For questions about or involving the absolute value function.

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15
votes
6answers
1k views

Show that the $\max{ \{ x,y \} }= \dfrac{x+y+|x-y|}{2}$.

Show that the $\max{ \{ x,y \} }= \dfrac{x+y+|x-y|}{2}$. I do not understand how to go about completing this problem or even where to start.
14
votes
4answers
644 views

How find this inequality $\max{\left(\min{\left(|a-b|,|b-c|,|c-d|,|d-e|,|e-a|\right)}\right)}$

let $a,b,c,d,e\in R$,and such $$a^2+b^2+c^2+d^2+e^2=1$$ find this value $$A=\max{\left(\min{\left(|a-b|,|b-c|,|c-d|,|d-e|,|e-a|\right)}\right)}$$ I use computer have this $$A=\dfrac{2}{\sqrt{10}}$$ ...
13
votes
2answers
150 views

Finding all solutions to the equation $|||||x|-1|-1|-1|-1|=0$

I was presented this question by a student I was tutoring: Suppose $x \in \mathbb{R}$. Find all solutions of the equation $$|||||x|-1|-1|-1|-1|=0.$$ What I explained to the student: Given ...
10
votes
7answers
1k views

what does $|x-2| < 1$ mean?

I am studying some inequality properties of absolute values and I bumped into some expressions like $|x-2| < 1$ that I just can't get the meaning of them. Lets say I have this expression $$ ...
10
votes
6answers
1k views

How to calculate with absolute value.

Calculate:$$\frac{ \left| x \right| }{2}= \frac{1}{x^2+1}$$ How do I write the whole process so it will be correct? I need some suggestions. Thank you!
10
votes
5answers
473 views

Is -5 bigger than -1?

In everyday language people often mix up "less than" and "smaller than" and in most situations it doesn't matter but when dealing with negative numbers this can lead to confusion. I am a mathematics ...
10
votes
1answer
362 views

How to determine all valuations of the field $\mathbb{Q(\sqrt[n]{2})}$?

This is an exercise from the book Algebraic Number Theory by Jurgen Neukirch, on page 166. And, after solving several previous exercises, I found this to be particularly difficult to solve. I am ...
9
votes
9answers
1k views

What's wrong with solving absolute value equations in this way?

Say I have $3x-2 = |x|$. Why can't I just do this: $3x - 2 = -x$ and $3x - 2 = x$ and then get two values for $x$: $1$ and $0.5$? I know the answer $0.5$ doesn't work if you plug this in. However, I ...
9
votes
1answer
21k views

Reverse Triangle Inequality Proof

I've seen the full proof of the Triangle Inequality \begin{equation*} |x+y|\le|x|+|y|. \end{equation*} However, I haven't seen the proof of the reverse triangle inequality: \begin{equation*} ...
8
votes
4answers
14k views

Proof of triangle inequality

I understand intuitively that this is true, but I'm embarrassed to say I'm having a hard time constructing a rigorous proof that $|a+b| \leq |a|+|b|$. Any help would be appreciated :)
7
votes
2answers
899 views

How does one DERIVE the formula for the maximum of two numbers

I want to derive (not prove that this is true) the formula $\max (x,y) = \dfrac{x + y + |y-x|}{2}$ I was reading a proof (which they have the result ahead of time already) that we do cases and then ...
7
votes
4answers
376 views

Inequality for absolute values

How do you show either of the equivalent inequalities: $$2(|a|+|b|+|c|)\leq |a+b+c|+|a+b-c|+|a-b+c|+|a-b-c|$$ or $$|x+y|+|x+z|+|y+z|\leq |x|+|y|+|z|+|x+y+z|$$ Hold for complex numbers or in $n$ ...
7
votes
2answers
3k views

How to use triangle inequality to establish Reverse triangle inequality

I need to use $|a+b| \leq |a|+|b|$ to show that $||a|-|b|| \leq |a-b|$ . I have tried to represent $||a|-|b||$ as $||a|+(-|b|)|$ , and then get $||a|+(-|b|)| \leq |a|+|-|b||$ , but that isn't ...
7
votes
2answers
167 views

Maximum of the difference

What is the maximum value of $f(… f(f(f(x_{1} – x_{2}) – x_{3})-x_{4}) … – x_{2012})$ where $x_{1}, x_{2}, … , x_{2012}$ are distinct integers in the set ${1, 2, 3, …, 2012}$ and $f$ is the absolute ...
6
votes
8answers
999 views

Why is the absolute sign needed in the definition of a bounded function

A function $f$ is bounded if there exists a real number $M$ such that $|f(x)| \le M$ for all $x \in \operatorname{dom}(f)$. Why is the absolute sign needed?
6
votes
5answers
865 views

If three complex numbers $z_k$ have modulus $1$, then $|z_1+z_2+z_3| = |\frac{1}{z_1}+\frac{1}{z_2}+\frac{1}{z_3}|$

Our teacher gave us a hard question (according to her, it is pretty hard for our level): Given that $|z_1| = |z_2|= |z_3|=1,z \in\mathbb{C}$, prove that $|z_1+z_2+z_3| = ...
6
votes
3answers
533 views

How prove this inequality: $\sum_{i,j=1}^{n}|x_{i}+x_{j}|\ge n\sum_{i=1}^{n}|x_{i}|$? [duplicate]

Let $x_{1},x_{2},\cdots,x_{n}$ be real numbers. Show that $$\sum_{i,j=1}^{n}|x_{i}+x_{j}|\ge n\sum_{i=1}^{n}|x_{i}|.$$ I think this problem may be solved using nice methods, but I can't find ...
6
votes
6answers
128 views

why minimum of these functions happen at a special place?

why minimum of these functions happen at a special place? how to use derivative to find the minimum of these functions? $$|x-1| + |x-2| + \dots + |x-9|$$ minimum is for $x = 5$ $$|x-1| + |x-2| + \dots ...
6
votes
3answers
165 views

How would I prove $|x + y| \le |x| + |y|$?

How would I write a detailed structured proof for: for all real numbers $x$ and $y$, $|x + y| \le |x| + |y|$ I'm planning on breaking it up into four cases, where both $x,y < 0$, $x \ge 0$ ...
6
votes
3answers
61 views

Using the Mean Value Theorem, prove that $|\sin{a} - \sin{b}| \leq |a - b|$ $\forall a, b \in \mathbb{R}$

Using the Mean Value Theorem, prove that $|\sin{a} - \sin{b}| \leq |a - b|$ $\forall a, b \in \mathbb{R}$. I'm working towards figuring out an approach for finding that $|\sin{a} - \sin{b}| \leq ...
6
votes
5answers
6k views

Inequality with two absolute values

I'm new here, and I was wondering if any of you could help me out with this little problem that is already getting on my nerves since I've been trying to solve it for hours. Studying for my next ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Question regarding usage of absolute value within natural log in solution of differential equation

The problem from the book. $\dfrac{\mathrm{d}y}{\mathrm{d}x} = 6 -y$ I understand the solution till this part. $\ln \vert 6 - y \vert = x + C$ The solution in the book is $6 - Ce^{-x}$ ...
6
votes
5answers
165 views

How to find $\int|\cos x|\,dx$?

How do I find closed form for $\int|\cos x|\,dx$ for all real $x$? It can be expressed as incomplete elliptic integral of the second kind: $$\int|\cos x|\,dx=\int\sqrt{1-1^2\sin^2x}\,dx=E(x,1)$$ ...
6
votes
3answers
229 views

Absolute values in $\int \frac{dx}{(x+2)\sqrt{(x+1)(x+3)}}$

in my math class we were given a list of indefinite integrals, and one of them was: $$\int \frac{dx}{(x+2)\sqrt{(x+1)(x+3)}}$$ My working: $$\int \frac{dx}{(x+2)\sqrt{(x+1)(x+3)}}=\int ...
6
votes
2answers
657 views

Is there a lower-bound version of the triangle inequality for more than two terms?

The triangle inequality $|x+y|\leq|x|+|y|$ can be generalized by induction to $$|x_1+\ldots+ x_n|\leq|x_1|+\ldots+|x_n|.$$ Can we generalize the version $|x+y|\geq||x|-|y||$ to $n$ terms too? I need ...
6
votes
2answers
246 views

Sum of two absolute values in complex plane

I'm trying to find out all $z \in C$ that satisfy the following condition: $|z+1|+|z-i|=3$ I understand that $|z|=r$ represents a circle with a radius of $r$. I also understand that $|z+1|=r$ can ...
5
votes
5answers
247 views

Evaluating the following integral: $ \int \frac{x^2}{\sqrt{x^2 - 1}} \text{ d}x$

For this indefinite integral, I decided to use the substitution $x = \cosh u$ and I've ended up with a $| \sinh u |$ term in the denominator which I'm unsure about dealing with: $$\int ...
5
votes
5answers
259 views

How to write an expression in an equivalent form without absolute values?

The question I have in front of me is the very first problem in Trench's Introduction to Real Analysis: Write the following expression in equivalent form not involving absolute values: $a+b+|a-b|$ ...
5
votes
4answers
659 views

Definition of abs() function

Let $\text{abs}(a)$ denote the absolute value of $a$. Is it true that $\text{abs}(a)\geq{-a}$? I suppose that $\text{abs}(a)>{-a}$, but my math book says the other way. Please help me to understand ...
5
votes
3answers
485 views

A unique solution

Find the sum of all values of k so that the system $$y=|x+23|+|x−5|+|x−48|$$$$y=2x+k$$ has exactly one solution in real numbers. If the system has one solution, then one of the three $x's$, should be ...
5
votes
1answer
131 views

An absolute value problem

Let $a$ and $b$ in $\mathbb{R}$ 1) Show that $||a|-|b||\leq|a+b|\leq|a|+|b|$. 2) Prove that the one or the other of the two inequalities is an equality. It's fine whit the 1st question but i can't ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Prove variant of triangle inequality containing p-th power for 0 < p < 1

Sorry if this is a trivial question, but I am kind of stuck with proving the following inequality and have been searching for a while: $\rho \left( \sum\limits_i^n d_i \right) \leq \sum\limits_i^n ...
5
votes
1answer
116 views

Solving equation with absolute value signs

Can someone see why there is only get one solution when solving following equation in this way: The equation $|x+1|+|2x-3|=|x-5| $ $$|x+1|+|2x-3|=|x-5| $$ $$\pm (x+1) \pm(2x-3)=\pm(x-5)$$ $$\pm x ...
5
votes
2answers
945 views

Why is the absolute value needed with the scaling property of fourier tranforms?

I understand how to prove the scaling property of Fourier Transforms, except the use of the absolute value: If I transform $f(at)$ then I get $F\{f(at)\}(w) = \int f(at) e^{-jwt} dt$ where I can ...
5
votes
1answer
75 views

Maximum value problem

A function $\hspace{0.1cm}$$f:[0,1]\to[-1,1]$$\hspace{0.1cm}$ satisfying$\hspace{0.1cm}$ $|f(x)|\leq x$$\hspace{0.1cm}$ $\forall x\in[0,1]$. Then find the maximum value of: ...
5
votes
2answers
184 views

Prove $||a| - |b|| \leq |a - b|$ [duplicate]

I'm trying to prove that $||a| - |b|| \leq |a - b|$. So far, by using the triangle inequality, I've got: $$|a| = |\left(a - b\right) + b| \leq |a - b| + |b|$$ Subtracting $|b|$ from both sides yields, ...
5
votes
2answers
51 views

Can every (convex) polygon be described by a single inequality (involving absolute values)?

For example, $$ |x| + |2x + y| + |x + 2y| + |y| + |x+y| < 4 $$ describes an octagon. I'm wondering whether an equation of this form always exist for any convex polygon, and if so, whether there ...
5
votes
1answer
6k views

Derivatives of functions involving absolute value

I noticed that if the absolute value definition $\lvert{x}\rvert=\sqrt{x^2}$ is used then we can get derivatives of functions with absolute value, without having to redefine them as piece-wise. For ...
5
votes
2answers
89 views

Integrate a periodic absolute value function [duplicate]

\begin{equation} \int_{0}^t \left|\cos(t)\right|dt = \sin\left(t-\pi\left\lfloor{\frac{t}{\pi}+\frac{1}{2}}\right\rfloor\right)+2\left\lfloor{\frac{t}{\pi}+\frac{1}{2}}\right\rfloor \end{equation} I ...
5
votes
1answer
160 views

Ring of integers in a field of fractions

Let $R$ be ring with complete non archimedian absolute value. Let $Q$ be the associated field of fractions with the extended absolute value. Does the ring $O_Q = \{x\in Q | |x|\leq 1\}$ is complete ...
4
votes
5answers
344 views

Prove:$|x-1|+|x-2|+|x-3|+\cdots+|x-n|\geq n-1$

Prove:$|x-1|+|x-2|+|x-3|+\cdots+|x-n|\geq n-1$ example1: $|x-1|+|x-2|\geq 1$ my solution:(substitution) $x-1=t,x-2=t-1,|t|+|t-1|\geq 1,|t-1|\geq 1-|t|,$ square, $t^2-2t+1\geq ...
4
votes
5answers
133 views

Proving $|a-1|+|a-2|+|a-3| \ge 2$

I need to prove the following sentence for $a\in\mathbb{R}$: $$ |a-1|+|a-2|+|a-3| \ge 2$$ Breaking the equation into cases it does work, i.e. for $a\le 1$: $$-a+1-a+2-a+3\ge 2$$ $$-3a \ge -4$$ $$a ...
4
votes
2answers
161 views

How do we know that $|i!| = \sqrt{\pi \operatorname{csch} \pi}$?

(Source: Wolfram Alpha) Or, to write it out in full, $$|i!| = \sqrt{\frac{2\pi e^\pi}{e^{2\pi} - 1}}$$ How is this identity derived? Also, knowing this, could we find the exact values for the real ...
4
votes
4answers
606 views

The median minimizes the sum of absolute deviations

Suppose we have a set $S$ of real numbers. Show that $$\sum_{s\in S}|s-x| $$ is minimal if $x$ is equal to the median. This is a sample exam question of one of the exams that I need to take and I ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

integral from 0 to $2\pi$ of $|\cos x|\operatorname{d}x$ not integrating as I'd expect

I drew a rough sketch of $|\cos x|$ and would guess the correct answer to this integral is $4$ because I know the area under the curve of $\cos x$ from $0$ to $\pi/2$ is $1$, and there are $4$ such ...
4
votes
5answers
85 views

Solution to $\sqrt{x^2-5}+3>|x-1|$

I tried many ways to solve this but I just can't figure it out... $$\sqrt{x^2-5}+3>|x-1|$$
4
votes
3answers
101 views

Is it always true? $\left|A-B\right| \le \left|A\right| + \left|B\right|$

Is it always right to claim that: $$\left|A - B\right| \le \left|A\right| + \left|B\right|$$ where $A, B \in \mathbb{R}$ ?
4
votes
4answers
131 views

Let $x$ be in the set of real numbers $\mathbb{R}$ and let $f(x)=|2x-1|-3|2x+4|+7$ be a function, write $f(x)$ without the absolute value.

Let $x$ be in the set of real numbers $\mathbb{R}$ and let $f(x)=|2x-1|-3|2x+4|+7$ be a function, write $f(x)$ without the absolute value. I thought of it this way: $$f(x)=\begin{cases}2x-1-3(2x+4)+7 ...
4
votes
4answers
6k views

Converting absolute value program into linear program

I have the generic optimization problem: $$ \max c^T|x|$$ $$ \text{s.t. } Ax \le b $$ $x$ is unrestricted How do I convert it into a linear programming problem? Online I read something about ...
4
votes
3answers
171 views

Is there an alternate definition for $\{ z \in \mathbb{C} \colon \vert z \vert \leq 1 \} $.

Is there a method of constructing a subset of a reasonably arbitrary ring so that when the construction is applied the $\mathbb{C}$ the result is $B = \{ z \in \mathbb{C} \colon |z| \leq 1 \} $? My ...