Abstract algebra is the study of algebraic objects. Some of the more common algebraic objects are groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, modules, among other topics.

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About centralizers of involutions in finite simple groups

I read that for the classification of the finite simple groups the centralizers of involutions plays a crucial role. This has to to with the Brauer-Fowler-Theorem, which in one formulation could be ...
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Tensor product of $k$-algebras, center, isomorphism.

Let $A$, $B$ be two $k$-algebras of finite dimension, where $k$ is a field. Here, $A$ and $B$ are not necessarily commutative. Do we have that$$Z(A \otimes_k B) \cong Z(A) \otimes_k Z(B),$$where ...
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Commutability to prove one matrix represented as polynomial of another

For two square matrices $A$ and $B$. If $B$ commutes with all the matrices that commutes with $A$, prove that $B$ can be represented as a polynomial of $A$. It is very complicated if we do it by ...
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Seeking more information regarding the function $\varphi(n) = \sum_{i=1}^n \left[\binom{n}{i} \prod_{j=1}^i(i-j+1)^{2^j}\right].$

Define a function $\varphi : \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ as follows. $$\varphi(n) = \sum_{i=1}^n \left[\binom{n}{i} \prod_{j=1}^i(i-j+1)^{2^j}\right]$$ The motivation is that according to ...
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Proving $\mathrm{Aut}(S_{n}) = S_{n}$ for $n > 6$

This is a question for a school assignment. We are being asked to prove that $\mathrm{Aut}(S_{n}) = S_{n}$ for $n > 6$. These are the steps we are supposed to follow in our proof. Prove that an ...
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How many $\Bbb{Q}$-algebras of dimension $4$ are there?

How can I construct $\Bbb{Q}$-algebras of dimension $4$. Some examples that comes to mind are $\Bbb{Q} \oplus \Bbb{Q} \oplus \Bbb{Q} \oplus \Bbb{Q}$ , rational quaternions $\Bbb{H}$ and ...
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60 views

Checking that a set is a finitely generated ideal

The exercise asks us to prove that $I = \{ f \in \Bbb R[X,Y,Z] \mid f(a,b,c) = 0, ~\forall\,(a,b,c)\in \Bbb S^2 \}$ is a finitely generated ideal of $\Bbb R[X,Y,Z]$. Well, clearly $I$ is an ideal of ...
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Geometric Coset

I am familiar with cosets, but im not sure what to do here (never had to give a "geometric" description of a coset): Consider $\mathbb{R}$ and the subgroup $\mathbb{Z}$. Describe a coset ...
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Is the de Rham complex a free (commutative?) differential graded algebra?

A differential graded algebra (dg-algebra) is a monoid object in the category of chain complexes with respect to the usual tensor product of complexes. A (graded) commutative dg-algebra is simply a ...
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If $G$ acts primitively and $\Gamma \subseteq \Omega$ is not a block, then each pair of points could be separated

Let $G$ act on $\Omega$. A subset $\Delta \subseteq \Omega$ is called a block if for each $x \in G$ either $\Delta^x \cap \Delta = \emptyset$ or $\Delta^x = \Delta$, where $\Delta^x := \{ \delta^x : ...
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Why $ K \cap H $ is a maximal subgroup of $H $?

Suppose $ G $ is a finite group and $ H \unlhd G $. Suppose that $ H \cap M $ is either $ H $ or a maximal subgroup of $ H $ for any maximal subgroup $ M $ of $ G $. Let $ N $ be a minimal normal ...
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A quick Galois Theory question

Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field of order $q$ where $q$ is a prime power. For any $d \in \mathbb{N},$ we have an inclusion $\mathbb{F}_{q^d} \subseteq \overline{\mathbb{F}}_q.$ Both ...
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Irreducibility of $p(x)$ implies that of $p(x+c)$ only when taken over a field?

$R$ is a ring and $R[x]$ is the polynomial ring over $R$ . $c$ is any fixed element of $R$ . Then the map $f(x)\mapsto f(x+c)$ is an isomorphism from $R[x]$ to itself. Now ...
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What do we call collections of subsets of a monoid that satisfy these axioms?

Consider a monoid $M$ and a semiring $S$. Then there's an $S$-algebra freely generated by the monoid $M$, which can be described explicitly as the set of all finitely supported functions $M ...
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Diophantine equation: $13^x+3=y^2$

$x,y$ are positive integers. $$13^x+3=y^2\iff \left(4+\sqrt{3}\right)^x\left(4-\sqrt{3}\right)^x=\left(y+\sqrt3\right)\left(y-\sqrt3\right)$$ $\gcd\left(y+\sqrt3, y-\sqrt3\right)=1$, therefore ...
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Generating Sets for Subgroups of $(\Bbb Z^n,+)$.

The question Finite Generated Abelian Torsion Free Group is a Free Abelian Group led me to conjecture and prove an interesting thing about generating sets for $\Bbb Z^n$ and certain subgroups. If ...
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Integer such that there is a $k$-algebra isomorphism for any two algebras.

Is there an integer $\ell = \ell(m, n) \ge 1$ such that for any $k$-algebras $A$ and $B$ there is a $k$-algebra isomorphism $\text{M}_m(A) \otimes_k \text{M}_n(B) \cong \text{M}_\ell(A \otimes_k B)$?
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Finite conjugacy classes in a certain group with three generators

Def. We say that group G has non-trivial finite conjugacy class if there is a conjugacy class $C=\lbrace g_i \rbrace$ such that $g_i \neq 1$ of G with $|C|<\infty$. Let G be group $$<a,b,c ...
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Do we have $\delta(ab)=\delta(a)\delta(b)$ implies $\Delta(cd)=\Delta(c)\Delta(d)$?

Assume that $B$ is an algebra which is also a coalgebras (we do not assume that $B$ is a bialgebra: we do not assume $\Delta(cd)=\Delta(c)\Delta(d)$). Assume that $A$ is $B$-comodule algebra. Then we ...
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How to apply a double centralizer property on a faithful module of a self-injective Artin algebra?

Let all considered algebras be Artin algebras and let all considered modules be finitely generated. Let $A$ be left-QF-3 with minimal faithful left ideal $Ae$. Then the following are equivalent: ...
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For a $3$-by-$3$ matrix, find $A$, $B$ integer $3$-by-$3$ matrices with determinant $\pm 1$ such that $AMB$ is diagonal.

For a $3$-by-$3$ integer matrix $M$, find $A$, $B$ integer $3$-by-$3$ matrices with determinant $\pm 1$ such that $AMB$ is diagonal. $\textbf{My Attempt}:$ Given $M$ we want to right-mulitply by an ...
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Does $M \otimes_R N = 0$ for a non-unital ring $R$ if there are ideals $I,J \lhd R$ such that $MI+JN = 0$ and $I+J = R$?

Suppose that $M,N$ are $R$-modules, $I,J\lhd R$. Suppose that $MI=JN=0$ and that $I+J=R$. Prove that $M\bigotimes_R N=0$. This is very easy to prove if the ring is unital as you may write ...
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Milnor patching for general modules

The Milnor patching theorem for projective modules is the following statement. Given a pullback diagram of rings $$ \begin{array}{} R & \xrightarrow{f_2} & R_2 \\ \downarrow{f_1} & ...
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Free lattice in three generators

By general results for every set $X$ there is a free bounded lattice $L(X)$ on $X$. I would like to understand the element structure of this lattice. The cases $X=\emptyset$, $X=\{x\}$ and $X=\{x,y\}$ ...
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What properties do the rings of infinite, upper-triangular matrices have?

I'm very familiar with the ring of $n\times n$ matrices over a field, the ring of $n\times n$ upper triangular matrices over a field, and the ring of infinite column-finite matrices over a field. But ...
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What properties $R \subseteq S$ should have in order that every prime ideal of $S$ is extended?

My question is almost the same as In what conditions every ideal is an extension ideal?; I allow myself to ask this question, since there is no answer to the above question. My question: Given ...
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Isn't this article in wikipedia wrong? (Multilinear form)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multilinear_form It says "The exceptional case of characteristic $2$ does not share this property." at last lines. However, isn't it false? Let $R$ be a commutative ...
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FOUR-algebra - boolean algebra?

Belnap’s logic contains the the truth values 'true' ($t$), 'false' ($f$), 'unknown' ($\bot$) and 'paradox' ($\top$). Each of these is represented by a pair of bits: \begin{align} t &\rightarrow ...
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When flatness of $B$ over $A$ implies flatness of $B$ over $C$, where $A \subseteq C \subseteq B$?

Assume $A \subseteq C \subseteq B$ are integral domains, with $B$ flat over $A$. Generally, $B$ is not necessarily flat over $C$. For example, see van den Essen's book "Polynomial Automorphisms and ...
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Isomorphism of divisors

Consider the cartier divisor group $CDiv_{T_{N}}(X_{\Sigma})$ defined on the fan $X_{\Sigma}$. I am having trouble proving the following assertion that there is a natural isomorphism ...
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$\operatorname{Ext}^n$: computation verification

I would like someone to verify my computation of $\operatorname{Ext}^n$. Problem: Let $p$ be a prime, $k$ a field of characteristic $p$, $G = \langle x \mid x^p = 1 \rangle$, $B = kG$, $S = k(1 ...
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Is a finite group which is generated by two fully invariant abelian subgroups always abelian?

Let $G$ be a finite group satisfying there exist two fully invariant subgroups $H,K$ of $G$ such that $H$ and $K$ are abelian and generate the whole group $G$. Then can we conclude that $G$ is ...
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Are there differences between the International and U.S. Editions of Dummit and Foote?

I'm taking an abstract algebra course this fall and want the textbook over the summer. I found an international copy of Dummit and Foote Abstract Algebra 3rd ed. for much cheaper than the U.S. ...
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Prime ideals in a quotient

I am interested in finding the number of prime ideals in $\mathbb{Z}[x]/(12,x^2+1)$. Here is what I think. Modding out by $x^2+1$, we get $\mathbb{Z}[i]/(12)$. Factoring $12$ in the Gaussian ...
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When does the duality functor commute with the wedge power functor?

When working with modules over a fixed commutative ring, I know that $(M \otimes N)^* \cong M^* \otimes N^*$ provided either $M$ or $N$ is finitely generated projective. Does it follow that ...
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If $|\psi(g)|=\psi(1)$ for $\varphi$ a faithful complex representation, why is $g\in Z(G)$?

If you have a faithful complex representation $\varphi\colon G\to GL_n(\mathbb{C})$ with character $\psi$, why does $|\psi(g)|=\psi(1)$ imply that $g$ is central? I could show that if ...
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How to show $k$-algebras are isomorphic in practice

I am working through some problems which require me to show when some $k$-algebra ($k$ a field) maps are isomorphisms. Unfortunately, I've got myself a bit confused with definitions and the like, and ...
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Use of the Bezout's theorem in Abstract Algebra

The Bezout's theorem: Let $C$ and $D$ be two plane curves described by equations $f(X,Y) = 0$ and $g(X,Y) = 0$, where $f$ and $g$ are nonzero polynomials of degree $m$ and $n$, respectively. ...
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Why do mathematicians study elementary abelian groups?

I took two algebra courses that I liked as an undergraduate mathematics major in college, but we never covered elementary abelian groups. I recently got interested in the properties of a group I ...
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The dimension of vector space $F^{X}$.

Here's the problem: Let $F$ be field, $X$ an infinite set and $F^{X}$ be the set of all functions $f:X\rightarrow F$. Then $F^{X}$ is a vector space over $F$ (with $(f+g)(x)=f(x)+g(x)$ and ...
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To prove $\phi(mn)\phi(d)=\phi(m)\phi(n)d$ without explicitly computing the phi function values

If $m,n$ are positive integers with g.c.d.$(m,n)=d$ , then we can show by explicitly computing respective totients that $\phi(mn)\phi(d)=\phi(m)\phi(n)d$, I want to know, is there any more elegant way ...
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Defining the quantum group $U_q(\mathfrak{sl}_2)$

I've seen two defining relation for $U_q(\mathfrak{sl}_2)$ by the Serre relations $$[H,E]=E,\quad[H,F]=-F, \quad [E,F]=\frac{q^H-q^{-H}}{q-q^{-1}}, $$ or by taking $K=q^H$ $$KK^{-1}=K^{-1}K=1,\quad ...
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Ideal in Matrix algebra

Let A be a Banach algebra and suppose that $\Lambda$ be a nonempty set. With the following product and norm the matrix space ...
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chain rule for derivations

Off we go. So let $b:X\rightarrow Y$ be a function from $X$ to $Y$ endowed with as much structure as it needs to make sense of the question :) and $a:Y\rightarrow \mathbb R$ a function into the reals. ...
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Defining multiplication on the tensor product of $R$-algebras.

If $M$ and $N$ are $R$-algebras, then one can define a multiplication of elementary tensors as follows; $(m \otimes n) \cdot (m' \otimes n') = mm' \otimes nn'$. My question is how can we show, using ...
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Torsion and inverse limits

Given a countable family of (non-abelian) torsion groups $G_n$ (i.e. each element has a finite order) in an inverse system $G_1\leftarrow G_2\leftarrow\dots G_n\leftarrow\dots$, where the maps are ...
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An example of a nilpotent group

Is there an example of a nilpotent group such that $G/G'$ is (non-trivial) torsion-free while $G$ is not? I cannot think of any example of this kind and I think that it is not proved any result like ...
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Can we find the GCD of two polynomials in $\mathbb Q[x]$ by representing the coefficients as vectors?

Can we find the GCD of two polynomials in $\mathbb Q[x]$ by representing the coefficients as vectors? For example: $f=x^5+3x^4+x^3+4x^2+1$, and $g=x^5+3x^4+4x^3+3x+1$ Can we represent these ...
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Automorphisms of Abelian groups

Let $A$ be a free Abelian group and $N$ a characteristic subgroup of $A$ such that $A/N$ is finite. I also know that $Aut(A/N)$ and $Aut(N)$ are both finite. I have to prove that $Aut(A)$ is finite. ...
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Showing $G/Z(R(G))$ isomorphic to $Aut(R(G))$

I am working on this problem with lots of nesting definitions: Show that $G/Z(R(G))$ is isomorphic to a subgroup of $Aut(R(G))$. For your info, $R(G)$ is called the Radical of $G$, defined as ...