3
votes
0answers
44 views

homomorphism of fundamental groups induced by a map of two surfaces

I am trying to find another proof of the following theorem Theorem Let $X$ and $Y$ be two compact surfaces of genus greater than $2$. Then every homomorphism $π_1(X,x_0)→π_1(Y,y_0)$ is induced by a ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Covering of orientable surface (Hatcher)

The following is an exercise from Hatcher, Algebraic Topology, that I'm struggling with (exercise 2.2.23): Show that if the closed orientable surface $M_g$ of genus $g$ is a covering space of $M_h$, ...
1
vote
2answers
81 views

Homology of orientable surface of genus $g$

I came across the problem of computing the homology groups of the closed orientable surface of genus $g$. Here Homology of surface of genus $g$ I found a solution via cellular homology. This seems ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Difference between diffeomorphisms fixing a point or a whole neighborhood.

Let $S_g$ be a closed orientable surface of genus $g$ and $S_{g}^1$ a closed orientable surface with one boundary component. Let $p$ be in $S_g$ and let's note $\mathrm{Diff}_+(S_g,p)$ the set of ...
3
votes
2answers
49 views

Are there odd-sheeted coverings of non-orientable surfaces by orientable surfaces?

For any non-orientable surface (compact,connected) $X$ with genus $h$, we have a $2n$-sheeted cover of $X$ by an orientable surface $Y$ first by covering $X$ by $\Sigma_{h-1}$ (a double cover) and ...
2
votes
0answers
59 views

Homotopy versus path-homotopy on punctured surface

I have some problems with homotopies. The situation is this: Let $X$ be a surface, which is homeomorphic to a 2-Sphere with a finite number (at least 3) of points removed (equivalently, an open ...
2
votes
0answers
72 views

Orientable Surface Covers Non-Orientable Surface

I need to describe how a 4-genus orientable surface double covers a genus 5-non-orientable surface. I know that in general every non-orientable compact surface of genus $n\geq 1$ has a two sheeted ...
1
vote
2answers
44 views

Is there a Covering Map $\Sigma_3^1\to \Sigma_2^1$

Let $S_{g,n}^b$ be a genus $g$ surface with $b$ boundary components and $n$ punctures. I'm having some trouble with these past qualifying exam questions: Is there a covering map $p\colon ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Difference between free homotopy and isotopy. Numer of non-isotopic curves.

I realize that whenever I think of two simple closed curves in a surface being isotopic I actually think of them as being freely homotopic (intuitively). I am really confused now. So I have the ...
6
votes
0answers
100 views

Playing with the torus and semisimplicial sets (prove that $\phi$ and $\psi$ are not homotopic)

Recall that we can express the torus $|X.| \cong T$ as a square with edges $e$ and $f$, diagonal $g$, faces $T_1$ and $T_2$, and a single vertex $v$, and appropriate identifications. Let $Y.$ be the ...
0
votes
1answer
91 views

About zeros of vector fields in compact surfaces

I'm studying compact surfaces and in particular the relationship between zeros of vector fields defined on them and Euler characteristic of the surface herself. Let be $S$ a compact (smooth) surface ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

Medial graph and Seifert surface

To generate a medial graph from a knot one has to shade the knot diagram in the checkerboard pattern first. The infinite region is always black. Let us call this a surface. I would like to know ...
1
vote
1answer
86 views

Hatcher's Problem 3.2.18

How can I prove that: For the closed orientable surface $M$ of genus $g \geq 1$, show that for each nonzero $a \in H^1(M; \mathbb Z)$ there exists $b \in H^1(M; \mathbb Z)$ with $ab \neq 0$.
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Identify the Euler characteristic of the edge word $ abc^{-1}b^{-1}da^{-1}d^{-1} c $

Identify the Euler characteristic of the edge word $ abc^{-1}b^{-1}da^{-1}d^{-1} c $. The Euler characteristic is $$ X=V-E+F$$ where $V$, $E$ and $F$ are the vertices, edges and faces ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Uniqueness of Seifert graphs

If we make the bands and disks of a Seifert surface really small and really thin the surface collapses to a graph. It is called a Seifert graph. If it is not a directed and weighted graph, can we ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Graphs from Seifert surfaces

Given a Seifert surface if we make the disks and bands infinitely small and thin it becomes a graph where the disks are vertices and the bands are edges. Can we say that following theorem, For ...
1
vote
2answers
99 views

Uniqueness of Seifert surfaces of knots

I know the theorem that Given a knot K in the 3-sphere, it has a Seifert surface S whose boundary is K. So, can we also say that for every unique Seifert surface there is an unique knot and vice ...
4
votes
1answer
144 views

Representation of (co)homology classes of $3$-manifolds by embedded surfaces

Let $M$ be a closed oriented $3$-manifold. Theorems in algebraic topology allow us to identify $$H_2(M) \ \cong \ H^1(M) \ \cong \ \langle M,S^1\rangle$$ where (co)homology is meant with integer ...
3
votes
1answer
179 views

Classification of fundamental groups of non-orientable surfaces

I want to compute the presentation of the fundamental group of the non orientable surfaces $N_h$, thus $\pi_1(N_h)$. I notated with $N_h$ the sphere with $h$ crosscaps. Herefore I first have to ...
12
votes
1answer
419 views

A simply-connected closed surface is a sphere

From the Classification Theorem for closed (i.e. compact and boundaryless) surfaces, it follows that $S^2$ is the only closed surface with trivial $\pi _1$. That's easy because the fundamental group ...
0
votes
1answer
187 views

$S-\{p\}$ admits a bouquet of circles as deformation retract.

Let $S$ be a closed compact surface, $p\in S$ and $X=S-\{p\}$. Show that X admits a bouquet of circles as deformation retract. How many circles? I'm starting to study algebraic topology and I can't ...
5
votes
0answers
113 views

Normal subgroups of the fundamental group of a non-orientable surface.

Let $N^2_g$ be a non-orientable closed genus $g\geq 2$ surface. Is there a way to explicitly list the normal subgroups of $\pi_1(N^2_g)$ in terms of generators and relations? I am interested in ...
1
vote
2answers
419 views

Euler characteristic of a surface

It is known that a closed orientable surface of genus $g$ has Euler characteristic $2-2g$. According to this, the open disc being of genus $0$ should have Euler characteristic $2$, but this ...
3
votes
2answers
104 views

What's the K-group of a surface?

What's the K-group of a surface? I also want to know how to calculate such group and if there is a explicit characterization of the generators.
4
votes
0answers
202 views

Morse theory and homology of an algebraic surface (example)

Let $T_n$ denote the $n$-th Chebyshev polynomial and define $f_n(x,y,z)\!:=\!T_n(x)\!+\!T_n(y)\!+\!T_n(z)$ and $$Z_n:=\mathcal{Z}(f_n) \subseteq \mathbb{R}^3,$$ the Bachoff-Chmutov surface, where in ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

How do I find the number of vertices on a planar diagram of a surface?

Cheers, I have a question which I just do not seem to see the answer for: I am proving the classification theorem for compact surfaces and use planar diagrams as representation of the surfaces. I ...
3
votes
1answer
243 views

Rank of first homology group for surface with punctures?

I feel like this question will be a head-slapper once I figure out the answer, but for the moment I'm having trouble! Let $M$ be a compact, connected, orientable 2-manifold of genus $g$ with $b$ ...
3
votes
1answer
155 views

triangulation of pair of pants

How can we triangulate a pair of pants in a simple way? I am looking for some triangulation where I can compute the Euler characterstic easily (which is -1 for a pair of pants).
3
votes
2answers
85 views

Group of automorphisms of an orientable surface

If we consider the group of automorphisms of an orientable surface, then the subgroup that contains the orientation-preserving automorphisms will be of index two. Why is that? Any explanation will ...
7
votes
1answer
146 views

Why can all surfaces with boundary be realized in $\mathbb{R}^3$?

I'm having trouble comprehending an informal proof of the fact that all compact surfaces with boundary can be realized in $\mathbb{R}^3$. I'm trying to find a proof of it on the internet, but I can't ...
2
votes
2answers
184 views

Replacing two cross-caps by a handle

For a non-orientable surface, we can replace a handle by two cross-caps. Can we do the opposite i.e replace any two cross-caps by a handle? Any help is appreciated!!
2
votes
0answers
38 views

ruling out non Pseudo-anosov automorphisms

We are given a fibration $S\to M\to S^1$ where S is a compact hyperbolic surface, M a 3-manifold and $S^1$ the circle. Topologically speaking, it is clear that M has to be the mapping torus ...
2
votes
1answer
148 views

Supposedly “trivial” implication that injective surfaces are incompressible

My question is about a passage in Algorithmic Topology and Classification of 3-Manifolds by Sergei Matveev. Let $F$ be a surface in some $3$-manifold $M$. $F$ is called incompressible if for every ...
9
votes
2answers
468 views

What are all topological spaces obtained by gluing the edges of a triangle?

I am currently learning about polygonal presentations of surfaces. In the notation I'm using (following Lee's "Topological Manifolds"), $\langle a, b \ |\ aba^{-1}b^{-1}\rangle$ is a presentation of ...
6
votes
1answer
172 views

How to correct a wrong proof about the Birman exact sequence?

I've given a proof of the exactness of the Birman exact sequence of groups: $$1\to\pi_1(S_{g,r}^s)\to MCG(S_{g,r}^{s+1})\overset{\lambda}{\to} MCG(S_{g,r}^s)\to 1$$ making use of classifying spaces ...
4
votes
1answer
120 views

Article or book explaining rigorously facts about the mapping class group

I would like to know more about relationships between the mapping class group of an orientable surface with negative Euler's characteristic and moduli spaces. In particular, I would like to have a ...