Mathematical analysis. Consider a more specific tag instead: (real-analysis), (complex-analysis), (functional-analysis), (fourier-analysis), (measure-theory), (calculus-of-variations), etc. For data analysis, use (data-analysis).

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2
votes
1answer
37 views

Prove that $Df(p)=f(p)T$ where $T(q)=\int_{0}^1q$

Let $E=\mathcal{C}[0,1]$ provide with $\|\cdot\|_\infty$ norm. Let $f:E\to \mathbb{R}$, given by $f(p)=e^{\int_0^1 p}$. I need to prove that $f$ is differentiable. My approach: Let ...
2
votes
0answers
53 views

A few questions on the later chapters in Principles of Mathematical Analysis by Walter Rudin (3rd Edition)

I am currently reading Principles of Mathematical Analysis by Walter Rudin (3rd Edition). I am enjoying the book and it's terseness, which isn't an issue for me. What I do have a problem with is that ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Particular $f \in C_c^1$

is there a way to construct a function $f \in C_c^1( B(0,R))$ such that $f|_{B(0,\frac{R}{2})}=1, \quad f|_{B(0,R)^C}=0$ and $0\le f\le 1$ everywhere such that $|Df(x)| \le \frac{4}{R}$ for almost all ...
6
votes
1answer
56 views

Limit of measurable functions is measurable?

Suppose $(\Omega, \cal F)$ is a measurable space and $(X, \mathcal B_X)$ is a topological space with its Borel sigma algebra. If $f_n: \Omega \to X$ is a sequence of $(\cal F , B$$_X)$-measurable ...
3
votes
1answer
32 views

Estimate for a weak solution to a PDE

Let $f \in L^2(B_R(0))$ and let $u \in W^{1,2}(B_R(0))$ be a weak solution of the equation $$Lu = - \sum_{i,j=1}^{n} D_i(a_{ij}D_ju)+ \sum_{i=1}^{n} b_i D_i u + cu =f.$$ There are constants $0 \le ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Finding Laurent series of a function $f(z)=\frac{3z^2-6z+1}{(z-1)(3z-1)}$ [on hold]

How do i transform this function into Laurent series $$f(z)=\frac{3z^2-6z+1}{(z-1)(3z-1)}$$ where $ \frac{1}{3} < |z| < 1 $.
0
votes
0answers
16 views

combine analysis and artificial intelligence

I'm sorry if I ask this question at the wrong place, but I don't know a better one. I am a Master's student and I am really interested in analysis, but I also want to get into AI. Does anyone know a ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Is the field of real algebraic numbers a complete field?

Let $\mathbb{R}_{alg}$ be the field of real algebraic numbers. Is there exist a metric $|\cdot|$ for which $(\mathbb{R}_{alg}, |\cdot|)$ is a complete field (i.e. any Cauchy sequence converges in ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Prob. 3, Sec. 4.2 in Erwin Kreyszig's Functional Analysis: How to show that $\lim\sup$ is sublinear?

Let's consider the real space $\ell^\infty$ of all bounded sequences of real numbers. Let $p \colon \ell^\infty \to \mathbb{R}$ be defined by $$p(x) \colon= \lim\sup_{n \to \infty} \xi_n \ \mbox{ for ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Error bound of midpoint rules with unbounded second derivative

It is well known that error bound of midpoint rule for function $f[a,b]$ is given by $$ E\leq K\frac{(b-a)^3}{24 n^2} $$ where $|f(x)''\leq K|$ and $n$ is the number of time steps. if second ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

Continuously differentiable operator

if i consider the operator $A$ defined on $H^1_0$ by $$Au(t)=\int_0^1 G(t,s) f(s,u(s))ds$$ where $$ G(t,s)=\begin{cases} t(1-s),~~t\leq s\\s(1-t),~~s\leq t\end{cases}$$ What is the expretion of $A'u$ ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Approximating functions such that the left- and right limit exists everywhere

Every continuous function $f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ could be uniformly approximated by step functions. For a proof consider an interval $[a,b]$, then $f$ is bounded on this compact interval, i.e. ...
1
vote
2answers
62 views

find $\lim_n\frac{a^\frac1n}{n+1}+\frac{a^\frac 2n}{n+\frac 12}+…+\frac{a^\frac nn}{n+\frac 1n}$ using Riemann integral

Here is the question: prove that $S_n=\frac{a^\frac1n}{n+1}+\frac{a^\frac 2n}{n+\frac 12}+...+\frac{a^\frac nn}{n+\frac 1n}$ is convergent for $a>0$ then find its limit. My attempt: If we accept ...
2
votes
3answers
279 views

Non linear Differential Equation

Let $\Omega:=\{(x_1,x_2) \subset \mathbb{R}^2 | x_2>0\}$. I want to solve the differential equation $$\begin{pmatrix} \dot{x_1} \\\dot{x_2} \end{pmatrix}=\begin{pmatrix}x_2^2-x_1^2 ...
1
vote
3answers
142 views

Show the following set is connected

For any $x \in \Bbb R^n$ how do I show that the set $B_x := \{{kx\mid k \in \Bbb R}$} is connected. It should also be concluded that $\Bbb R^n$ is connected. I was thinking of starting by assuming ...
2
votes
0answers
29 views

non-analytic smooth function

Given the function $$f(z) = \sum_{k \in \mathbb{Z}} \exp\left(-\sqrt{|k|}\right) z^{k}$$ Defined on the unit circle $S^1$. That $f$ is smooth is not hard to see. Why is there not a $\Phi$ on an open ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Prove that the following function is $C^\infty$ [duplicate]

Prove that the following function is $C^\infty$ (and in the point $ξ=0$) : $$f:\Bbb R\to\Bbb C:\xi\mapsto {e^{i\cdot\xi\cdot λ}-1\over i\cdot\xi}-λ$$ for whichever $$λ>0$$ I am trying to find a ...
-1
votes
0answers
19 views

If $\{x_n\}$ and $\{y_n\}$ are two bounded sequences then prove that $\liminf x_n -\liminf y_n \leq \liminf(x_n - y_n)$ [on hold]

Please help me in finding the proof of this theorem.I am in a fix If $(x_n)_{n\in\mathbb N}$ and $(y_n)_{n\in\mathbb N}$ are two bounded sequences then prove that $$\liminf_{n\to\infty}\,x_n - ...
0
votes
3answers
93 views

Prove that the following function is $C^{\infty}$ [duplicate]

Prove that the following function: $$r:x \mapsto \begin{cases} e^{-{1\over (1-x^2)}}, & \text{if $|x|<1$} \\ 0, & \text{if $|x| \ge 1$} \end{cases}$$ is $C^{\infty}$ I found this problem ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Exponential of powers of the derivative operator

A translation operator The Taylor series of a function $f$ is $$f(x)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{(\partial_x^nf)(a)}{n!}(x-a)^n$$ where $\partial_x$ is the derivative operator. Expanding about $x+b$: ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

If a function is enclosed by lower and upper sums, does its limit w.r.t. partitions equals the integral

Let $a < b$ and denote by $\mathcal P[a,b]$ the set of all finite partitions of the compact interval $[a,b]$, i.e. all sets of the form $P = \{ a = x_0 < x_1 < \ldots < x_n = b \}$. ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Why periodic functions form a dense subset in $ C[a,b]$ with $L^2$ norm?

Let's consider the linear space $C[a,b]$ but with $L^2$ norm $$ \|f\|=(\int_a^b |f(t)|^2dt)^{\frac{1}{2}} $$ How to prove that the subspace $$ V=\{f\in C[a,b]: f(a)=f(b)\} $$ is dense in this normed ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Let $A,B:V\to V$ positive definite operators in complex linear space with inner product $V$, $dimV<\infty$

Let $$A,B:V\to V$$ positive definite operators in complex linear space with inner product $$V$$, $$dimV<\infty$$ Show that $$log det(A\cdot B^{-1})=-\int_{0}^\infty tr(e^{-t\cdot A}-e^{-t\cdot ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Can we find an example?

I have this theorem, and i want to know if i can find an expression of the operator $A$ which satisfy this theorem:
0
votes
0answers
23 views

How do I formulate a specific formula for a sequence?

I have three arrays, for instance s = [1:2], j = [1:20] and b = [1:8], and I am trying to build a single row. The problem that I actually have is that I need to find a formula f(s,j,b) such that ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

Slopes of curves from complex derivative [on hold]

Show that the slopes of the level curves$$u(x,y)=\text{constant} \ \ \text{and} \ \ v(x,y)=\text{constant}$$ are respectively given by $$\cot(\arg(f'(z))) \ \ \text{and} \ \ -\tan(\arg(f'(z)))$$ If ...
3
votes
2answers
109 views

Show that $\frac{(x^2 + y^2 )}{4} \leq e^{x+y-2}$

Show that \begin{equation} \frac{x^2 + y^2}{4} \leq e^{x+y-2} \end{equation} is true for $x,y \geq 0$. As far, I have prove that \begin{equation} x^2 + y^2 \leq e^{x}e^{y}\leq e^{x+y} ...
0
votes
0answers
90 views

Determine the minimum of $\int_0^\infty\left|x^3+ax^2+bx+c\right|e^{-x}dx$

This question appeared on a graduate preliminary exam in real analysis. Determine $$\min_{a,b,c\in\mathbb{R}} \int_0^\infty\left|x^3+ax^2+bx+c\right|e^{-x}dx.$$
0
votes
1answer
24 views

What is $\nabla\cdot A\nabla u$ for $A\in C^1(\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^{n\times n})$ and $u\in C^2(\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R})$?

Let $A\in C^1(\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^{n\times n})$ and $u\in C^2(\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R})$. How can we compute $\nabla\cdot A\nabla u$? I assume we need to apply some kind of product rule, but I ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

What is $\nabla Au$ for $A:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ and $u:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}$?

Let $A:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ and $u:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}$. How can we compute $\nabla Au$? I assume we need to apply some kind of product rule, but I wasn't able to figure out ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Approximation Lemma for Riemann-integrable functions

In the following let $f : [a,b] \to \mathbb R$ be bounded functions. For a regulated function, the integral could be written as the limit $$ \int_a^b f(x) dx = \lim_{n\to \infty} \int_a^b ...
0
votes
2answers
38 views

Bounded function on compact interval that is not Lebesgue integrable

Is there an example of a bounded function $f : [a,b] \to \mathbb R$ which is not Lebesgue integrable?
3
votes
0answers
65 views

A derivation of the Euler-Maclaurin formula?

The generating function for the Bernoulli numbers $B_n$ is $$\frac{x}{e^x-1}=\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{B_n}{n!}x^n$$ The sum of an infinite geometric series is $$\frac{1}{1-x}=\sum_{k=0}^\infty x^k$$ ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Evaluate $ \int_{\varepsilon}^1 \sin\left( \frac{1}{x} \right) dx$

Let $0 < \varepsilon < 1$, how to solve the integral: $$ \int_{\varepsilon}^1 \sin\left( \frac{1}{x} \right) dx $$
2
votes
2answers
50 views

Prove that a classical solution of $-\langle\nabla,A\nabla u\rangle=f$ is also a weak one

Let $\Omega\subseteq\mathbb{R}^n$ a domain $f\in L^2(\Omega)$ $A:\Omega\to\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be Borel-measurable and $A(x)$ be symmetric, for all $x\in\Omega$ $u\in C^2(\Omega)$ with $A\nabla ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Riemann-integrable iff pointwise limit of step functions

Is the following true? Let $f : [a,b] \to \mathbb R$ be a bounded function: The function $f$ is Riemann-integrable if and only if there exists a sequence of step functions $\varphi_n$ converging ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Develop a concept of weak solvability for $-\langle\nabla,A\nabla u\rangle=f$

Let $\Omega\subseteq\mathbb{R}^n$ a domain $f\in L^2(\Omega)$ $A:\Omega\to\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be Borel-measurable with $A(x)$ is symmetric, for all $x\in\Omega$ $\exists c_1,c_2>0$ with ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Integration problem of a modified 'standard integral'

Consider $\int\limits_0^\infty ye^{-y}e^{-xy}dy$ I can use the fact that $\int\limits_0^\infty u^ne^{-u}=n!$ Clearly, $\int\limits_0^\infty ye^{-y}e^{-xy}dy=\int\limits_0^\infty ye^{-y(1+x)}dy$. ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Proofing Analytic continuation and stationary increments of an exponential Family

In U.Küchler "Exponential Families of Stochastic Processes" 1997 Theorem 4.2.1 we have the following setup. Let $(\Omega,\mathcal{F},(\mathcal{F}_{t})_{t\geq0})$ be a filtered measurable space. Let ...
3
votes
1answer
36 views

Compact linear operator

Today in lecture we were told that for a linear compact operator $T$ on an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space with infinite-dimensional range, we have that $\ker(T)^{\perp}$ is infinite-dimensional, ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

A problem about a family of mesurable fuctions

Let $(X,\mathcal{M},\mu)$ a measure set such that $\mu(X)<\infty$ and $\mathcal{F}$ a family of $\mu$-measurable functions. Let $E(f,t)=\{x\in X\mid f(x)\geq t\}$ with $f\in\mathcal{F}$. If ...
0
votes
2answers
30 views

If a positive term series is less or equal to a positive real number for any finite n, will $S_n$ still bound by the same number for $n \to +\infty$?

For example, if $S_n = \sum\limits_{k = 0}^n a_k$ $\leqslant$ $R$ for any finite positive integer $n$ where $R$ is a fixed real number, will $Sn$ still bound by $R$ for $n \to +\infty$? if so, how to ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Vector field from group action

Let $\Phi: G \times \mathbb{R}^4 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^4$ be a group action where $G = \mathbb{R}/(2 \pi \mathbb{Z}).$ Then $$\Phi(\theta,(x_1,x_2,p_1,p_2)) = ( R(\theta) (x_1,x_2)^T, R(\theta) ...
3
votes
2answers
76 views

Boundedness of the norm of the Riemann curvature tensor

Let $(M,g)$ be a Riemannian manifold and let $R(X,Y)Z$ be its $(3,1)$ Riemann curvature tensor given by $$R(X,Y)Z=\nabla_X\nabla_YZ-\nabla_Y\nabla_XZ-\nabla_{[X,Y]}Z$$ Let the input vectors $X,Y,Z$ ...
5
votes
1answer
38 views

Can anyone prove D'Alembert Criterion (Dalambert) criterion for converging positive sequences?

This will most likely be on the exam, but it is not given in the text book. In my notebook I have this proof which I will type out, but it makes no sense. Here it goes: $$\text{D'Alembert ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Prove the concavity of the transformation from a concave function to another

Let's say we have $f_1$ and $f_2$, both strictly increasing and strictly concave on $[0,+\infty)$. $f_1(0)=f_2(0)=0$ and the difference $f_1-f_2$ is strictly positive and strictly increasing. That is, ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Evans PDE, Problem 8 Chapter 2 clarification on $|x-y|$

Hi I am attempting problem 8 (Chapt2 Evans PDE). Again I found the solution on the internet. enter link description here I understood much of everything of the proof except for one line. " Since ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Does $f\in\mathcal{O}(g)$ mean that $f$ is of smaller order than $g$?

I want to show that $f$ is of smaller order than $g$. My idea is to show that $f\in\mathcal{O}(g)$, but: Does $f\in\mathcal{O}(g)$ mean that $f$ is of smaller order than $g$?
3
votes
0answers
40 views

Examples of calculus on “strange” spaces

I am interested in examples of calculus on "strange" spaces. For example, you can take the derivative of a regular expression[1][2]. Also the concept extends past regular languages, to more general ...
1
vote
5answers
52 views

Show that this limit is related to Euler number

I am calculating the limit $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} \left( \frac{n!^{\frac{1}{n}}}{n} \right)= \frac{1}{e}.$ I got this limit from wolframalpha, but don't know how to show this.wolframalpha