Abstract algebra is the study of algebraic objects. Some of the more common algebraic objects are groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, modules, among other topics.

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Does localization of a Noetherian ring always give a local ring?

I have a local ring $A$ and suppose I localized this ring at prime $P$. Is the localized ring $A_P$ a local ring? I was wondering if it requires additional properties on $A$. Thank you very much!
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Every non-Noetherian module has a submodule maximal with respect to being not finitely generated.

Let $M$ be a module. Show that if $M$ is not Noetherian then $M$ has a submodule $N$ such that $N$ is not finitely generated whenever $N<A\leq M$. The question is related to this one, which gives ...
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1answer
30 views

Property of a Noetherian ring: How come $P \backslash P^2$ is non-empty? ($P$ is a prime ideal)

Let $A$ be a Noetherian ring, and let $P$ be a prime ideal. How come we know that $P \backslash P^2$ is non-empty? Thank you!
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Structure of induced module for subgroup $H \le G$, confused by mixing up notions of $FH$-submodule and $F$-subspace

The following is a question on a passage in the book A Course in the Theory of Groups by Derek Robinson. There he constructs the induced module $M^G$ from a $FH$-module for some subgroup $H \le G$ of ...
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Two disjunct normal subgroups

Let M, N be normal subgroups of G with M∩N={e}. I'm trying to prove that MxN is isomorphic to G. I proved that nm=mn for all n in N and m in M. So now I'm trying to take any fixed g in G and ...
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1answer
13 views

Determining all the homomorphisms $\mathbb{Z} \to R$, where R is an integral domain.

I think I have this question figured out almost completely, but I'm a little worried about using a certain notation. Suppose $\mathbb{Z} \stackrel{\phi}{\longrightarrow} R$ is a ring homomorphism. ...
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1answer
24 views

field of fractions of $k[X]$

Let $k$ be a field and suppose $$k(X)=\text{field of fractions of }\ k[X]=\left\{ \frac{f(X)}{g(X)}\mid f,g\in k[X], g\neq 0\right\}.$$ Show that $k(X)$ is not a finitely generated $k$-algebra.
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22 views

homomorphism of profinite groups

Let $G$ be a profinite group and consider a continuous surjective homomorphism: $$\phi:G\rightarrow \widehat{\mathbb Z}$$ where $\widehat{\mathbb Z}:=\varprojlim \mathbb Z/n\mathbb Z$. Moreover Let ...
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31 views

When is an ideal also a ring, and could then be anything said about its relation to the original ring

If $R$ is a ring with unity $1$, then $S \subseteq R$ is called a subring if it is itself a ring with $1 \in S$. A subset $I \subseteq R$ is called an ideal if it is a group with respect to addition ...
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Show that we have a ring isomorphism $\varphi : D^{op} \rightarrow {End_{M_n {(D)}}}(D^n) $.

I am trying to solve the following Representation Theory question: Suppose that $d \in D$ and define the map $$ \varphi_d \colon D^n \rightarrow D^n $$ by $$ \varphi_d((v_1, \ldots, v_n)) ...
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17 views

The set of isomorphisms from a right coset of the automorphism group $Aut(X)$ in $S_n$.

From "Lecture Notes in Computer Science" by Christoph M. Hoffmann , on page 22- Theorem 4 Let $X$ and $X'$ be two isomorphic graphs with vertex set $V = \{1 ..... n\}$ , Then the set of ...
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1answer
18 views

Structure theorem for non connected graded Hopf algebras

Let $V^{\bullet}$ be a graded vector space. Assume that $V^{i}=0$ for $i<1$. Then the tensor algebra has the structure of a connected Hopf algebra and in particular its Lie algebra of primitive ...
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1answer
37 views

In proof of $|G| = n_1^2 + n_2^2 + \ldots + n_h^2$ how could equality of dimensions concluded from ring isomorphism

In Derek Robinson, A Course in the Theory of Groups on page 224 he proves: Let $G$ be a finite group and let $F$ be an algebraically closed field whose characteristic does not divide the order of ...
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2answers
43 views

motivation for the direct limit [on hold]

I know just the very basics on Category Theory and that's why I'm going to ask a stupid question. I'm trying to get an intuition for direct limits for my course on Commutative Algebra. All the books ...
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2answers
22 views

Which one of the below options is correct?

I think the option $(Q)$ is true since $O(Q/\{-1,1\})= 8/2 = 4 = 2^2$. Since order is $p^2$ thus $(Q)$ option is true. Can anyone suggest about option $(P)$? Thanks
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Lang's proof of the Weierstrass preparation theorem

Relevant Google Books link. I'm having problems with the final step in the proof of Theorem 9.1. It's not clear to me why the function $I + \tau \circ \frac{\alpha(f)}{\tau(f)}$ should be ...
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35 views

Field of fractions of $\mathbb{C}[X,Y,Z]/\langle XY-Z^2\rangle$ [on hold]

Let $R=\mathbb{C}[X,Y,Z]/\langle XY-Z^2\rangle$ and let $\mathbb{C}(X,Y)$ be the field of fractions of $\mathbb{C}[X,Y]$. Show that the field of fractions of $R$ can be expressed as ...
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1answer
25 views

Producing a $G$-invariant form from the standard Hermitian product using the averaging process

Problem statement: Let $G$ be a cyclic group of order $3$. The matrix $$A=\begin{bmatrix} -1 && -1 \\ 1 && 0 \end{bmatrix}$$ has order $3$, so it defines a matrix representation of ...
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27 views

Show $SO_2(\mathbb{R}) \cong\{A \in GL_2(\mathbb{R}) : A^tA = I, \det A = 1\}$.

Show $SO_2(\mathbb{R}) \cong\{ A \in GL_2(\mathbb{R}) : A^tA = I, \det A = 1\}$, where $SO_2(\mathbb{R})$ is the group of rotations of the circle under the operation of composition. Attempt: ...
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1answer
18 views

Does every non-empty quasigroup have a left or right identity?

I know that some quasigroups are not loops, meaning they don't have a two-sided identity. But are there non-empty quasigroups that don't even have one-sided identities?
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13 views

Prove that $\varepsilon(v) \equiv \varepsilon(u) \equiv 1 (2)$

Suppose I have a finite group $G$ and its integral group ring $\Bbb{Z}G$. Let $P < G$ , thus we have $\Bbb{Z}[C_G(P)] \subseteq \Bbb{Z}G$. Let $u\in U(\Bbb{Z}G)$ and let $v\in \Bbb{Z}[C_G(P)]$ be ...
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33 views

Prove that $g\in P$

Let $G$ be a finite group and $P$ a Sylow $2$-subgroup. If $g$ is an element of $G$ with order a power of $2$ then it lies in some conjugate of $P$. I get this. But if also $g\in C_G(P)$, then it is ...
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47 views

Proving this fact about algebraic sets.

I want to prove the following equivalence: Let $V$ an algebraic set, $K$ a field and $\overline K$ its algebraic closure. Then we say that $V/K$ ($V$ is defined over $K$) if $I_{V}$ (the ideal ...
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2answers
21 views

Let A and B be ideals of a ring and C a prime ideal. Prove if the intersection of A and B is a subset of C then either A or B is a subset of C

Claim: Let $A$ and $B$ be ideals of a commutative ring $R$ and $C$ a prime ideal of $R$. Suppose that the intersection of $A$ and $B$ is a subset of $C$. Prove either $A$ or $B$ is a subset of $C$. ...
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2answers
36 views

Suppose that if G is a group, H is a subgroup of G, and K is a subgroup of H. [on hold]

Suppose that if G is a group, H is a subgroup of G, and K is a subgroup of H. Show that if K is a normal subgroup of G, then K is a normal subgroup of H.
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33 views

Showing a subgroup contains the identity element

Let $G$ be the set of all functions from $\mathbb{R}$ to $\mathbb{R}$ along with $+$. Show that $H$ defined by $H=\{f:f(x)=0 \text{ for all } x \in [0,1]\}$ is a subgroup. I am able to show $H$ ...
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Some proof about $\mathbb Z[\sqrt{-5}]$ [on hold]

For $\mathbb Z[\sqrt{-5}]$, $6=2\cdot3=(1+\sqrt5)(1+\sqrt{-5})$; if $2=\gamma\cdot \delta$, then $\gamma$ or $\delta$ is a unit, or $|\gamma|=2$ or $3$. The same can be said of $|\delta|$. These ...
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1answer
28 views

Where can I find a proof of the Presentation for Semidirect Products?

I have seen it claimed online that: Given two groups $G = \langle X \mid R \rangle$ and $H = \langle Y \mid S \rangle$ with some action $\theta \colon H \to \text{Aut}(G)$, then $$ G\rtimes_\phi ...
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1answer
41 views

Subgroups of $G = \{\sigma \in S_{14}: \mathrm{ord}(\sigma)\mid 12 \}$ [on hold]

Let $$G = \{\sigma \in S_{14}: \mathrm{ord}(\sigma)\mid 12 \}.$$ Is this a subgroup? By examining particular examples, one can see that it is not, since it is not closed under composition. However, ...
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Reduction modulo $p$ of $x^4 + 3x^3 -21x^2 -62x -40$ with a multiple root

Let us consider $$g(x) = x^4 + 3x^3 -21x^2 -62x -40 \in \mathbb{Z}[x].$$ How does one find the primes $p>0$ such that the reduction of $g(x)$ modulo $p$ has a multiple root?
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1answer
17 views

$K(x)$ not stable relative to $K(x,y)$ and $K$

Prove that in the extension of an infinite field $K$ by $K(x,y)$, the intermediate field $K(x)$ is Galois over K, but not stable (relative to $K(x, y)$ and $K$). I know that if K(x) is algebraic it ...
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27 views

What does Cayley table for a group $(\mathbb{Z}_5^*,\cdot_5)$ tell us?

Firsly, I would like you to explain me what $\mathbb{Z}_5^*$ means. My teacher told me it is a group of units of $\mathbb{Z}_5$, but I'm not sure what a group of units is. If ...
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22 views

Does the order of a finite group divide the product of degrees of a system of parameters of the invariant algebra?

Let $V$ be a vector space of dimension $n$ over a finite field $\mathbb{F}$, and let $G$ be a subgroup of the finite group $\operatorname{GL}(V)$. Then $G$ acts on the graded algebra $\mathbb{F}(V)$ ...
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Pick out a polynomial such that ideal $J=q(x)R$ , where $q(x)$ is polynomial and $R$ is ring [on hold]

In the ring of polynomials $R =\mathbb Z_5[x]$ with coefficients from the field $\mathbb Z_5$, consider the smallest ideal $J$ containing the polynomials, $p_1(x) = x^3 + 4x^2 + 4x + 1$ $p_2(x) = ...
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1answer
16 views

Show that $p = u \cdot (\zeta -1)^{p-1}$, where $u$ is an invertible element of $Z[\zeta]$ [on hold]

Show that $p = u \cdot (\zeta -1)^{p-1}$, where $u$ is an invertible element of $Z[\zeta]$. This outcome is the result of this link. So I think I have to use the previous result and the ...
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22 views

Number of field homomorphisms [on hold]

Let $E$ be a finite field extension over $K$. Show there are at most $[E:K]$ $K$-homomorphisms $E \to F$, where $F$ is an algebraic closed field extension of $E$.
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Product of two primitive roots $\bmod p$ cannot be a primitive root.

I recently proved that the product of all primitive roots of an odd prime $p$ is $\pm 1$ as an exercise. As a result, I became interested in how few distinct primitive roots need to be multiplied to ...
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Show that all simple modules of ${M_n}{(D)}$ are isomorphic to $D^n$, where $D$ is a division ring. [duplicate]

I am trying to solve part (c) of the following Representation Theory question: Let $D$ be a division ring and let $n$ be a positive integer. For $ 1 \leq l \leq n $ let $$C_l= \{A = (a_{ij}) \in ...
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38 views

Order and generators of intersection of cyclic groups

Let $\sigma$, $\tau$ be two permutations of $S_n$. We know that $\langle \sigma \rangle \cap \langle \tau \rangle$ is a cyclic subgroup and (from Lagrange's Theorem) that its order divides ...
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Number of solutions for the given equation in finite field of order 32.

Let $F$ be a field of order 32. Find number of solutions $(x,y)\in F\times F$ for $x^2 +y^2 +xy =0$. I have figured out that non zero elements of this field forms a cyclic multiplicative group of ...
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1answer
14 views

Show that the left ideal $(N_G) \subset F[G]$ is a simple submodule of $F[G]$, where $N_G = {\sum}_{g \in G} {g} \in F[G]$. [duplicate]

I am trying to solve this Representation Theory question: Let $F$ be a field and $G$ a finite group. Let $N_G = {\sum}_{g \in G} {g} \in F[G]$. Show that the left ideal $(N_G) \subset F[G]$ is a ...
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1answer
21 views

Show ring isomorphisms $End_R{({S_1}^{n_1} \oplus \ldots \oplus {S_r}^{n_r} )} \cong End_R{({S_1}^{n_1})} \times \ldots \times End_R{({S_r}^{n_r})}$

I have been struggling with this Representation Theory question for the past week: Let $R$ be a ring and $S_1, \ldots, S_r$ simple $R$-modules with $S_i$ not isomorphic to $S_j$ whenever $i \neq j$ ...
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52 views

$G$ is a finite group, if $m\in \mathbb N$ such that $g^m=1$ for all $g\in G$, then $m=n$.

Prove / disprove: Let $G$ be a finite group of order $n$, if $m\in \mathbb N$ such that $g^m=1$ for all $g\in G$, then $m=n$. I can't find a group that will satisfy this condition so I think it's ...
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1answer
70 views

Finding Galois Group

Let $\mathbb Q\subset\mathbb Q(\sqrt{3}+\sqrt[3]{5})$. I want to find the Galois group of the given field extension. It would be easy for me if I could find a basis of the given field extension ...
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41 views

Variation on Fermat Little Theorem

Does the following variation of Fermat Little Theorem hold? How do you prove it? Let $p$ be a prime number greater than $3$. Then there exist a natural non-prime $m > 1$ such that ...
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Is it possible to convert a general quintic to Brioschi form in one single transformation?

The standard method of converting a general quintic to Brioschi form $X^5-10CX^3+45C^2X-C^2=0$ proceeds in two steps which required the extraction of a square root. One first converts to the ...
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1answer
33 views

Is this a linear transformation? in the context of group representations

Let $G$ be a group. A regular representation is given as $V=\mathbb{C}[G]$, a vector space, where $l: G \to GL(V)$ be the action is given by $l(g)(\alpha)(h) = \alpha (g^{-1}h)$ for all $g,h\in G, ...
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1answer
26 views

$>$ is an elimination ordering for $x_1,\dots,x_t \iff x_i >x_j^m$

Let us define $R = k[x_1,\dots,x_t,x_{t+1},\dots,x_n]$; then it can be shown that $>$ is an elimination ordering for $x_1,\dots,x_t \iff x_i >x_j^m$ for all $1\leq i \leq t, t+1 \leq j \leq n$ ...
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1answer
26 views

Subgroups of $S_{10}$ that contain $\langle \sigma = (123)(456)\rangle$

In $S_{10}$ let us consider the permutation $\sigma = (123)(456)$ and the cyclic subgroup $ G = \langle \sigma \rangle$. I can fairly easily find that $$\langle \alpha = (1,4,2,5,3,6)(7,8) \rangle ...
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1answer
19 views

How do you prove a valuation ring is a subring?

Let's say I have a field $\mathbb{F}$. Now suppose I take the set $R = \{x \in \mathbb F^{\times}: \ y(x) \ge 0\} \cup \{0\}$ where $y$ is a function $y:\mathbb F^{\times} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}$ ...