# Tagged Questions

Questions about algebraic methods and invariants to study and classify topological spaces: homotopy groups, (co)-homology groups, fundamental groups, covering spaces, and beyond.

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### If $i$ is an inclusion why is the induced $i_*$ an epimorphism

Given the following exact homology sequence of a pair. This is in Example 2 (page 134) from Munkres. This is where I am always stuck computing homology using exact sequence. I cannot grab the last ...
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### The number of intersection points between a trivial loop and a meridian in the torus

Let A and B be two closed curves intersect on the torus transversally at a point, the intersection index of the crossing point is defined to be positive if the tangent vectors to A and B form an ...
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### Presentation of $\pi_1$ of compact orientable surface by induction?

I need to prove by induction $\pi_1(\Sigma_g)= \left\langle a_1,b_1,\dots ,a_g,b_g\mid \prod_i [a_i,b_i] \right\rangle$. For genus 1 this holds since $\pi_1(T^2)\cong \mathbb Z\times \mathbb Z$. For ...
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### Why is the fundamental group of the plane with two holes non-abelian?

I know $\pi_1(\mathbb{R}^2\setminus\{x,y\}) = \mathbb{Z}\ast\mathbb{Z} = \langle a,b\rangle$, but it's non-abelian-ness isn't obvious to me. Specifically, I draw a box and two points to represent $x$...
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### when a space is a product of eilenberg mclane spaces for $\pi_1(X)$ is not abelian

In When is $\Pi_{i\leq n} K(\pi_i(X), i)$ the nth base for a postnikov tower on $X$. , I discuss in my answer when an Abelian cw complex $X$ is a product of Eilenberg-Maclane spaces, and show that it ...
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### Show $\mathbb{C}P^n$ is a $2n-$manifold [in singular homology theory]

There is a Theorem in the book that says: The space $\mathbb{C}P^n$ is CW complex of dimension $2n$. I wonder some questions: Is there any Theorem or result that if a space has CW complex structure,...
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### A spectrum $I$ is $E$-injective iff the map $i:I\rightarrow I\wedge E$ is an inclusion of a retract.

I was reading some notes on stable homotopy theory and I came across the statement in the title of this question. "Suppose $E$ is a ring spectrum, then $I$ is $E$-injective if and only if the ...
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### Does an isogeny always define a covering map?

Consider a map $f: G_1 \to G_2$ between two topological groups. If $f$ is an isogeny when viewing $G_1,G_2$ as algebraic groups does $f$ always define a covering map when viewing $G_1,G_2$ as ...
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### Homology of triples

A triple of topological spaces $(X, A, B)$ consists of a topological space $X$ and two subspaces $A, B$ with $B \subseteq A \subseteq X$. A map of triples $f \colon (X, A, B) \rightarrow (Y, G, H)$ ...
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### Induced homomorphism of a covering space

How can I determine what's the induced homology homomorphism of a covering $S^{n} \rightarrow RP^{n}$? I suppose that a Hurewicz homomorpism would be pretty effective, but since I know nothing about ...
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### To show that product $Z=X×Y$ in the product topology is a CW complex

I would like to prove the following: If $X,Y$ are CW complexes, and either $X$ or $Y$ is locally compact then the product $Z=X×Y$ in the product topology is a CW complex. (-see here) In order to ...
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### The Presentation Complex of $\mathbf Z\times \mathbf Z=\langle x, y|\ xyx^{-1}y^{-1}\rangle$ is the Torus

Let $G=\mathbf Z\times \mathbf Z$ and let $\langle x, y| \ xyx^{-1}y^{-1} \rangle$ be a presentation for $G$. In Example 1.46 of Hatcher's Algebraic Topology, the author mentions that the ...
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### Does the homotopy category functor $\mathsf{Top}_\ast\rightarrow \mathsf{hTop}_\ast$ create products?

Does the homotopy category functor $\mathsf{Top}_\ast\rightarrow \mathsf{hTop}_\ast$ create products? I know it preserves products, but it seems to actually create them.
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### Why do subvarieties correspond to Hodge classes?

Let $X$ be a smooth complex projective variety and define $$Hdg^k(X)=H^{2k}(X,\mathbb{Z})\cap H^{k,k}(X)$$ the group of integral $(k,k)$ cycles on $X$. Now it is a fact that we can associate to the ...
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### Cohomology of local systems on spaces with the same homotopy type

Suppose we have a homotopy equivalence $f: X \to Y$ with homotopy inverse $g: Y \to X$, and a local system (i.e. a locally constant sheaf) $\mathcal{V}$ on $Y$. In this situation, are any of the ...
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### Resources that explains “Cut and Glue” Technique for Delta Complex?

I am looking for any resources (book/online) that teaches and further elaborates on how the "cut and glue" technique works for $\Delta$-complexes. To be precise, I am looking for techniques and at ...
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### Why is the homotopy category actually important?

Since the homotopy category (of whatever) generally has very few limits and colimits, and these don't coincide with homotopy limits and colimits in the lifted model structure, why do we care about the ...
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### Fundamental group of cylinder

I calculated the fundamental group of the cylinder, $C$, using the following method: triangulate $C$ find max contractable subspace realise generators on remaining 1-simplices I found the ...
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### “Representability” of $\pi_1:\mathsf{hTop}_\ast \longrightarrow \mathsf{Grp}$?

In this MO question, Qiaochu Yuan asks about limit preservation of "representable" functors which are not $\mathsf{Set}$-valued. The answer gives a simple sufficient condition, possessed by monadic ...
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### An example of infinite Betti number refers to G-covering, and the motivation of G-covering

I saw from a book that if G is infinite, then when considering G-covering: $p:X'\to X$, the P-th Betti number of $X'$ can be infinite. Can you give me an example of that. Also I am curious why we need ...
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### Connected sum $S_1$ # $S_2$ is commutative and associative

The connected sum of two surfaces $S_1$ and $S_2$ is formed by removing a circular hole from each surface and identifying the boundaries together Show that the connected sum $S_1$ # $S_2$ is ...
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### Reference for: simple closed curves generate the fundamental group

In a 2-complex $X$, it is "obvious" that the simple closed curves through the $0$-cell $v$ generate the fundamental group $\pi_1(X, v)$. (By a "simple closed curve" I mean a loop which does not self-...
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### Homotopy of two circles contained in an open ball.

The following question is on my homework assignment and I have no idea how to even start answering it: Are any two distinct $S^1$ → $B(0,r)$ maps Homotopic? You can assume the circles are simple-...
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### Representing Covering Spaces by PErmutations

I am having trouble understanding the exposition in the subsection titled Representing Covering Spaces by Permutations in Section 1.3 of the book Algebraic Topology by Hatcher. Hatcher starts by ...
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### adjoint functor of inverse image functor

$f: U\hookrightarrow X$ an open immersion of two complex manifolds. $f^{-1}$ is inverse image functor, in usual sense, from category of sheaves of abelian groups $\mathcal{Ab}(X)$ over $X$ to category ...
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### Fundamental group of simple graphs

Find the fundamental groups of graphs A, B and C as shown: They look simple but I am unsure what their fundamental groups would be. I was thinking that $A$ and $B$ are generated by just one ...
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### The space of connections is affine thus contractible?

In Ralph Cohen's notes on the topology of fiber bundles pp.62 he states that, since the space of connections $\mathcal{A}(P)$ (where $P$ is a principal $G$-bundle is affine) it is contractible. I ...
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### How does a boundary operator act on a 2-simplex?

Let $A$ be a 2-simplex with vertices $\{0, 1, 2\}$. I want to show that $\rho_1\circ\rho_2 (A)=0$, where $\rho$ is the boundary operator. How do I go about doing that? The major problem that I ...
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### Nonzero-homologous simple loop in Mobius band only winds once

I have a question as follows: Let $C$ be a closed curve in the Mobius band without self intersections. Prove that if $C$ is of non-zero homology, i.e., $C$ does not bound any face, then $C$ winds only ...
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### Can the K-theory of a space be a field?

If $X$ is a compact Hausdorff topological space, is it possible to $K(X)$ be a field considering the operations over vector bundles, $\oplus$ and $\otimes$? It is known that $K(X)$ has a ring ...
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### Barycentric subdivision proof

In the proof of barycentric subdivision in singular homology, we take the subdivision operator $b: C_q(X) \to C_q(X)$, and do some algebra to define an operator $b^\infty$, which applies $b$ "as many ...
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### Do smooth compact connected manifolds admit CW compositions with a single 0-cell?

I have stated this question incorrectly before, sorry.
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### Is a simplex with permuted vertices $\pm$homologous to the original?

Take a singular $n$-simplex $\sigma: \Delta^n \to X$, where $\Delta^n\subset \mathbb{R}^{n+1}$ is the convex hull of the standard basis, with the obvious vertex ordering. Then one can obtain $(n+1)!$ ...
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### Is there a projective morphism from the quadric surface to the projective plane with degree 1?

Is there a projective morphism from the quadric surface $\mathbb{P}^1\times\mathbb{P}^1$ to the projective plane $\mathbb{P}^2$, with degree $1$?
Let $P(z)$ be a complex polynomial of degree n. $$P:S^2 \rightarrow S^2$$ $S^2 - p_0 \cong C$ (stereographic projection) and $P(\infty)=\infty$. I'd like to prove that \$P_{*}:H_2(S^2) \rightarrow ...