Mathematical analysis. Consider a more specific tag instead: (real-analysis), (complex-analysis), (functional-analysis), (fourier-analysis), (measure-theory), (calculus-of-variations), etc. For data analysis, use (data-analysis).

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87
votes
8answers
15k views

Why does $1+2+3+\dots = -\frac{1}{12}$?

$\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{n^s}$ only converges to $\zeta(s)$ if $\text{Re}(s) > 1$. Why should analytically continuing to $\zeta(-1)$ give the right answer?
248
votes
16answers
21k views

Is value of $\pi = 4$?

What is wrong with this? SOURCE
67
votes
17answers
14k views

Solving the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin{x}}{x} \ dx = \frac{\pi}{2}$?

A famous exercise which one encounters while doing Complex Analysis (Residue theory) is to prove that the given integral: $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin x}{x} \ dx = \frac{\pi}{2}$$ Well, can anyone ...
34
votes
9answers
5k views

Proof of $\int_0^\infty \left(\frac{\sin x}{x}\right)^2 \mathrm dx=\frac{\pi}{2}.$

I am looking for a short proof that $$\int_0^\infty \left(\frac{\sin x}{x}\right)^2 \mathrm dx=\frac{\pi}{2}.$$ What do you think? It is kind of amazing that $$\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin x}{x} \mathrm ...
15
votes
4answers
2k views

Sine function dense in $[-1,1]$

We know that the sine function takes it values between $[-1,1]$. So is the set $$A = \{ \sin{n} \ : \ n \in \mathbb{N}\}$$ dense in $[-1,1]$. Generally, for showing the set is dense, one proceeds, by ...
58
votes
4answers
4k views

Why is $1^{\infty}$ considered to be an indeterminate form

From Wikipedia: In calculus and other branches of mathematical analysis, an indeterminate form is an algebraic expression obtained in the context of limits. Limits involving algebraic operations are ...
5
votes
1answer
769 views

Inequality involving $\limsup$ and $\liminf$

This may have been asked before, however I was unable to find any duplicate. This comes from pg. 52 of "Mathematical Analysis: An Introduction" by Browder. Problem 14: If $(a_n)$ is a sequence in ...
8
votes
8answers
618 views

How to show that $\lim_{n \to +\infty} n^{\frac{1}{n}} = 1$?

I've spent the better part of this day trying to show from first principles that this sequence tends to 1. Could anyone give me an idea of how I can approach this problem? $$ \lim_{n \to +\infty} ...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

Upper and Lower Bounds of $\emptyset$

From some reading, I've noticed that $\sup(\emptyset)=\min(S)$, but $\inf(\emptyset)=\max(S)$, given that $\min(S)$ and $\max(S)$ exist, where $S$ is the universe in which one is working. Is there ...
25
votes
1answer
2k views

Proving that the sequence $F_{n}(x)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} \frac{\sin{kx}}{k}$ is boundedly convergent on $\mathbb{R}$

Here is an exercise, on analysis which i am stuck. How do I prove that if $F_{n}(x)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} \frac{\sin{kx}}{k}$, then the sequence $\{F_{n}(x)\}$ is boundedly convergent on ...
15
votes
3answers
1k views

$f$ uniformly continuous and $\int_a^\infty f(x)\,dx$ converges imply $\lim_{x \to \infty} f(x) = 0$

Trying to solve $f(x)$ is uniformly continuous in the range of $[0, +\infty)$ and $\int_a^\infty f(x)dx $ converges. I need to prove that: $$\lim \limits_{x \to \infty} f(x) = 0$$ Would ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

How do you show that $l_p \subset l_q$ for $p \leq q$?

I can't seem to work out the inequality $(\sum |x_n|^q)^{1/q} \leq (\sum |x_n|^p)^{1/p}$ for $p \leq q$ (which I'm assuming is the way to go about it).
7
votes
4answers
605 views

Combinatorial proof

Using notion of derivative of functions from Taylor formula follow that $$e^x=\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}\frac{x^k}{k!}$$ Is there any elementary combinatorial proof of this formula here is my proof for ...
1
vote
3answers
456 views

Prove that a function having a derivative bounded by 0.49 has a unique solution $\frac{2x+\sin(x)}{2}$

Let f : $\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be differentiable function and suppose that $|f'(x)|\le 0.49$ for all $x \in \mathbb{R}$. Prove that the equation $f(x) =\frac{2x+\sin(x)}{2}$ has a unique ...
11
votes
5answers
2k views

Nonzero $f \in C([0, 1])$ for which $\int_0^1 f(x)x^n dx = 0$ for all $n$

As the title says, I'm wondering if there is a continuous function such that $f$ is nonzero on $[0, 1]$, and for which $\int_0^1 f(x)x^n dx = 0$ for all $n \geq 1$. I am trying to solve a problem ...
7
votes
6answers
771 views

How can I compute the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{dt}{1+t^4}$?

I have to compute this integral $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{dt}{1+t^4}$$ to solve a problem in a homework. I have tried in many ways, but I'm stuck. A search in the web reveals me that it can be do it ...
27
votes
8answers
6k views

Any open subset of $\Bbb R$ is a countable union of disjoint open intervals. [Collecting Proofs]

This question has probably been asked. However, I am not interested in just getting the answer to it. Rather, I am interested in collecting as many different proofs of it which are as diverse as ...
25
votes
1answer
2k views

What is the limit of $n \sin (2 \pi \cdot e \cdot n!)$ as $n$ goes to infinity?

I tried and got this $$e=\sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{1}{k!}=\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}$$ $$n!\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}=\frac{n!}{0!}+\frac{n!}{1!}+\cdots+\frac{n!}{n!}=m$$ where $m$ is an ...
23
votes
4answers
1k views

A stronger version of discrete “Liouville's theorem”

If a function $f : \mathbb Z\times \mathbb Z \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{+} $ satisfies the following condition $$\forall x, y \in \mathbb{Z}, f(x,y) = \dfrac{f(x + 1, y)+f(x, y + 1) + f(x - 1, y) +f(x, ...
12
votes
8answers
5k views

Why Circle encloses largest Area?

In this wikipedia, article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle#Area_enclosed its stated that the circle is the closed curve which has the maximum area for a given arc length. First, of all i would ...
18
votes
2answers
1k views

Continuity and the Axiom of Choice

In my introductory Analysis course, we learned two definitions of continuity. $(1)$ A function $f:E \to \mathbb{C}$ is continuous at $a$ if every sequence $(z_n) \in E$ such that $z_n \to a$ ...
7
votes
5answers
2k views

If $f'$ tends to a positive limit as $x$ approaches infinity, then $f$ approaches infinity

Some time ago, I've asked this here. A restricted form of the second question could be this: If $f$ is a function with first derivative continuous in $\mathbb{R}$ and such that $$\lim_{x\to \infty} ...
5
votes
2answers
336 views

If $ x_n \to x $ then $ z_n = \frac{x_1 + \dots +x_n}{n} \to x $

I have this problem I'm working on. Hints are much appreciated (I don't want complete proof): In a normed vector space, if $ x_n \longrightarrow x $ then $ z_n = \frac{x_1 + \dots +x_n}{n} ...
4
votes
4answers
209 views

A Convergent Series

How to prove the following equality? $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{\prod_{k=1}^{m}(n+k)}=\frac{1}{(m-1)m!}.$$
21
votes
3answers
1k views

Computing $\zeta(6)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^\infty \frac1{k^6}$ with Fourier series.

Let $ f$ be a function such that $ f\in C_{2\pi}^{0}(\mathbb{R},\mathbb{R}) $ (f is $2\pi$-periodic) such that $ \forall x \in [0,\pi]$: $$f(x)=x(\pi-x)$$ Computing the Fourier series of $f$ and ...
15
votes
3answers
779 views

Choice of $q$ in Baby Rudin's Example 1.1

First, my apologies if this has already been asked/answered. I wasn't able to find this question via search. My question comes from Rudin's "Princicples of Mathematical Analysis," or "Baby Rudin," ...
14
votes
2answers
707 views

If $f\colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is such that $f (x + y) = f (x) f (y)$ and continuous at $0$, then continuous everywhere

Prove that if $f\colon\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ is such that $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ for all $x,y$, and $f$ is continuous at $0$, then it is continuous everywhere. If there exists $c \in \mathbb{R}$ ...
4
votes
2answers
734 views

Uniform continuity

I need to prove that if $f: (0,1) \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is Uniformly continuous then it is bounded. Thank you.
15
votes
2answers
839 views

If $f,g$ are both analytic and $f(z) = g(z)$ for uncountably many $z$, is it true that $f = g$?

If two analytical functions of $\mathbb{C}$ f and g are equal on an infinite number of input values, than they are equal. I can't seem to find a counterexample, but I haven't seen this anywhere ...
53
votes
3answers
4k views

Evaluate $\int_0^1 \frac{\log \left( 1+x^{2+\sqrt{3}}\right)}{1+x}\mathrm dx$

I am trying to find a closed form for $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log \left( 1+x^{2+\sqrt{3}}\right)}{1+x}\mathrm dx = 0.094561677526995723016 \cdots$$ It seems that the answer is $$\frac{\pi^2}{12}\left( ...
45
votes
5answers
5k views

Is $[0,1]$ a countable disjoint union of closed sets?

Can you express $[0,1]$ as a countable disjoint union of closed sets, other than the trivial way of doing this?
19
votes
2answers
12k views

When can a sum and integral be interchanged?

Let's say I have $\int_{0}^{\infty}\sum_{n = 0}^{\infty} f_{n}(x)\, dx$ with $f_{n}(x)$ being continuous functions. When can interchange the integral and summation? Is $f_{n}(x) \geq 0$ for all $x$ ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

Limit of Nested Radical $\sqrt{1 + 2 \sqrt{1+3 \sqrt{1+ \cdots }}}$

How does one evaluate show that this limit: $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\sqrt{1 + 2 \sqrt{1+3 \sqrt{1+ \cdots \sqrt{1+(n-1) \sqrt{1+n}}}}}=3$$
17
votes
4answers
2k views

Finding Value of the Infinite Product $\prod \Bigl(1-\frac{1}{n^{2}}\Bigr)$

While trying some problems along with my friends we had difficulty in this question. True or False: The value of the infinite product $$\prod\limits_{n=2}^{\infty} \biggl(1-\frac{1}{n^{2}}\biggr)$$ ...
13
votes
1answer
929 views

Compute the inverse Laplace transform of $e^{-\sqrt{z}}$

I want to compute the inverse Laplace transform of a function $$ F(z) = e^{-\sqrt{z}}. $$ This problem seems very nontrivial to me. Here one can find the answer: the inverse Laplace transform of ...
3
votes
2answers
329 views

prove that $f'(a)=\lim_{x\rightarrow a}f'(x)$.

Let $f$ be a real-valued function continuous on $[a,b]$ and differentiable on $(a,b)$. Suppose that $\lim_{x\rightarrow a}f'(x)$ exists. Then, prove that $f$ is differentiable at $a$ and ...
12
votes
1answer
709 views

If $1\leq p < \infty$ then show that $L^p([0,1])$ and $\ell_p$ are not topologically isomorphic

If $1\leq p < \infty$ then show that $L^p([0,1])$ and $\ell_p$ are not topologically isomorphic Maybe I would have to use the Rademachers.
11
votes
3answers
797 views

Is the Ratio of Associative Binary Operations to All Binary Operations on a Set of $n$ Elements Generally Small?

I started thinking about the number of associative (binary) operations on a set with $n$ elements today. Looking online I found this paper which indicates only $113$ of the possible $19,683$ ...
1
vote
6answers
5k views

Show that a continuous function has a fixed point

Question: Let $a, b \in \mathbb{R}$ with $a < b$ and let $f: [a,b] \rightarrow [a,b]$ continuous. Show: $f$ has a fixed point, that is, there is an $x \in [a,b]$ with $f(x)=x$. I suppose this has ...
1
vote
2answers
469 views

$\limsup $ and $\liminf$ of a sequence of subsets relative to a topology

From Wikipedia if $\{A_n\}$ is a sequence of subsets of a topological space $X$, then: $\limsup A_n$, which is also called the outer limit, consists of those elements which are limits of ...
37
votes
5answers
3k views

Continuity of the roots of a polynomial in terms of its coefficients

It's commonly stated that the roots of a polynomial are a continuous function of the coefficients. How is this statement formalized? I would assume it's by restricting to polynomials of a fixed ...
23
votes
5answers
760 views

Can we construct a function $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that it has intermediate value property and discontinuous everywhere?

Can we construct a function $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that it has intermediate value property and discontinuous everywhere? I think it is probable because we can consider $$ y ...
18
votes
2answers
2k views

Why Doesn't Cantor's Diagonal Argument Also Apply to Natural Numbers?

In my understanding of Cantor's diagonal argument, we start by representing each of a set of real numbers as an infinite bit string. My question is, why can't we begin by representing each natural ...
22
votes
2answers
927 views

Global invertibility of a map $\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}^n$ from everywhere local invertibility

I was told by a tutor that if $f: \mathbb{R}^n \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$ has an invertible Jacobian Matrix for all $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$ and $\lim_{|x_k| \rightarrow \infty}|f(x_k)|=\infty$ for all ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Compactness in the weak* topology

Let $X$ be a Banach space, and let $X^*$ denote its continuous dual space. Under the weak* topology, do compactness and sequential compactness coincide? That is, is a subset of $X^*$ weakly* ...
9
votes
1answer
568 views

Tensor products of functions generate dense subspace?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be two spaces in certain category, $F(\cdot)$ a functor associating each space with a function space (with certain topology). Assume that for any $f\in F(X)$ and $g\in F(Y)$, $f\otimes ...
6
votes
3answers
532 views

Summing the series $(-1)^k \frac{(2k)!!}{(2k+1)!!} a^{2k+1}$

How does one sum the series, $$ S = a -\frac{2}{3}a^{3} + \frac{2 \cdot 4}{3 \cdot 5} a^{5} - \frac{ 2 \cdot 4 \cdot 6}{ 3 \cdot 5 \cdot 7}a^{7} + \cdots $$ This was asked to me by a high school ...
3
votes
6answers
1k views

Bernoulli's representation of Euler's number, i.e $e=\lim \limits_{x\to \infty} \left(1+\frac{1}{x}\right)^x $ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicates: Finding the limit of $n/\sqrt[n]{n!}$ How come such different methods result in the same number, $e$? I've seen this formula several thousand times: $$e=\lim_{x\to ...
7
votes
6answers
845 views

Defining division by zero [duplicate]

I have looked through some of the previous questions posted on this topic, and I think mine is different. Is there a flaw in defining division by zero? For example, define $\frac{a}{0} = \infty_a$ ...
6
votes
1answer
320 views

Proof that a certain entire function is a polynomial

Let $n\in\mathbf{N}$ be fixed, and $f$ entire and $|f^{-1}(\left\lbrace w\right\rbrace)|\leq n$ for every $w\in\mathbf{C}$. Then $f$ is a polynomial of degree at most $n$. I try to prove this ...