be do it ...
29
votes
2answers
2k views

Continuity and the Axiom of Choice

In my introductory Analysis course, we learned two definitions of continuity. $(1)$ A function $f:E \to \mathbb{C}$ is continuous at $a$ if every sequence $(z_n) \in E$ such that $z_n \to a$ ...
27
votes
1answer
5k views

Proving that the sequence $F_{n}(x)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} \frac{\sin{kx}}{k}$ is boundedly convergent on $\mathbb{R}$

Here is an exercise, on analysis which i am stuck. How do I prove that if $F_{n}(x)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} \frac{\sin{kx}}{k}$, then the sequence $\{F_{n}(x)\}$ is boundedly convergent on $\mathbb{R}...
32
votes
4answers
2k views

Computing $\zeta(6)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^\infty \frac1{k^6}$ with Fourier series.

Let $ f$ be a function such that $ f\in C_{2\pi}^{0}(\mathbb{R},\mathbb{R}) $ (f is $2\pi$-periodic) such that $ \forall x \in [0,\pi]$: $$f(x)=x(\pi-x)$$ Computing the Fourier series of $f$ and ...
14
votes
2answers
4k views

How do you show that $l_p \subset l_q$ for $p \leq q$?

I can't seem to work out the inequality $(\sum |x_n|^q)^{1/q} \leq (\sum |x_n|^p)^{1/p}$ for $p \leq q$ (which I'm assuming is the way to go about it).
23
votes
3answers
2k views

Choice of $q$ in Baby Rudin's Example 1.1

First, my apologies if this has already been asked/answered. I wasn't able to find this question via search. My question comes from Rudin's "Princicples of Mathematical Analysis," or "Baby Rudin," ...
6
votes
6answers
12k views

Show that a continuous function has a fixed point

Question: Let $a, b \in \mathbb{R}$ with $a < b$ and let $f: [a,b] \rightarrow [a,b]$ continuous. Show: $f$ has a fixed point, that is, there is an $x \in [a,b]$ with $f(x)=x$. I suppose this has ...
8
votes
2answers
235 views

Prove that $|f''(\xi)|\geqslant\frac{4|f(a)-f(b)|}{(b-a)^2}$

Let ${\rm f}:\left[a, b\right]\to\mathbb{R}$ be twice differentiable, and suppose $$\lim_{x\to a^{+}} \frac{{\rm f}\left(x\right) - {\rm f}\left(a\right)}{x - a} = \lim_{x\to b^{-}}\frac{{\rm f}\...
95
votes
3answers
23k views

Evaluate $\int_0^1 \frac{\log \left( 1+x^{2+\sqrt{3}}\right)}{1+x}\mathrm dx$

I am trying to find a closed form for $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log \left( 1+x^{2+\sqrt{3}}\right)}{1+x}\mathrm dx = 0.094561677526995723016 \cdots$$ It seems that the answer is $$\frac{\pi^2}{12}\left( 1-\...
13
votes
4answers
6k views

Prove $\limsup\limits_{n \to \infty} (a_n+b_n) \le \limsup\limits_{n \to \infty} a_n + \limsup\limits_{n \to \infty} b_n$

I am stuck with the following problem. Prove that $$\limsup_{n \to \infty} (a_n+b_n) \le \limsup_{n \to \infty} a_n + \limsup_{n \to \infty} b_n$$ I was thinking of using the triangle inequality ...
14
votes
3answers
3k views

Upper and Lower Bounds of $\emptyset$

From some reading, I've noticed that $\sup(\emptyset)=\min(S)$, but $\inf(\emptyset)=\max(S)$, given that $\min(S)$ and $\max(S)$ exist, where $S$ is the universe in which one is working. Is there ...
25
votes
4answers
4k views

Finding Value of the Infinite Product $\prod \Bigl(1-\frac{1}{n^{2}}\Bigr)$

While trying some problems along with my friends we had difficulty in this question. True or False: The value of the infinite product $$\prod\limits_{n=2}^{\infty} \biggl(1-\frac{1}{n^{2}}\biggr)$$ ...
1
vote
3answers
802 views

Prove that a function having a derivative bounded by 0.49 has a unique solution $\frac{2x+\sin(x)}{2}$

Let f : $\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be differentiable function and suppose that $|f'(x)|\le 0.49$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}$. Prove that the equation $f(x) =\frac{2x+\sin(x)}{2}$ has a unique ...
63
votes
6answers
8k views

Is $[0,1]$ a countable disjoint union of closed sets?

Can you express $[0,1]$ as a countable disjoint union of closed sets, other than the trivial way of doing this?
18
votes
1answer
2k views

Compute the inverse Laplace transform of $e^{-\sqrt{z}}$

I want to compute the inverse Laplace transform of a function $$ F(z) = e^{-\sqrt{z}}. $$ This problem seems very nontrivial to me. Here one can find the answer: the inverse Laplace transform of ...
15
votes
8answers
10k views

Why does a circle enclose the largest area?

In this wikipedia, article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle#Area_enclosed its stated that the circle is the closed curve which has the maximum area for a given arc length. First, of all, I would ...
18
votes
3answers
390 views

The set of functions which map convergent series to convergent series

Suppose $f$ is some real function with the above property, i.e. if $\sum\limits_{n = 0}^\infty {x_n}$ converges, then $\sum\limits_{n = 0}^\infty {f(x_n)}$ also converges. My question is: can ...
14
votes
5answers
2k views

use of $\sum $ for uncountable indexing set

I was wondering whether it makes sense to use the $\sum $ notation for uncountable indexing sets. For example it seems to me it would not make sense to say $$ \sum_{a \in A} a \quad \text{where A is ...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

Proof of continuity of Thomae Function at irrationals.

In Thomae's Function: $$ \begin{align} t(x) = \begin{cases} 0 & \text{if $x$ is irrational}\\ \frac{1}{n} & \text{if $x = \frac{m}{n}$ where $\gcd(m,n) = 1$} \end{cases} \end{align} $$ I ...
28
votes
3answers
3k views

Evaluating the nested radical $ \sqrt{1 + 2 \sqrt{1 + 3 \sqrt{1 + \cdots}}} $.

How does one prove the following limit? $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} \sqrt{1 + 2 \sqrt{1 + 3 \sqrt{1 + \cdots \sqrt{1 + (n - 1) \sqrt{1 + n}}}}} = 3. $$
33
votes
4answers
2k views

A stronger version of discrete “Liouville's theorem”

If a function $f : \mathbb Z\times \mathbb Z \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{+} $ satisfies the following condition $$\forall x, y \in \mathbb{Z}, f(x,y) = \dfrac{f(x + 1, y)+f(x, y + 1) + f(x - 1, y) +f(x, ...
43
votes
9answers
18k views

Why is $\Gamma\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)=\sqrt{\pi}$ ?

It seems as if no one has asked this here before, unless I don't know how to search. The Gamma function is $$ \Gamma(\alpha)=\int_0^\infty x^{\alpha-1} e^{-x}\,dx. $$ Why is $$ \Gamma\left(\frac{1}{2}...
26
votes
2answers
2k views

Global invertibility of a map $\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}^n$ from everywhere local invertibility

I was told by a tutor that if $f: \mathbb{R}^n \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$ has an invertible Jacobian Matrix for all $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$ and $\lim_{|x_k| \rightarrow \infty}|f(x_k)|=\infty$ for all ...
25
votes
3answers
20k views

Pointwise vs. Uniform Convergence

This is a pretty basic question. I just don't understand the definition of uniform convergence. Here are my given definitions for pointwise and uniform convergence: Pointwise limit: Let $X$ be a set,...
21
votes
2answers
4k views

Why Doesn't Cantor's Diagonal Argument Also Apply to Natural Numbers?

In my understanding of Cantor's diagonal argument, we start by representing each of a set of real numbers as an infinite bit string. My question is, why can't we begin by representing each natural ...
8
votes
5answers
3k views

If $f'$ tends to a positive limit as $x$ approaches infinity, then $f$ approaches infinity

Some time ago, I asked this here. A restricted form of the second question could be this: If $f$ is a function with continuous first derivative in $\mathbb{R}$ and such that $$\lim_{x\to \infty} f'...
5
votes
2answers
471 views

If $ x_n \to x $ then $ z_n = \frac{x_1 + \dots +x_n}{n} \to x $

I have this problem I'm working on. Hints are much appreciated (I don't want complete proof): In a normed vector space, if $ x_n \longrightarrow x $ then $ z_n = \frac{x_1 + \dots +x_n}{n} \...
3
votes
1answer
393 views

Orthogonal complement examples

I am looking for an example such that in a pre-Hilbert space $H$ we have for a subspace $U$ that (i) $\bar{U} \oplus U^\perp \neq H$ (ii) $ \bar{U} \neq U^{\perp \perp}$ Since finite and closed ...
32
votes
6answers
2k views

A closed form for the sum $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\left(\frac{H_n}{n}\right)^2$

How can I find a closed form for the following sum? $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\left(\frac{H_n}{n}\right)^2$$ ($H_n=\sum_{k=1}^n\frac{1}{k}$).
8
votes
6answers
4k views

Gaussian-like integral : $\int_0^{\infty} e^{-x^2} \cos( a x) \ \mathrm{d}x$

Prove that : $$ \frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{2} e^{-\frac{a^2}{4} } =\int_0^{\infty} e^{-x^2} \cos( a x) \ \mathrm{d}x$$ the only thing I can think of is differentiating the RHS and trying to get : $$ -2 f'(...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

Series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\cos(nx)}{n^2}$

Is it true that for $x\in[0,2\pi]$ we have $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\cos(nx)}{n^2}=\frac{x^2}{4}-\frac{\pi x}{2}+\frac{\pi^2}{6}$$ How can I prove it? For other intervals what is the value of above ...
18
votes
2answers
1k views

If $f,g$ are both analytic and $f(z) = g(z)$ for uncountably many $z$, is it true that $f = g$?

If two analytical functions of $\mathbb{C}$ f and g are equal on an infinite number of input values, than they are equal. I can't seem to find a counterexample, but I haven't seen this anywhere ...
5
votes
2answers
7k views

Is the function distance continuous?

And if not, what are the most common hypotheses (on open sets it induces, for example) under which distance is a continuous function?