# Tagged Questions

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### Isotropy groups of tetrahedron after identifying its sides

If we identify the 4 sides of a regular tetrahedron in $\mathbb{R}^3$ by letting the group of all isometries of the tetrahedron act on it, what would the resulting space look like? The resulting ...
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### A comment on a proof of equivalent knots

The following theorem and its proof is from A First Course in Algebraic Topology By Czes Kosniowski pp. 219-220 ...
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### Period of a particular finite group

Let $G$ be a group fitting in the following exact sequence: $0 \to \mathbb{Z}/p \to G \to \mathbb{Z}/q^r \to 0.$ Here $q$ and $p$ are primes (not necessarily distinct). It is easy to check (by the ...
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### Airy differential equation and Galois group

Consider the Airy equation $y^{(2)}=ry$ where $r \in \Bbb{C}(z)$ but not constant. How do you show that $G^0=G$, where $G$ is the galois group of the picard vessiot extension of solutions over ...
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### Associative property of free product of groups

I am reading Algebraic Topology by Allen Hatcher (available online at http://www.math.cornell.edu/~hatcher/AT/AT.pdf) and at line 1 of page 42, it reads: "... because of the relation ...
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### Why is this a group action?

Let $G$ be a group and let $H$ be an infinite cyclic normal subgroup of $G$ of finite index. Let $K$ be the centralizer of $H$ in G, $$K=C_G(H)$$ and suppose that the index of $K$ in $G$ is 2. Let $E$ ...
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### What is the maximal torus in the Lorentz group $O(m,n)$?

I'm close to certain it's just the product of the maximal tori of $O(m)$ and $O(n)$, but I can't quite prove it. I've tried the following: ...
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### Baumslag–Solitar $B(1,2)$ is not hyperbolic

I have a question which asks me to show that the Baumslag–Solitar $B(1,2)$ is not hyperbolic by considering its Cayley graph and showing that triangles can be arbitrarily fat. The Cayley graph can be ...
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### Computing quotients of abelian groups

Suppose that $A \cong \oplus_{i = 1}^{n} Z_{p_{i}^{k_{i}}}$ is some finite abelian group, and $(a_1, a_2, \ldots a_n)$ generates a subgroup $N$. If $\langle (a_1, a_2, \ldots a_n) \rangle$ was a ...
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### group cohomology for SO(3) and SO(3,1)

I am studying relativistic quantum mechanics and I have encountered the concept of projective representation for a group. I have read in http://groupprops.subwiki.org/wiki/Projective_representation ...
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### Lie groups as manifolds

In Weinberg's Classical Solutions in Quantum Field Theory, he states Lie groups, such as $SU(2)$ or $SO(3)$, may be viewed as a manifold. My questions are, If we can interpret, e.g. $SU(2)$ as a ...
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### Is there a cayley graph for the Klein bottle?

When studying algebraic topology we learned about the fundamental group of the $2$-torus $T^2$ which is isomorphic to $$\langle a, b \mid aba^{-1}b^{-1} \rangle$$ (the free abelian group on two ...
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### Finite index embedding of $F_{4}$ in $F_{2}$

In this question $F_{n}$ is the free group with $n$ generators. Is there a subgroup of $F_{2}$, isomorphic to $F_{4}$, which index is finite but not in the form of $3k$(not multiple of $3$)? The ...
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### Fundamental group of the Poincaré Homology Sphere

I'm working on the Poincaré Homology Sphere $P_3$ and would like to compute it's Homology $H_1$ and fundamental group. I would like to identify it's fundamental group with the binary icosahedral group ...
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### Appropriateness of using an interval in $\Bbb{R}$ as the parameter to a continuous path in space $X$.

The fundamental group $\pi_1(X,x)$ is usually defined using continuous paths $p : [0,1] \to X$. But... (1) Can you use other spaces besides a closed interval of $\Bbb{R}$ in the usual topo? (2) How ...
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### $G$ is Topological $\implies$ $\pi_1(G,e)$ is Abelian

Hypothesis: Let $G$ be a topological group with identity element $e$. Let $\mu$ denote the multiplication mapping in $G$. Goal: Show that $\pi_1(G,e) = \pi(G)$ is an abelian group via the hint ...
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### How can I understand the three-dimensional space forms?

Here is what I know: A space form is defined as a manifold admitting a Riemannian manifold of constant sectional curvature A classical result of Cartan states that a manifold is a space form if and ...
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### Mapping Class Group of Simply Connected Spaces

I was wondering the following: If we take $M$ to be some orientable, simply-connected $n$-manifold. What can be said about $\pi_0(Homeo(M))$? We know that $\pi_1(M)=0$ and I know that the group is ...
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### Free action of finite direct product

Let's consider free action of finite abelian group $G = G_1 \oplus G_2$ on a manifold $X$. Is it true that $X/G$ is diffeomorphic to $(X/G_1)/G_2$?
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### Basis for singular chains group

The singular chain group $S_p(X)$ is defined as the free abelian group generated by continuous functions $T \in C( \Delta_p , X)$. What I understand this means is that we define $T' \in S_p(X)$ as ...
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### if we set topology on a group like that, is it important?

Let $G$ be a group and $\omega$ be set of all subgroup of $G$. Since $\omega$ is closed under intersection, it is trivial to check that $\omega$ satisfies to conditions to be a base. Thus,Let $T$ be ...
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### Fundamental group of Poincaré sphere

Do the two presentations below, $$G=\langle d,v \mid dv^2d=vdv, dv^3d=v^2 \rangle$$ and $$\langle r,s,t \mid r^2=s^3=t^5=rst \rangle = \langle s,t \mid (st)^2=s^3=t^5 \rangle,$$ define the same group? ...
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### Set of generators of the commutator subgroup of a surface group

Good morning, I am having a hard time trying to describe the commutator subgroup of a surface group. Namely, if $S$ is a compact orientable surface and $G$ its fundamental subgroup, let's recall that ...
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### Different profinite topologies on a group?

I have some general questions around the profinite topology on a group $G$. On the page http://groupprops.subwiki.org/wiki/Profinite_topology one can read, that The profinite topology on a group is ...
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### Subgroup Separability translated in Profinite Topology

The normal definition of subgroup separability is: A group $G$ is said to be subgroup separable if for every finitely generated subgroup $H\leq G$ and $g\in G\setminus H$ there exists a subgroup of ...
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### Abelian group with cyclic subgroup and cyclic quotient is generated by two elements

I have a number of questions that I think are related. I'm studying Algebraic Topology by Hatcher. I have essentially the same question as here. When talking about homology groups, the book says that ...
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### relation between the group O(3) and SU(2)

Base on relations between groups $O(3)$, $SO(3)$ and $SU(2)$: a) $O(3)=SO(3)\otimes \{1,-1\}$ b) $SO(3)\simeq SU(2)/Z_2$ Can I say $\{1,-1\}$, i.e. $Z_2$, also the center of the group $O(3)$? If ...
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### Free product of the trivial group with another group

I'm new to the idea of a free product.. Basically I was wondering if G is an arbitrary group and 1 is the trivial group then is $1\star G \cong G$. If not.. what whould it look like?
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### HNN extensions as fundamental groups

I have heard that the Seifert–van Kampen theorem allows us to view HNN extensions as fundamental groups of suitably constructed spaces. I can understand the analogous statement for amalgamated free ...
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### Meaning of Fundamental group of a graph

I am a computer science student working in graph algorithms. I am unable to understand what the fundamental group of a graph means. I have some intuition regarding the fundamental group of a ...
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### Find the fundamental group and the Alexander polynomial

I would like to find the Alexander polynomial of the link $L$, described below. Let $K(q,r)$ be the $(q,r)$-torus knot embedded on a torus $V$. Inside the torus $V$, consider a smaller solid torus ...
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### Group of continuous automorphisms of cylindrical plane is a lie group

How do I prove this theorem? Theorem: The group of continuous automorphisms of a cylindrical plane is a lie group. In this context, cylindrical means the Laguerre plane. I found a paper it ...
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### Topology of a 3D wired Mandala?

There is a so called 3D-wired Mandala, based upon $2$ large circles each flowered symmetrically on its circumference by two sets of each $8$ half-circles. The circles are interconnected together by ...
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### On the quotient group $\pi_{1}(K)/N$ for the Klein bottle $K$

I know that the Klein bottle $K$ is obtained from the unit square by making identifications on the boundary with the appropriate directional arrows. Usually, what is done is that we identify the point ...
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### Zero exponent sum w.r.t group words in knot group's presentation

I am reading, "Plane Curves Associated to Character Varieties of 3-Manifolds" by Cooper, Culler, Gillet, Long, and Shalen and on page 28 ( http://www.math.uic.edu/~culler/papers/PlaneCurves/curves.pdf ...
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### Is there a nontrivial topological group that's isomorphic to its fundamental group?

All I know is that the topological group has to be Abelian. I have no idea how to prove or disprove this statement. Thanks in advance.
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### Double cover of symplectic groups

What is the normal definition of double cover of Symplectic group? I couldn't find a simple and understandable definition
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### Topics of Group Theory Required to Understand Betti Numbers

I am studying Group Theory. I made sure I have a problem at hand, as part of the motivation for my study. I have chosen the problem as being able to understand as well as compute Betti Numbers where ...
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### Prove that any subgroup of $F_5$ of index 3 is isomorphic to $F_{13}$

Let $F_n$ denote the free group on $n$ elements. Prove that any subgroup of $F_5$ of index 3 is isomorphic to $F_{13}$. I noted that the wedge product of 13 copies of $S^1$ is a 3 fold covering ...
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### Is $\langle abab^{-1}\rangle$ a normal subgroup of $\langle a,b|\varnothing\rangle$?

Let $G=\langle a,b | \varnothing\rangle$ and let $H\leq G$ s.t $H=\langle abab^{-1}\rangle$. Is $H\triangleleft G$? I'm asking this question in order to understand the fundamental group of the Klein ...
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### Showing path connected matrices of a group $G$ is a normal subgroup

Let $G$ be a subgroup of $GL_n(\Bbb{R})$. Define $$H = \biggl\{ A \in G \ \biggl| \ \exists \ \varphi:[0,1] \to G \ \text{continuous such that} \ \varphi(0)=A , \ \varphi(1)=I\biggr\}$$ Show that $H$ ...
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### Consequence of injectivity of projections from covering spaces

We have the theorem which says that the induced homomorphism $p_* : \pi_1(\tilde X,\tilde x_0)\rightarrow \pi_1(X,x_0)$ is injective (hence a monomorphism). Here $\tilde X$ is a covering space of $X$. ...
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### Homomorphism/map in both direction implies isomorphism/homeomorphism or not?

I was working on a homework, and my first attempt get me to a deadend, but I was eventually able to solve it using a different method. But the fail attempt make me curious, and I wonder if it could ...
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### Infinite products of a (finite) group

So I'm having a little trouble understanding the concept of infinite (cartesian) products of a group -- specifically, my notes (and, of course, homework questions) have concepts of, say ...
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### E measurable with m(E) < $\infty$?

Suppose that $E$ is measurable with $m(E)$ $<$ $\infty$. ii) Show that $\displaystyle \ \ \int_E 2f\,\,\,$ $=$ $2$$\displaystyle \ \ \int_E f\,\,\,$ if $f$ is bounded and measurable. I told my ...
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### Sufficient condition for a direct limit of abelian groups to be infinitely generated

I have the following setup. The CW-complexes $\Gamma_n$ are equipped with maps $\gamma_n\colon\Gamma_{n+1}\rightarrow\Gamma_{n}$ and it is known that the rank of their first cohomology groups is ...
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### free groups and bouquet of circles

For any free group $F$ generated by the set $S$, one can construct a graph specifically a bouquet of circles $X$ s.t $\pi_1(X)=F$. My question is: Does this mean free groups are isomorphic to a free ...
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### Groups acting on polytopes

I am currently reading the paper "Polytopal Resolutions for Finite Groups" [1] by Graham Ellis, James Harris and Emil Skoeldberg and have a question regarding an early remark of theirs. Their basic ...
### Given a topological space $X$, does $H_1(X)=\mathbb{Z}$ imply $\pi(X)=\mathbb{Z}$?
Let $X$ be any topological space with the first homology group $H_1(X)=\mathbb{Z}$ . I claim $\pi_1(X)=\mathbb{Z}$. By Hurewicz, we know that $H_1(X)$ is the abelianization of $\pi_1(X)$. ...
I know the covering spaces of the of a torus $T^2$ are homeomorphic to $T^2,S^1\times\mathbb{R},\mathbb{R}^2$. I am interested in finding all of the covers with covering space $T^2$. The subgroups of ...