Mathematical questions about Algorithms, including the analysis of algorithms, combinatorial algorithms, proofs of correctness, invariants, and semantic analyses. See also (computational-mathematics) and (computational-complexity).

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Minimum distance of a binary linear code

I need to find parameters $n$, $k$ and $d$ of a binary linear code from its Generator Matrix. How can I find parameter $d$ efficiently? I know the method that compute all the codewords and take ...
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4answers
2k views

calculating n choose k mod one million

I am working on a programming problem where I need to calculate 'n choose k'. I am using the relation formula $$ {n\choose k} = {n\choose k-1} \frac{n-k+1}{k} $$ so I don't have to calculate huge ...
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3answers
2k views

What is the most efficient algorithm to find the closest prime less than a given number $n$

Problem Given a number n, $2 \leq n \leq 2^{63}$. $n$ could be prime itself. Find the a prime $p$ that is closet to $n$. Using the fact that for all prime $p$, $p > 2$, $p$ is odd and $p$ is of ...
6
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3answers
6k views

Lower bound for finding second largest element

In a recent discussion, I came across the idea of proving a lower bound for the number of comparisons required to find the largest element in an array. The bound is $n - 1$. This is so because the set ...
6
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3answers
22k views

Largest prime factor of 600851475143 [duplicate]

I'm trying to use a program to find the largest prime factor of 600851475143. This is for Project Euler here: http://projecteuler.net/problem=3 I first attempted this with the code that goes through ...
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1answer
559 views

Why does Strassen's algorithm work for $2\times 2$ matrices only when the number of multiplications is $7$?

I have been reading Introduction to Algorithms by Cormen et al. Before explaining Strassen algorithm the book says this: Strassen’s algorithm is not at all obvious. (This might be the biggest ...
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2answers
965 views

Lights Out Variant: Flipping the whole row and column.

So I found this puzzle similar to Lights Out, if any of you have ever played that. Basically the puzzle works in a grid of lights like so: 1 0 0 00 0 0 00 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 When you selected a ...
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2answers
161 views

How was the $3x+1$ problem checked up to $5 \times 2^{60}$?

The Wikipedia article for the Collatz conjecture states that: The conjecture has been checked by computer for all starting values up to $5 \times 2^{60} \approx 5.764 \times 10^{18}$. It gives ...
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2answers
539 views

Algorithm fot planarity test in graphs

I am implementing a graph library and I want to include some basic graph algorithms in it. I have read about planar graphs and I decided to include in my library a function that checks if a graph is ...
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2answers
4k views

Which is asymptotically larger: $\lg(\lg^* n)$ or $ \lg^*(\lg n)$?

This definition is extracted from "Introduction to Algorithm, 2nd Edition". The iterated logarithm function We use the notation $\lg^* n$ (read "log star of $n$") to denote the iterated ...
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5answers
13k views

Determining if an arbitrary point lies inside a triangle defined by three points?

Is there an algorithm available to determine if a point P lies inside a triangle ABC defined as three points A, B, and C? (The three line segments of the triangle can be determined as well as the ...
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3answers
522 views

Optimal algorithm for finding the odd spheres

Say we have $N$ [$3 \le N \le 100,000$] spheres indexed as $1,2,3,\cdots N$,all of them have identical weight apart from one.We have to determine which sphere it is (index) by using only the pair of ...
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5answers
298 views

Fibonacci-like sequence

Today I have to deal with something which reminds Fibonacci sequence. Let's say I have a certain number k, which is n-th number of certain sequence. This sequence however is created by recursive ...
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4answers
214 views

Recursive Sequence Tree Problem (Original Research in the Field of Comp. Sci)

This question appears also in http://cstheory.stackexchange.com/questions/17953/recursive-sequence-tree-problem-original-research-in-the-field-of-comp-sci. I was told that cross-posting in this ...
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2answers
619 views

Computing nth term of fibonacci-like sequence for large n

Sum up to nth term of fibonacci sequence for very large n can be calculated in O($\log n$) time using the following approach: $$A = \begin{bmatrix} 1&1 \\\\1&0\end{bmatrix}^n$$ ...
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3answers
1k views

What's the proof of correctness for Robert Floyd's algorithm for selecting a single, random combination of values?

I read about it in a SO answer: Algorithm to select a single, random combination of values? ...
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4answers
499 views

Algorithm for constructing primes

Are there any good algorithms which can be used to construct a prime greater than $n$, for arbitrary $n$? There are some brute force approaches: for example, factoring $n!+1$. However, I'm looking ...
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1answer
1k views

Why is sorting pancakes NP hard?

An article posted yesterday (http://www.i-programmer.info/news/112-theory/3280-pancake-flipping-is-hard-np-hard.html) references a new study released on Arxiv (http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.0434v1) with ...
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2answers
7k views

Continuous coloring of a Mandelbrot fractal

I've recently started making a small fractal app in Javascript using the famous Mandelbrot bulb $(z = z^2 + c)$. I've been trying to find the best method of coloring the points on the complex plane, ...
6
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1answer
138 views

Power towers of $2$ and $3$ - looking for a proof

Let $\uparrow$ denote the right-associative exponentiation operator: $a\uparrow b\uparrow c=a\uparrow(b\uparrow c)=a^{b^c}$ There is a sequence $A248907$ recently submitted to OEIS (see also ...
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4answers
2k views

The longest sum of consecutive primes that add to a prime less than 1,000,000

In Project Euler problem $50,$ the goal is to find the longest sum of consecutive primes that add to a prime less than $1,000,000. $ I have an efficient algorithm to generate a set of primes ...
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3answers
1k views

Inverse of symmetric matrix $M = A A^\top$

I have a matrix, generated by the product of a non-square matrix with its own transpose: $$M = A A^\top.$$ I need the inverse of $M$, assuming $\det(M) \neq 0$. Given the nature of the matrix $M$, ...
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3answers
718 views

A balanced latin rectangle (more rows than columns)

In psychology we sometimes use balanced latin squares for the order of our tests to counterbalance first-order carry-over effects (fatigue, learning, etc.) . For our current study we want to pretest ...
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1answer
215 views

Efficient algorithm for finding how many times a point is inside the triangles formed by given points

Given n 2D points and a special point p, what would be the best way to find how many times p is inside among those $^nC_3$ triangles formed by the n points.
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2answers
208 views

Number of sudokus with no consecutive arithmetic progression of length 3 in any row or column.

How many such Sudokus are there? Any reference to papers, books, articles or any insight into the problem will be greatly appreciated. I've tried several search engines, scholarly and not, with no ...
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3answers
385 views

Recurrence with varying coefficient

Problem 1 $$ {\rm f}\left(n\right) = \frac{1}{n}\, \left[{\rm f}\left(n - 1\right)k_{0} + {\rm f}\left(n-2\right)k_{1}\right]\tag{1} $$ ( This can also be written as ${\rm Q}\left(n\right) = ...
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1answer
1k views

Algorithm for computing square root of a perfect square integer?

My question is the following: Is there a polytime non-numerical algorithm for computing square root of perfect square integers? The more elementary the algorithm is, the better! EDIT: ...
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1answer
278 views

Algorithmic Analysis Simplified under Big O

Hi I am revising for my exams and I have the following inhomogeneous first order recurrence relation defined as follows: f(0) = 2 f(n) = 6f(n-1) - 5, n > 0 I ...
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2answers
3k views

How do you check if a sequence of numbers is truly random? [duplicate]

Suppose a source produces an indefinite sequence of positive integers. How can you check whether the numbers are generated truly randomly?
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2answers
102 views

Puzzle about voting

I came across about this puzzle which I'm not sure how to go about. Suppose there are $L$ leaders and $F$ followers, with $1 < L<<F$. A leader makes a binary decision, $0$ or $1$ with same ...
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1answer
930 views

Adapted Towers of Hanoi from Concrete Mathematics - number of arrangements

I have a doubt concerning an exercise from Chapter 1 of "Concrete Mathematics". Actually, my doubt is in one exercise (exercise 3), but, since it depends on the previous exercise (2), I'm including it ...
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3answers
754 views

$3 \times 3 $ Magic Square of Squares

On picture below is three-by-three magic square in which seven of the entries are squared integers, found by Andrew Bremner of Arizona State University (and independently by Lee Sallows of the ...
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3answers
304 views

Efficiently testing if sigma(n) = m

I'm trying to write a function that efficiently solves this problem: Given positive integers m and n, determine whether $\sigma(n)=m$. Of course I'm looking for a faster technique than "factor n, ...
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1answer
500 views

Count expressions with 1s and 2s

Given at most X number of 1s and at most Y number of 2s. How many different evaluation results are possible when they are formed in an expression containing only addition + sign and multiplication * ...
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1answer
155 views

Graph theory algorithm

I've got an interesting graph-theory problem. I am given a tree $T$ with $n$ nodes and a set of edges. $T$ is, of course, undirected. Each edge has weight that indicates how many times (at least) it ...
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1answer
743 views

any idea what fractal algorithm might generate this shape?

I Found this image around, and i'm curious what algorithm generates this kind of shape In particular, i'm curious how the flow lines are generated, since usually the Mandelbrot iteration just ...
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3answers
269 views

Is there an efficient algorithm to find a length maximizing combination?

The problem is the following Given $v_1, \, v_2, \, \ldots, \, v_n \in \mathbb R^m$; find $\epsilon_1, \, \epsilon_2, \, \ldots, \, \epsilon_n \in \{0,1\}$ such that $$\left\vert \sum_{i=1}^n ...
6
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1answer
284 views

Can we evaluate the any single decimal digit of pi even we skip the digit before it?

Can we evaluate any single decimal digit of pi even we skip to evaluate the digit before it?
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2answers
478 views

Accelerating Convergence of a Sequence

Suppose I had a monotonically increasing sequence $\{d_{n}\}$ which is also bounded above. The $d_{n}$'s satisfy a given recurrence, however computationally they tend very slowly to the limit. What ...
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2answers
520 views

Is the factorization problem harder than RSA factorization ($n = pq$)?

Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$ be a composite number, and $n = pq$ where $p,q$ are distinct primes. Let $F : \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$ (*) be an algorithm which takes as an input $x ...
6
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1answer
418 views

Importance of Constructible functions

A function $f$ is called fully time-constructible if there exists a Turing machine $M$ which, given a string $1^n$ consisting of $n$ ones, stops after exactly $f(n)$ steps. Analogously, we can call a ...
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5answers
917 views

Least wasteful use of stamps to achieve a given postage

You have sheets of 42-cent stamps and 29-cent stamps, but you need at least $3.20 to mail a package. What is the least amount you can make with the 42- and 29-cent stamps that is ...
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4answers
80 views

$k$-th number in $N \times M$ Table

Given an array $A$ , where $A[i][j] = i\times j$ and $1 \leq i \leq N, 1 \leq j \leq M$ , then what is the best way to find the $k$-th number in this array , if we order them into a single array in ...
6
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1answer
259 views

Approximating Increasing Sequence

This is a homework question which we are really struggling with: We'll define the distance between sequences $(a_i)_{i=1}^n,(b_i)_{i=1}^n$ by: ...
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2answers
685 views

Time complexity to calculate a digit in a decimal

As we know, it is quiet fast to calculate any digit in a rational number. For example, if I'm given 1/7 (0.142857 142857 ...) and any integer K, I could easily return the Kth digit of 1/7, by doing a ...
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1answer
283 views

Sieve of Atkin - algorithm for enumerating lattice points.

Recently, I've been working towards implementing the Sieve of Atkin with significantly better performance than the version found on Wikipedia. From reading the original paper ...
6
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1answer
274 views

Efficiently determining if a discrete log exists

Finding a discrete log in a finite cyclic group, like $(Z_N)^x$, seems hard and in some cases a solution may not even exist. Consider $N=15$ and the generator function $2^k=m \bmod 15$. This will ...
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1answer
186 views

How many operation are required to sort a array of numbers.

On StackOverflow, a simple question inspired me to create an equation for a answer. But it turn out that, it is kind of complicated (IMHO) mathematical problem, namely: Given an array of n ...
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2answers
450 views

Algorithm for positioning rectangles of various size into a larger rectangle

I am working on tool for merging smaller textures into one larger for use on Android app. I have $n$ rectangles of given size $(w_k, h_k)$, where $k=1,\ldots,n$ and I need to position them within ...
6
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1answer
292 views

Can a Pratt certificate for a prime be found in polynomial time?

Can a Pratt certificate for a prime be found in polynomial time? I guess this is the same as asking whether the AKS primality test provides extra information that allows $p-1$ to be factored quickly. ...