Mathematical analysis. Consider a more specific tag instead: (real-analysis), (complex-analysis), (functional-analysis), (fourier-analysis), (measure-theory), (calculus-of-variations), etc. For data analysis, use (data-analysis).

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43 views

Space of bounded functions vs. bounded space of functions.

Suppose I have a bounded set of functions, say $B\subset C[0,1]$. What exactly does this mean? I.e. is a bounded set of continuous functions equivalent to a set of continuous bounded functions? For ...
1
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2answers
204 views

Scalar-by-matrix Derivative of Quadratic Product

I'd like to know $\frac{\partial f(\mathbf{U})}{\partial \mathbf{U}}$, i.e., the 'by-matrix derivative' of the following scalar function $f(\mathbf{U})$ w.r.t. $\mathbf{U}$. $$f(\mathbf{U}) = \vec{x}^...
2
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2answers
93 views

How to do this integral $\int_{-\pi}^{\pi} x^n \cos^m(x) dx$?

is there a way to explicitely evaluate this integral for natural numbers $n,m$: $$\int_{-\pi}^{\pi} x^n \cos^m(x) dx.$$ Apparently, if $n$ is odd, this integral is zero due to symmetry.
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0answers
49 views

Different Formulations of Riesz' lemma

Version I: Let $U$ be a closed subspace of the normed space $X$ with $U \ne X$. Also let $0 < \delta < 1$, then there exists $x_{\delta} \in X$ with $||x_{\delta}|| = 1$ and $$ || x_{\delta} -...
2
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1answer
116 views

What's $\sum{\frac{x^n}{n^3}}$?

What's $\displaystyle f(x)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty{\frac{x^n}{n^3}}$? Note its derivative: $$\displaystyle f'(x)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty{\frac{x^{n-1}}{n^2}}$$ and the next derivative: $$\displaystyle f''(x)=\...
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1answer
40 views

Fibre is open in covering space

I think I don't see the wood for the trees: In my notes I found the remark that if $p:E \rightarrow B$ is a covering map, then for each $b \in B$ we have that $p^{-1}(b)$ in $E$ has the discrete ...
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1answer
65 views

Topological properties of $(0,1)\times \{0\}$

I am having a real hard time solving simple proofs involving open sets. I am confronted with this one: Is $(0,1)\times \{0\}$ open? Is it compact? What is its interior? I know $(0,1)$ is open. ...
2
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2answers
70 views

Can we expect to find some constant $C$; so that, $\sum_{n\in \mathbb Z} \frac{1}{1+(n-y)^{2}} <C$ for all $y\in \mathbb R;$?

Fix $y\in \mathbb R;$ and consider the series: $$\sum_{n\in \mathbb Z}\frac{1}{1+(n-y)^{2}}.$$ My Question is: Can we expect to find some constant $C$; so that, $$\sum_{n\in \mathbb Z} \frac{1}{...
1
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1answer
71 views

If holomorphic $\{f_n\}\to f$ uniformly on compact subsets of $U$, then do $f_n$ and $f$ eventually have the same number of zeros?

Let $U$ be an open subset of $\mathbb{C}$. Let $\{f_n\}$ be a sequence of holomorphic functions on $U$ such that $f_n\to f$ uniformly on any compact subset $K$ in $U$. Suppose $f$ is not constant, ...
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2answers
124 views

For holomorphic functions, if $\{f_n\}\to f$ uniformly on compact sets, then the same is true for the derivatives.

Let $\Omega$ be an open subset in $\mathbb{C}$. Let $\{f_n\}$ be a sequence of holomorphic functions on $\Omega$ such that $f_n\to f$ pointwise and converges uniformly on any compact subset $K\...
1
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1answer
44 views

$\sum_{n\in \mathbb Z} \frac{(1+n^{2})^{s}}{1+(n-y)^{r}}\leq C$ for all $y\in \mathbb R$?

Fix $y\in \mathbb R$ and $s>1.$ Consider the series: $$I(y)=\sum_{n\in \mathbb Z} \frac{(1+n^{2})^{s}}{1+(n-y)^{r}}.$$ My Question is: Can we choose $r$ large enough so that $I(y)< C$ for ...
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1answer
26 views

From the given measure $\mu,$ how to construct another measure $\mu^{\ast}$; so that $d\mu^{\ast}(y)= (1+y^{2})d\mu(y)$?

Put $\mu= \sum_{n\in \mathbb Z}c_{n}\delta_{n};$ where $\delta_{n}$ is the unit Dirac mass at $n.$ We note that, $\mu$ is a complex Borel measure on $\mathbb R$ and the total variation of $\mu,$ that ...
1
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1answer
48 views

$\int_{\mathbb R} \frac{1+x^{2}}{(1+|x-y|)^{n}} dx<\infty $ for some large $n$?

Fix $y\in \mathbb R.$ Define, $$I(y)=\int_{\mathbb R} \frac{1+x^{2}}{(1+|x-y|)^{n}} dx.$$ My Question is: Can we show that $I(y)<\infty$ for some large $n\in \mathbb N$ ? If yes, what is a value ...
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0answers
50 views

Can we expect, $h\ast \mu \in L^{2}(\mathbb R, (1+|x|^{2})^{s})$ for $h\in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb R), \mu\in M(\mathbb R)$ and $s>1/2$?

We put, $M(\mathbb R)=$ The space of complex bounded Borel measure on $\mathbb R$ [With each complex Borel measure $\mu$ on $\mathbb R$ there is associated a set function $|\mu|,$ the total variation ...
5
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4answers
127 views

a question how to prove:$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{{(-1)}^{n-1}{\cos(nx)}\over {n}}=\ln(2\cos(x/2))$

I found a complicated question in my textbook, I can't solve it? How to prove $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{{(-1)}^{n-1}{\cos nx}\over {n}}=\ln(2\cos(x/2))$$ where $x\in(-\pi,\pi)$. My tried method: I tried ...
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1answer
219 views

Eigenvalues gone wild

I added some significant details to this problem, as it was apparently not clear to everyone what I want to know: This is a question about convergence of eigenvalues which essentially came up in ...
2
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1answer
19 views

Importance of specifying indexing sets

I was going through a rudimentary course in mathematical analysis covering Metric spaces and the book opens up with the idea of open sets. While mentioning the property of open sets it cites that if ...
0
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0answers
26 views

The variation of Calderon reproducing formula

I'm reading the book 'Classical and multilinear harmonic analysis, Muscalu'. I fail to understand the page 261. Actually, I doubt that the proof is right. Let $f \in BMO(\mathbb{R^d}$) have compact ...
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0answers
53 views

Is Sobolev space $H^{s}(\mathbb R),$ for $s>\frac{1}{2},$ closed under point wise multiplication? [duplicate]

We note that, $L^{2}(\mathbb R)$ is not closed under point wise multiplication. Let $s>\frac{1}{2};$ and we define Sobolev space, as follows: $H^{s}(\mathbb R)=\{f\in L^{2}(\mathbb R):[\int_{\...
3
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1answer
98 views

Isomorphism isometries between finite subsets , implies isomorphism isometry between compact metric spaces

Let's $(X_1,d_1), (X_2,d_2)$ be compact metric spaces such that for every finite subset of $X_1$ like $A$ (respectively any finite subset of $X_2$ like $B$ ) there exists a finite subset of $X_2$ like ...
5
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1answer
86 views

how to determine the existence of double limit?

Let $f(x,y)$ be a function of two variables. Are there any criterions to determine the existence of double limit $$ \lim_{(x,y)\to(x_0,y_0)} f(x,y)? $$ If for all $y\in(y_0-\delta,y_0+\delta)$, $\...
2
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1answer
71 views

direction limits and double limit

Let $f(x,y)$ be a function of two variables. What is the counterexample that there exists $A$ s.t. for all $\theta$, $$\lim_{r\to 0+}f(r\cos \theta,r\sin \theta)=A$$ but double limit $$ \lim_{(x,y)\...
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1answer
56 views

Are all singular functions of bounded variation?

Let $f$ be a function of bounded variation on $[a,b]$. Then there exist a unique pair (up to adding a constant) of absolute continuous function $g$ and singular function $h$ (i.e., $h'=0$ a.e.) such ...
1
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1answer
39 views

Clarification: how to get the following asymptotics

I'm having some trouble justifying some steps in a paper. Let $a_n$ be an increasing sequence of integers satisfying $n! \le a_n \le 2(n!)$, and let $f:\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$ be a function ...
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3answers
103 views

Evaluate $\frac{\partial^2}{\partial t^2} \left[ \prod_{j=1}^k (1+t+\dots+t^{d_j -1}) \right]$ at $t=1$

I need to find a "nice" formula for the evaluation of $\frac{\partial^2}{\partial t^2} \left[ \prod_{j=1}^k (1+t+\dots+t^{d_j -1}) \right]$ at t=1, where $d_j \in \mathbb{N}$. I have already proved ...
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1answer
49 views

Cohn measure theory -page 17

I can't understand the proof of equation $(2)$ of the theorem $1.3.6$ (page $17$), "As to the induction step, note that the $\mu$-measurability of $B_{n+1}$ and the disjointness of the sequence $B_i$ ...
7
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1answer
96 views

How find the example such $\left(\sup_{x\in R}|f'(x)|\right)^2=2\sup_{x\in R}|f(x)|\cdot\sup_{x\in R}|f''(x)|$

Question: Find a example function $f$,such $f\in C^2(R)$,and such $$\left(\sup_{x\in R}|f'(x)|\right)^2=2\sup_{x\in R}|f(x)|\cdot\sup_{x\in R}|f''(x)|$$ This problem is from when I prove this ...
2
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1answer
116 views

Can non-constant functions have the IVP and have local extremum everywhere?

Let $f:\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ has Intermediate value property. If f has local extremum at every point of $\mathbb R$, can we say f is constant? We know $$f(x)=\begin{cases}1 & x \in \Bbb{Q} \\ 0 ...
1
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1answer
56 views

A problem concerning finite number of Fourier coefficients

Is there a smooth, non-zero $2\pi$-periodic function $f,$ with support of $f$ contained in an interval $[a,b]\subset[0,2\pi],$ such that $b-a<2\pi$ and only finitely many Fourier coefficients of $f,...
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3answers
220 views

Assumptions in Word Problems.

My dilemma has been that I am confused on how we make mathematical assumptions in WORD problems. Suppose you are given a related-rates word problem. (Q#) Air is being pumped into a spherical balloon ...
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0answers
47 views

Are the two properties of a function equivalent?

$f(x)$ is a function defined on $\Bbb R^n$. $A$: $\forall x,y$ $$ |f(y)-f(x)-\nabla f(x)^T(y-x)| \le \frac{\beta}{2}\|y-x\|_2^2 $$ $B$: $\forall x,y$ $$ \| \nabla f(y)-\nabla f(x)\|_2 \le \beta \|y-...
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0answers
285 views

(Strictly) concave/convex function: Increasing / decreasing slope triangle?

I have the following (possibly quick) question. In a paper I am working with, the following conclusions are drawn which I have a hard time to understand. Since they are given without proof, I assume ...
3
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1answer
101 views

Is $AA^*$ and $A^*A$ self-adjoint?

if I have a densely defined closed linear operator $A$ and $A^* = -A$(same domain also closed). Is this sufficient that $AA^*$ and $A^*A$ are proper self-adjoint operators, assuming that we can also ...
1
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1answer
63 views

Prove the uniform convergence of a Fourier series

Suppose that $f$ is a $2\pi$-periodic function that satisfies the estimate $$|f(x)-f(y)|\leq M|x-y|^\alpha$$ for an $0<\alpha<1,$ and let $$\hat{f}(n)=\frac{1}{2\pi}\int_0^{2\pi}f(x)e^{-inx}dx.$$...
1
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1answer
135 views

Method of Characteristics for a non-linear PDE

I've been trying to work through some of the more difficult questions we've been given in class in regards to the method of characteristics for solving PDEs, but I've come a bit unstuck. I've been ...
2
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2answers
60 views

Proving some statements only by the definition of Real numbers.

Let $f \colon \ [0.1] \to \mathbb R$ is monotonically increasing function and $f(0)>0$ and $f(x)\neq x $ for all $x\in [0,1]$. $$A=\{x\in [0,1] : f(x)>x \}$$ We know: every non-empty subset ...
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11answers
449 views

How to prove $(1-\frac1{36})^{25}\lt\frac12$?

How to prove the inequality? $(1-\frac1{36})^{25}\lt\frac12$ I'm in trouble. Thank you very much for your help
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2answers
50 views

Firstly what is an $O(h^3)$ formula? Also I am not quite sure how to answer the question?

The forward-difference formula can be expressed as $$f'(x_0)=\frac{1}{h}(f(x_0 +h)- f(x_0))-\frac{h}{2}f''(x_0) - \frac{h^2}{6}f'''(x_0) + O(h^3).$$ Use Richardson's extrapolation to derive an $O(h^...
2
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1answer
128 views

Uniformly bounded sequence of $L^{2}$ functions and a limit

Let $f_{n}: \mathbb{R}^{d} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $\sup_{n}\|f_{n}\|_{L^{2}} < \infty$. Furthermore suppose $f_{n} \rightarrow f$ pointwise almost everywhere for some $f$. The problem I ...
1
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2answers
62 views

Property of the variation of a function

I need help with the following: given $ f:[a,b]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, show that $$V_f (a;b)=V_f(a;c)+V_f (c;b)$$ with $a< c <b$. We know that $$V_f(a;b) \geq \sum_i |f(x_i)-f(x_{i-1})|$$ for ...
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2answers
61 views

Find an equation for a moving rod

The two endpoints of a 1-metre long rod have an initial position at $(0,0),(0,1).$ The rod slides continuously to the position $(1,0),(0,0)$ sweeping out a region in the positive quadrant. Determine ...
2
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1answer
176 views

Help with Rudin rank theorem proof!

I am struggling through Rudin's proof of the rank theorem (9.32) in the baby Rudin book. There is a part in the proof where he claims that for a finite-dimensional linear operator A, if the set V is ...
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1answer
102 views

Proof of $\displaystyle\lim_{x‎\to‎ 0} \frac{e - (1+x)^\frac{1}{x}}{x}=\frac{e}{2}$

I want to prove $$\lim_{x‎\to‎ 0} \frac{e - (1+x)^\frac{1}{x}}{x}=\frac{e}{2}$$ without useing L'Hôpital's rule.
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1answer
153 views

An integral with $e^{1+e^x}$ I had trouble working through

I had an analysis test earlier this morning and came across this integral, which I couldn't figure out. Parts of it are easy, but after integrating $y$ you're left integrating $xe^{1+e^x}$ which had ...
2
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0answers
112 views

Interesting examples of switching limit and integral

We learn many theorems regarding the relationship of limit and integral (Dominated/ Monotone Convergence, Fatou, Semicontinuity of norms, etc...). As I'm working on my research, I find that I often ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Test for uniform convergence on $\sum_{k=0}^\infty(\frac{1}{kx+2}-\frac{1}{(k+1)x+2})$

Test for uniform convergence on $0 \le x \le 1$: $$ \sum_{k = 0}^{\infty} \left[{1 \over kx + 2} - {1 \over \left(k + 1\right)x + 2}\right] $$ I think I'm supposed to use the weierstrass m-test. The ...
0
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1answer
20 views

Continuity along different spaces

1) Say I have a function that is continuous along $\mathbb{R}.$ Would that function be then continuous along $\mathbb{Q}$ ? How about the other way around? 2) If I have two functions that are not ...
2
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1answer
197 views

Deck transformations

We have a theorem that says that if a group $G$ acts on a path-connected space $Y$ properly discontinuously, then $\pi: Y \rightarrow Y/G$ is a covering map. Especially, $G$ is isomorphic to the group ...
1
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3answers
163 views

Is the function $f(x) = 1/x$ continuous?

A function f is mapped from the non-zero reals to the reals . We assume the natural topology to be induced on the domain. Then is the function f(x) = 1/x continuous ? EDIT Suppose I use this ...
6
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3answers
293 views

To control first derivative with the function itself: $f'(x)^2\leq Cf(x)$ near where $f(x_0)=f'(x_0)=f''(x_0)=0$.

Let $f$ be a compactly supported nonnegative $C^2$ function. I want to show that there exists $C$, such that for all $x\in \mathbb R$, we have $f'(x)^2\leq C f(x) $ by showing that for every point $...