Abstract algebra is the study of algebraic objects. Some of the more common algebraic objects are groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, modules, among other topics.

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Fields of Research in Algebra

I'm a last-year student in mathematics and I'm looking for a master degree in algebra. So I'm trying to understand what are the most interesting fields of research in algebra all around the world. ...
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Lie group and stabilizer quotient

Let $G$ be a Lie group and $$G_x:=\{g \in G; Ad^*_g(x)=x\}$$ the stabilizer, where $Ad_g^*$ is the adjoint of the adjoint representation. Now, I was wondering why $G/G_x$ has a manifold structure. ...
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Global Dimension of a Ring

Why is the following true? The global dimension of a noetherian ring $A$ is the supremum of the global dimension at its localizations at its maximal ideals: ...
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index 2 subgroups of the infinite product of Z/2Z

is it possible to describe all the index 2 subgroups of the group $G = \prod_{i\in \mathbb{N}}\; \mathbb{Z}/2\mathbb{Z}$? For example, one can take the kernel of the $i$-th projection map ...
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Open subscheme in special fiber

Let $X$ be a projective scheme over $R$ a discrete valuation ring with generic fiber irreducible. Can an open subscheme of $X$ be contained in the special fiber of $X$ ? Or is it true that every open ...
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Permutations: Interpreting Cycle Notation

I have a problem in interpreting permutation. I think the definition and my interpretation of it don't match each other. Let $\sigma=(1\ 2\ 4\ 3)$, and $\tau=(1\ 3\ 2\ 4)$ in one-line notation. I ...
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47 views

proving that the symmetric group $S_x$ is not finitely generated where $x$ is infinite [on hold]

it seems pretty trivial, but I have trouble of showing it. I also wonder of good approach of proving that a group is not finitely generated.
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1answer
13 views

Commutative Monoid - matrix set

Let $M$={$\begin{bmatrix} a & b & c \\ c & a & b \\ b & c & a \end{bmatrix}|a,b,c\in \mathbb{R}, a+b+c=0$}. The matrices in $M$ are a special kind of Toeplitz matrices ...
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how is the formula for solving cubic equation derived directly from sum of roots, product of roots and sum of product of roots taken 2 at a time?

In $ax + b = 0$, let the root be $p$. We know $ p = -b/a$ In $ax^2 + bx + c = 0$, let the roots be $p$ and $q$. We know, $$\frac{-b}{a} = p+q $$ $$\frac{c}{a} = pq $$ Now, ...
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Proving that $t^{p^r}-a$ is irreducible when $a\in k$ is not a $p$th power

Let $p$ be an odd prime, $F$ a field of characteristic $0$ and $a\in F$ with $a\neq 0$. Assume $a$ is not a $p$th power in $F$. Prove that for every positive integer $r$, $t^{p^r}-a$ is irreducible ...
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36 views

Is it true that every prime ideal of height one is principal? [on hold]

Is it true that every prime ideal of height one is principal ? Please help
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$R$ a local ring, also a PID. $I,J$ ideals from $R$. Show that $I \subseteq J$ or $J \subseteq I$

$R$ a local ring, also a PID. $I,J$ ideals from $R$. Show that $I \subseteq J$ or $J \subseteq I$ My brief attempt to try use Bezout theorem at a PID. but unsuccess.. Thanks any help.
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Is there an infinite topological meadow with non-trivial topology?

For reference meadows are a generalization of fields that were designed to be compatible with the requirements of universal algebra. Specifically a meadow is a commutative ring equiped with an ...
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Comments about “Topics in Algebra” by I.N. Herstein and “Abstract Algebra” by Dummit/Foote? [on hold]

Today, I got two gifts from my research mentor: "Topics in Algebra" by I.N. Herstein and "Abstract Algebra" by Dummit/Foote. I am very happy and grateful for his gifts, but I already have been ...
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31 views

The difference between Quotient Set and other definition

it a new course and material that I learn, we defined 2 pretty similiar definitions and I didnt understand what is the difference between the definitions. Definition 1: A subset $T\subseteq X$ is ...
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2answers
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Finding the kernel of maps between (polynomial) rings

If I have a map between rings like $f\colon k[x_1,x_2]\to k[t],x_1\mapsto t^2-1,x_2\mapsto t^3-t$, how can I prove that the kernel is $\mathfrak{a}=(x_2^2-x_1^2(x_1+1))$? I see that ...
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2answers
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Let $H$ be normal subgroup of $G$. If $G/H$ is cyclic group generated by $aH$, prove that $G=KH$ where $K=\langle a\rangle$.

Let $H$ be normal subgroup of $G$. If $G/H$ is cyclic group generated by $aH$, prove that $G=KH$ where $K=\langle a\rangle $. I would like someone to check my solution. First of i will prove that $G$ ...
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1answer
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Algebra, questions on max ideals in rings, and prime ideals [on hold]

This is a two part question: If $M \triangleleft_{\max} (R,+,\cdot)$ ($M$ is a max in a commutative, associative ring $R$ with unity.) Then $0_+ \in M$? Why? $R$ commutative, associative ring with ...
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1answer
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$\mathbb{F}_p[T, 1/T]$ is discrete in $\mathbb{F}_p((T)) \times \mathbb{F}_p((1/T))$, adeles.

Let $p$ be a prime number. How do I show that $\mathbb{F}_p[T, 1/T]$ is discrete in $\mathbb{F}_p((T)) \times \mathbb{F}_p((1/T))$?
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1answer
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Proof of Cohn's Irreducibility Criterion

I was looking for an elementary (or involving introductory level abstract algebra/analysis) proof of Cohn's Irreduciblity Criterion: If $$ a_0, a_1, \dots, a_n \in \Bbb{Z} $$ and $$ 0 \le ...
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1answer
42 views

What would be interesting maps to use on that Eudoxus reals?

I'm trying to understand Eudoxus Reals. From wikipedia: Let an almost homomorphism be a map $f:\mathbb{Z}\to\mathbb{Z}$ such that the set $\{f(n+m)-f(m)-f(n): n,m\in\mathbb{Z}\}$ is finite. We say ...
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Is there a name for this simple structure?

Is there a name for $(X,S)$ where $X$ is a set and $S\subseteq X$ and a morphism $(X,S)\overset{\alpha}{\longrightarrow}(X^\prime,S^\prime)$ is a function $\alpha:X\rightarrow X^\prime$ such that ...
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If $\Delta$ is cocommutative in $k(G)$, why does that imply $G$ is abelian?

Suppose $G$ is a finite group and $k(G)$ is it's group function Hopf algebra. I read that for $k(G)$ is quasi-triangulated requires that $G$ be abelian. If $R$ is the distinguished element of ...
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How coefficients from finite field can form ring of polynomials?

Let us consider a graph $G(V,E),$ where $V$ is the set of nodes and $E$ is the set of edges. $\mathbf{x}=[X_1,\ldots,X_r]$ are symbols multicast by source to $|T|$ sink nodes. Symbols are from ...
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1answer
54 views

If $m$ divides $n$, find a free resolution of $\mathbb{Z}/m$ as a $\mathbb{Z}/n$-module.

If $m$ divides $n$, find a free resolution of $\mathbb{Z}/m$ as a $\mathbb{Z}/n$-module. I have tried this one and got $0 \leftarrow \mathbb{Z}/m \leftarrow \mathbb{Z}/n \leftarrow \mathbb{Z}/n$. ...
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Prove that $n \in \mathbb{Z}^\star \Leftrightarrow n \mid 1$ and $n-1 \mid 1$ or $n+1 \mid 1$, and $(x-1)/(t-1) \equiv n \pmod {t-1}$

I want to prove the following lemma: Let $F[t,t^{-1}]$ be the ring of the polynomials in $t$ and $t^{-1}$ with coefficients in the field $F$ and assume that the characteristic of $F$ is zero. ...
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In a modular arithmetic equation, how to find 'a' given a range?

Say I have an equation in the form $$a\bmod b = c$$ I know $b$ and $c$ I'm given a range $(d,e)$ (where $d$ and $e$ are integers). How can I find all values of $a$ that satisfy the inequality $d ...
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Prove that an ideal $ \mathfrak{m} $ of a commutative ring $ R $ is maximal iff $ R/\mathfrak{m} $ is simple.

Could someone give me a hint on whether I’m on the right track or not? For sufficiency, I tried the following: Suppose that $ \mathfrak{m} $ is a maximal ideal. With the quotient map, we get $ ...
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1answer
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Basis for the field extension $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta_{12})$

Consider the cyclotomic field $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta_{12})$ where $\zeta_{12}$ represents the $12$-th primitive root of unity. Since the minimal polynomial of $\zeta_{12}$ is given by $\Phi_{12}(x)$ which ...
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Chain of three prime ideals of $\mathbb F_p[x,y]$ [on hold]

Let $A_1\neq\left \{ 0 \right \} $, $A_2$, and $A_3$ be prime ideals of $\mathbb{F}_p[x,y]$ such that $$A_1\subset A_2\subseteq A_3\subset \mathbb F_p[x,y]$$ Then $A_2 = A_3$.
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What's a diagonal sum of two matrices?

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix over a field $K$. Show that there exists an invertible matrix $P$ such that $P^{-1}AP$ is a diagonal sum of an invertible matrix and a nilpotent matrix. (Hint: use ...
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How to prove the group $G$ is abelian?

Question: Assume $G$ is a group of order $pq$, where $p$ and $q$ are primes (not necessarily distinct) with $p\leqslant q$. If $p$ does not divide $q-1$, then $G$ is Abelian. I know that if the ...
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Prove that in the ring $F[t,t^{-1}]$ we have $x=t^n \Leftrightarrow x \mid 1$ and $t-1 \mid x-1$

I want to prove the following lemma: For any $x$ in the ring $F[t,t^{-1}]$ ($F[t,t^{-1}]$: the polynomials in $t$ and $t^{-1}$ with coefficients in the field $F$), $x$ is a power of $t$ if and ...
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$x^p -x-1$ irreducible over $\mathbb{F}_{p}$ [duplicate]

Show that $x^p - x -1$ is irreducible over $\mathbb{F}_{p}$. I've seen this polynomial (or some variation x^p -x -a) on several of our qualifying exams and in every case they ask you to show it is ...
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“If $x$ is a non-unit, then $1-ux$ is a unit”

I don't understand these two lines from my book. We are given that $R$ is a local ring. If every $2$-generator submodule is cyclic and $Ra$, $Rb$ are given, then $Ra+Rb=Rc$, hence ...
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1answer
32 views

What's a $2$-generator submodule?

Context: Let $R$ be a local ring and $M$ an $R$-module. Show that the set of all submodules of $M$ is totally ordered by inclusion iff every finitely generated submodule of $M$ is cyclic or, ...
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1answer
17 views

Assumption on characteristics in an exercise about roots of unity

I'm solving the following exercise: "Let $K$ be a field, $char(K) \nmid 2n$ for $n \geq 1$ an odd integer. If $K$ contains a primitive $n$-th root of unity, then it also contains a primitive $2n$-th ...
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Show that $f$ is a homomorphism.

There is a group $G$ of order $p^3$, where $p>2$. Show that $f:G\rightarrow Z(G) $ with $f(x)=x^p$ is a homomorphism. My attempt: Case a): Suppose $|Z(G)|=p^3$. Then $G=Z(G)$, so $G$ is abelian, ...
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Why is $Z[X]/<5,X^3 + X + 1>$ a field? [duplicate]

Prob. Show that $Z[X]/<5,X^3+X+1>$ is a field. Since $Z[X]$ is a commutative ring, it is sufficient to prove that $<5,X^3+X+1>$ is a maximal ideal. Since $5$ and $X^3+ X +1$ are ...
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Exponential map only for matrix Lie algebras?

Recently, I stumbled over some proofs in Lie algebra theory and noticed that they often use the notion of an exponential map $e^{t \zeta}$ for $\zeta \in \mathfrak{g}$ such that $e^{t \zeta} \in G$ ...
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How to prove the theorem on group algebra of permutation group [on hold]

How to prove the following theorem: If $t$ is a vector in group algebra of permutation group, then $\cal{y}t\cal{y}=\lambda_t \cal{y}$, where $\cal{}y$ is the Young operator of permutation group and ...
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1answer
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group-like elements in the Hopf algebra of the homology of $H$-spaces

Let $X$ be an $H$-space with product $\mu$. Then $H_*(X)$ is a Hopf algebra with product $\mu_*$. Let $\psi$ be the coproduct of the Hopf algebra $H_*(X)$. Define a subset $S$ of $H_*(X)$ as $$ ...
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1answer
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Subring of $M_7(\mathbb{Z}_2)$ isomorphic to $\mathbb{F}_{128}$?

Let $A \subset M_7(\mathbb{Z}_2)$ be a subring such that no proper nonzero subgroup $V \subset \mathbb{Z}_2^7$ is invariant under all matrices in $A$. I suspect that $A \cong \mathbb{F}_{128}$, but ...
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Algebraic proof that a set generated by irrational rotations is dense in $S^1$.

This is exercise 1.9 in Lie Groups, Lie Algebras and Representations - Hall. Suppose $a$ is an irrational real number. Show that the set $E_a$ of the numbers of the form $e^{2\pi i n a}$, $n \in ...
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3answers
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Defining a coproduct in $\mathsf{Grp}$ using group presentations

I've encountered this exercise in Aluffi's Algebra: Chapter 0. It might be helpful to say that the book doesn't introduce functors at this stage,, and that the book defines a presentation of a group ...
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A question about fields and separability in Serre's “Local Fields”

On page 14 of the English edition of Serre's "Local Fields", that is chapter 1, section 4, I am confused by the following; there is talk of fields $B/\mathfrak P$ and $A/\mathfrak p$ for prime ideals ...
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Lie algebra of affine linear maps

Let $G$ be the Lie group of affine transformations, $$\{x \mapsto Ax+b,A \in GL(n), b \in \mathbb{R}^n\}.$$ We can represent these maps as matrices $$\begin{pmatrix} A & b \\ 0 & 1 ...
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Number of conjugacy classes of nonabelian group of order $pq$.

The problem asks to show that a nonabelian group of order $pq$ has $p+\frac{q-1}{p}$ conjugacy classes. I have shown a. $p$ divides $q-1$, b. $|Z(G)| = 1$, Now I'm using the class equation to ...
2
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Tangent space of coadjoint orbit

Let $\xi \in T_xOx$ be a tangent vector at $x \in O_x :=\{\mathrm{ Ad} _{u}^*(x); u \in G\}$ for $x \in g^*.$ ($g$ is the Lie-Algebra) Then I read that this $\xi$ can be represented as the velocity ...